19th Century Essays


Evolution Of Management Style at Galaxy Toys

scientific management theory, which was developed during the late 19th century and early 20th century. A seminal figure in the development of this theory was Fredrick W. Taylor. Taylor asserted that production efficiency could be achieved by reducing the amount of time and effort each worker spent in producing a single unit of output (Griffin, 2008). He believed that division of labor and greater specialization could enhance efficiency; and that the most efficient way of dividing labor was through scientific techniques as opposed to intuitive or informal knowledge (Sheldrake, 2003). Taylor's theory was particularly based on four principles: 1)… Continue Reading...

Obesity and Fatness in America Body Image

despite that there is no supporting evidence during this period. The same belief continued in the 19th century where some people attributed fatness as laziness, lack of self-control, greed, gluttony, primitiveness and ugliness. In the 21st century, there is a growing relationship between fatness, discrimination, and racial discourse where fat African-Americans have been identified as the most obese ethnic groups in the United States. Based on series of problems that obese people face in the American society, movements have organized to advocate for those problems. For example, "Michelle Obama's nutrition campaign and Oprah Winfrey's diets" have tried to educate… Continue Reading...

African Masquerade Significant Thoughts

is Helmet Mask (Igbudu). Although the artist is unknown, this piece dates from the 19th century. This particular mask adheres to the deployment of Yoruba masks explicated above. It is a means for the Yoruba people to commune with spirits and forces pertaining to their ancestors. What is perhaps most striking about this mask is its appearance. The mouth is opened, revealing a series of crooked teeth. The effect is not unlike that of a monster that is growling and baring its teeth to frighten others. There are also other facets of this work that appear designed to frighten… Continue Reading...

Former Prophets

standards and virtually every Western poetic work till the 19th century has undoubtedly remained a chief factor in the maintenance of biblical poetry's secrecy and under-appreciation; the Bible's standing as a work of religious literature also played a part. The Scripture's status implied its interpreters gave low priority to its literary form, despite having been keen on moving to any specific passage's meaning or content. 7. What is inspired? The meaning of "inspired" in this context is that the Lord's own presence, purpose, and will have figuratively been "breathed" via these texts. This kind of claim does not have… Continue Reading...

American Body Culture Annotated Bibliography

bourgeoisie was in power and maintaining class distinction leading many youths to embrace the ideas of sliminess. In the 19th century, body control was able to impose order on chaos brought about by the technological revolution which assisted in increasing growth weight consciousness. The author points out that some people have been able to prevent obesity by avoiding foods that contain sugar and starch as well as rigorously following the advice of physicians. Seng, Loh Eng. "The Economic Effects of Physical Appearance." Social Science Quarterly (University of Texas Press) 74, no. 2 (1993): 420-438. Seng investigates the effects of… Continue Reading...

Why Shelters Have More Female Volunteers

promote the adoption of strays, and improve animal welfare. Historically, women have been involved in animal rights activism. In the 19th century, for example, antivivisection societies were almost exclusively female (Markovitz & Queen, 2009). Since animal rights have become a political issue throughout the 20th century, women have remained on the frontlines of volunteerism and also in professional animal welfare. For example, trends in veterinary care reveal a striking gender gap with more than 70% of veterinary school graduates being female in 2002 (Markovitz & Queen, 2009). The presence of women in animal rights and animal welfare reflects an overarching… Continue Reading...

Gatt and Nestle in the Philippines

tariffs. Nestle had grown from a baby formula company in the 19th century to a producer of a wide range of food products in the 20th century (largely a result of war-time acquisitions). By the end of the 20th century it was bringing in more than $6 billion in profits from factories and products sold around the world. The 1990s had been a period of expansion into emerging markets. Supermarkets however had not yet come to the Philippines. Mascenon knew they soon would as legislation was in the works to permit greater foreign investment in the country. Nestle's market share… Continue Reading...

East Asian History Questions

of Confucianism and Neo-Confucianism reached its peak during the 19th century, when the first whispers or stirrings of communist-inspired social upheaval could be detected; yet it was long before that when the people of Vietnam's values clashed with those of their ruling dynasties, both in north and south. Confucianism provided a means to structure the state after its Chinese neighbors, aligning the Nguyen seat of power with their Chinese counterparts. Buddhism became almost a religion of protest, resistance against the authorities that for the hill tribes and rural people was remote, removed, and culturally irrelevant. Cooke, Nola. "Nineteenth-Century Vietnamese… Continue Reading...

Murder Inc Book Compared to Gangs Today

languages responsible for the rise and success of ethnically-based organized crime in the U.S. from late 19th century to early 20th century? TED Prints. Sherman, L., Gottfredson, D., & Mackenzie, D. (n.d.). Preventing Crime - What Works, What Doesn't and What's WPromising. National Institute of Justice. Whalen, R. W. (2014). Gangsters & Gangbusters in La Guardia's New York. Queens University of Charlotte. Continue Reading...

Whigs Democrats and the Second Party System

19th century, the federalist/anti-federalist schism dominated political discourse in the United States. The so-called "first party system" became less relevant as increasing numbers of citizens became politically active, leading to a greater plurality of voices and opinions. Even then, political parties had not yet become fully formed. Most elections had candidates running independently. However, the anti-federalists had become the Democratic-Republicans and they emerged as a dominant presence in the controversial 1824 presidential election. When he was defeated in that election by John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson and his supporters… Continue Reading...

African Slave Trade

million intercontinental slave business from 1440 to 1878, a fourth (more than three million) were shipped during the 19th century (Lindsay, 2007). Africans all over the continent were already hearing news regarding the cruel intercontinental slave business and associated brutalities. People dreaded personal capture and abduction as well as the prospect of having their kith and kin separated from them and shipped off across the ocean, lost to them forever. African communities traditionally established a native court for hearing internal conflicts and took precedence over tribal and inter-state wars. Elders, who made up the council, were regarded by community… Continue Reading...

Cross Cultural Impact Of China on Vietnam Today

their belief in meritocracy and the importance of education. While Vietnamese leaders during the 19th century enjoyed a near god-like status, they were also regarded as more accessible to the common people than their Chinese counterparts. Notwithstanding this difference, though, Vietnam's leadership remained heavily influenced by Chinese culture even while they were developing their own uniqueness as a people. In this regard, the author points out that during the 18th and 19th centuries, "The Vietnamese elite's sense of Chinese history was strong. Its faith in Chinese allusions, classical and historical, momentous and trivial, was romantic and unlimited" (p. 13).… Continue Reading...

Motivational Theories Of Animal Shelters

Volunteer Historically, women have been involved in animal rights activism. In the 19th century, for example, antivivisection societies were almost exclusively female (Markovitz & Queen, 2009). The typical animal shelter volunteer is not only female but also white, heterosexual, employed, pet owning, and between the ages of 40 and 59 (Markovitz & Queen, 2009). The reason for women's historical engagement with volunteer activities is likely due to women's exclusion from the paid labor market until around the time of Second World War. Therefore, women have theoretically been autonomously motivated to volunteer. Individual differences aside, women might have been motivated by… Continue Reading...

Muslim Americans and the Impact Of September 11th

The Chinese Exclusion Act promoted xenophobic, racist attitudes towards Asians in the 19th century and was passed to lay "the groundwork for other racially motivated laws that followed."[footnoteRef:12] WWI and WW2 served to whip up anti-German sentiment in America (as well as more anti-Asian sentiment). Today's "war on terrorism" is really just an extension of these narratives -- and Kennedy's "nation of immigrants" ideation was more of a political talking/rallying point than a reflection of reality. Indeed, the idea of Manifest Destination was born of a distinctly racist view of America's place in the world: devised by WASPs (White-Anglo-Saxon… Continue Reading...

Japan and Confucianism in Art and Society

Edo period from the beginning of the 17th century to the middle of the 19th century (end of the pre-modern era), Confucianism played a major role in the revival of ethical philosophy. This was, of course, thanks to Neo-Confucianism, which was very popular among the political establishment in Japan during this period as well as among the warrior classes (Paramore 69). It allowed more focus to be given on the actual governance of society and motivated persons to leave the "mystical" aspects of Buddhism to one side or at least to give some time to the practical, ethical, and… Continue Reading...

Darwinism and Evolution in Woodlanders

the death of Charles Darwin. However, the novel was set in the middle of the 19th century, in about the same year that Darwin published On the Origin of the Species. Hardy may not have selected his setting arbitrarily. The Woodlanders has often been read within the context of Darwinian influences in society and literature. However, literary critics tend to emphasize the fusion between Romantic and Darwinian depictions of nature in The Woodlanders to show how Hardy drew from Darwin to develop his characters and themes. Irvine, for example, claims Hardy was an "evolutionary pessimist," and this is certainly… Continue Reading...

Gothic Literature in 18th Century England

the advent of the Romantic Era at the end of the 18th century and beginning of the 19th century. Gothic masterpieces such as Shelley's Frankenstein, Lewis's The Monk, and Stoker's Dracula would capture the imagination by fueling it with the flames of horror, suspense, other-worldliness and mystery. These elements are significant because the Age of Enlightenment had been characterized by a cold, objective, analytical focus on nature and humankind. It had been based on the concept that reason was sufficient to explain all events in the world and in fact all creation. Yet as Shakespeare's Hamlet reminded readers, "There… Continue Reading...

Uk Trade Policy and Its Departure from the Eu

is the trade theory that flourished from the 1500s to the end of the 19th century, as countries emerged from the Middle Ages by concentrating on storing wealth gained from colonies around the world (Carpenter, 2015). Other trade theories have emerged, such as Smith's and Ricardo's theories of absolute advantage and comparative advantage (Smith, 2005; Costinot, Donaldson, 2012). However, with the rise of the market state in the 20th century and the new nationalist push now in the 21st century, the mercantilist idea can be seen below the surface of motivations: a "crisis of legitimization" has given way to… Continue Reading...

Sternes Yorick in a Sentimental Journey

such humorous episodes. Even expressions like "the deuce take it!" are humorous and remind me of reading Gogol, the 19th century Russian writer, whose characters are similar to Yorick in that there is a high degree of innocence about them while at the same time there is something not quite so innocent about them too. In short, the book was an amusing read because it rings true to life and was a nice glimpse into life during that time in history and also a nice reminder that humanity does not really change much from century to century or place… Continue Reading...

Main Themes in the Film Yentl

film "Yentl" "Yentl" is a tale set in 19th century Poland, portraying a vivacious, independent little girl called Yentl from the Polish Jewish community, who was doggedly determined to follow her dreams despite knockbacks. Yentl obstinately wishes to pursue education in a community where academics, particularly Jewish religious learning, is strictly reserved for males only and is forbidden for girls. Posing as a youth, Yentl, however, flouts all societal rules and prohibitions with the strength of character that goes well with the personality of Barbra Streisand, who is the director, producer and co-writer… Continue Reading...

Evolution Of the Use Of Boneset

used among the Antive Americans and European settlers especially to manage fevers. By the mid 19th century, boneset had become common and well used among the settlers in America. It was during this time too that boneset was officially listed in the United States Pharmacopoeia (1820-1916) and later on in the Formulary (1926-1950). Traditionally, the plant was very famous for its medicinal value among most communities that knew about it. It was used to manage influenza, nasopharyngeal catarrh, fever, acute bronchitis and constipation. When taken orally, this herb acts as an antipyretic, laxative, cathartic and emesis. The tincture extracted… Continue Reading...

Trillium Herb Pharmacology and History

(Williams, 1820, p. 332). Little progress has been made since the 19th century in terms of better understanding the herb's mechanism of action, its most efficacious and safe uses, and its optimal doses. Contemporary Use As Williams (1820) had suggested, the herb warranted further scientific research and has since been extensively studied for its medicinal properties. Unfortunately, research remains sparse and inconclusive. The herb's mechanisms of action are poorly known, and ideal doses for specific conditions are also not known. Ironically, given its traditional use as an aid for childbirth, Birthroot is not recommended for pregnant women. According to… Continue Reading...

Figurative Language and Imagery in Poetry

value of literature have changed. It is a different world from that of the 19th century. We are connected to the Internet, to the latest news (which is old ten minutes after it hits the wire). Week 1 - Discussion 2 A writer might feel compelled to write about literature because it is his medium, and he wants both to explain it to himself as well as to his audience who may appreciate the insight he has about the medium. It benefits readers and writers alike in the same way that any fresh perspective does -- it allows us… Continue Reading...

Cause Of Us Revolution

world. The empire was still rising at the time of the revolution, and would only peak in the 19th century. Great Britain essentially saw its colonies as a source of wealth. The people that lived in those colonies were British subjects. Both Crown and Parliament felt that the colonies were tremendous sources of wealth for the mother country, and viewed the resources of those lands as their own. The people who lived in those lands, however, did not agree with this view. They saw themselves as having effective control over the lands and felt that they were not being… Continue Reading...

Supreme Court Second Amendment Case

of the amendment. In addition, such an interpretation is supported by courts, legislators, and scholars throughout the late 19th century (Rose, 2008). The majority decision was also based on rejection of the notion in United States v. Miller (1939) that the Second Amendment does not limit the power of the legislature to regulate ownership and nonmilitary use of firearms. The decision in United States v. Miller is actually in line with the interpretation that the Amendment grants an individual right to keep and bear arms. Even though the Miller ruling states that the Amendment does not prevent the legislature… Continue Reading...

Modern and Contemporary Literature and Culture

twentieth century; this however does not imply that literature from the 19th century is not included in the Indian contemporary genre. A simplistic guideline or benchmark is chosen in this case rather than a qualitative one. It should also be noted that, desirability is immaterial in modernism because anything considered fashionable in the present is seen as modern; either it is found desirable or not (Sharma, pp. 64-65). Classifications of modernist cultural forms are highly dependent on differentiation process; from realist painting and literature to high modernism art works with 'autonomy', differentiation of the social from the cultural, the… Continue Reading...

Weaving Themes in American History with High School

the USA did not depend on international trade in the 19th century and before, the nation was connected to a vast global market that was burgeoning, especially in specific industries In 2006, Florida mandated that American history "shall be viewed as factual, not as constructed, shall be viewed as knowable, teachable, and testable," (VanSledright, 2008, p. 110). This frightful law indicates the rigidity with which a hegemonic regime can enforce a specific historical narrative for political purposes. Unfortunate attempts at propagandizing through history curricula and pedagogy perpetuates a hegemonic narrative focused on the myth of American exceptionalism. Both Kupperman… Continue Reading...

Feminism in Frankenstein Introduction

spice, and everything nice, then a story about a monstrous creation would seem antithetical to the 19th century feminine ideal. Not only that, Mary Shelley intuited the publishers' surprise with the author's gender, for no sooner does Shelley launch into a carefully crafted response to their query, she does so in a subtly condescending tone that explains what no male author would deign to do: justify her choice of career. Whereas the publishers might have sought input into the genesis of the gothic tale, Shelley opts to mock and humor them with an overly detailed explication of how she,… Continue Reading...

The History Of American Social Welfare

Social Welfare. Pearson. 5. The social work profession evolved in the 19th century. Both industrialization and urbanization led to the need for social services to address influxes of poor. Issues ranging from physical and mental illness to poverty needed to be addressed by volunteers within the social work framework, leading to the evolution of the Settlement House Movement and the Charity Organizations, the precursors to modern social work ("What is the History of the Social Work Profession?" n.d.). References Stern, M.J. & Axinn, J. (2011). Social Welfare. Pearson. "What is the History of the Social Work Profession?" (n.d.). Retrieved online:… Continue Reading...

Maya Angelou and Racism

in the country especially in the 16th and the 19th century. She outlines her ignorance towards the challenges that are faced by those in her race (Goodman, 21). Her view of racism is cemented by the practice of slavery. In essence, her ancestors and the rest of the black community went to the Americas during the Transatlantic Slave trade that brought Africans to work as slaves (Ilham, 12). In her poems, she uses different tones of emotions that include anger, sadness, aspects of guilt and despondency and hopelessness. The hopelessness comes from the fact that slavery seemed to be… Continue Reading...

The Impact Of Legislation on Violence

civilians. Germany, for example, has "a long history of civilian gun ownership, encouraged by militia-based armies in the 19th century, the side effect of two world wars, and interest in hunting and sporting shooting" (Small Arms Survey, 2007, p. 51). At the same time, Germany also reports "relatively little gun crime" (Small Arms Survey, 2007, p. 51). Thus, if the case of Germany is taken as an example of the relation between gun ownership and gun violence, or culture and firearm violence, it would set a precedent that is not matched in other regions. In Italy, firearm violence is… Continue Reading...

Should Audiences Be Quiet in the Theater

known as Daddy Rice, the most famous "blackface" actor of the 19th century. It prompted questions in my mind, like, "Why did Rice think it would be a good idea to perform this way?" and, "What did his famous performances say about the audiences who watched them and their obvious demand for such entertainment?" Indeed, what I found most interesting was that Rice conceived Jim Crow in a way that was based on "cross-racialization" which was essentially the opposite of the direction in which the Jim Crow idea was eventually taken by sections of American society. In Rice's early… Continue Reading...

The American Prohibition Era

proposed prohibition saw alcoholism as a reason for increased family violence, addition, and political corruption. Therefore, during the late 19th century and early 20th century, pockets of areas in the United States began enforcing alcohol prohibition. Those that supported it saw the act as a victory for public health and ethics. Nonetheless, what may have seemed like a huge victory for morality, turned into a dangerous means of advancing and increasing the power of street gangs. "By eliminating legitimate suppliers of a commodity in high public demand, the state created a monopoly for illegitimate entrepreneurs. It was Prohibition that… Continue Reading...

Globalization Culture and Politics in Asia

Ahn states that "official contact between America and Korea dates back to the late 19th century"[footnoteRef:4] -- and the appearance of the hat stand in "global" illustrates this contact well, since these hats are all Western. It shows that the Western influence in South Korea has been so strong that now the very symbol of authority in the West -- the hat -- is being peddled on the streets, reinforcing the idea that the U.S. is the actual lord and master of South Korean policy. [3: Henrietta Harrison, The Making of the Republican Citizen (UK: Oxford, 2002), 63.] [4:… Continue Reading...

Ip Man the Grandmaster and Women in Kung Fu

martial arts would have been primarily used in the beginning as a defense against intruders or enemies, by the 19th century, the arts had taken on a different aspect, as society became less unstable. Women were educated in the martial arts just as women in the East might be sent to finishing school. It was a cultural value to be trained in the art of controlling the body. The photograph below speaks volumes about the actuality of this training. In the photo can clearly be seen a woman teaching a school of girls in martial arts. Source: https://chinesemartialstudies.files.wordpress.com/2013/10/naganita-class-okayama-city-1935.jpg Then… Continue Reading...

Understanding Depression

was depressed, she may have been categorized into a different disorder altogether. During the late 19th century, depression took the form of 'hysteria'. Doctors often diagnosed women with depressive like moods with hysteria and provided them treatment in the form of orgasm. When the vibrator emerged as an electromechanical medical instrument at the end of the nineteenth century, it evolved from previous massage technologies in response to demand from physicians for more rapid and efficient physical therapies, particularly for hysteria. Massage to orgasm of female patients was a staple of medical practice among some Western physicians from the time… Continue Reading...

Hierarchy and Culture Reflection

reading shows, these terms came into being in the late 19th century and early 20th century. The terms themselves originated from the scientific belief that intelligence could be determined by the shape of one's skull/brain: high-browed people were deemed more intelligent and superior while low-browed people were deemed as stupid and inferior. Perhaps it is not surprising that this categorization coincided with racial attributes. African-Americans were viewed as inferior, for example. And as Mathew Arnold showed, the way that people actually revealed themselves and their tastes and level of intelligence could be indicated by their artistic preferences. This for… Continue Reading...

Eugenics Movement

lessons learned are presented in the conclusion. Review and Analysis The origins of eugenics can be traced to the late 19th century when a combination of events served to facilitate the development of the eugenics movement. As the fin de siècle neared, a wide range of new ideas and events such as Mendelian genetics, innovative concepts in animal breeding, social Darwinism and racially based ideologies converged, with early researchers such as Francis Galton and Frederick Osborn propounding the basis for what would become the modern eugenics movement. In fact, as early as 1883, Galton, the cousin of Charles Darwin, had coined… Continue Reading...

Symbolism and Setting in Masque Of Red Death

Introduction Edgar Allen Poe was a 19th century American author who wrote gothic horror stories (as well as gothic poetry). Here, he delivers his theme that no one escapes death in his short story “Masque of the Red Death” through symbolism, setting, and narration. The colors of the room serve as symbols of life, with the red room serving as a symbol of blood and of the horror that awaits the revelers as the plague that they think they have escaped makes its way in to their party. The setting is also important. It is… Continue Reading...

Psychology and Behaviorism Essay Outline

Pavlov’s experiments on conditioning B. Skinner and classical/operant conditioning VI. Conclusion Behaviorism evolved from the 19th century onwards, as the methods used to study human behavior changed to incorporate scientific tools. Behaviorism also evolved as researchers became interested in the entire gamut of the human experience, both in terms of what mental processes are, how they function, and how those processes and functions impact behavior. The functionalist study of behaviorism was sometimes at odds with the structuralist approach relying more on intuition than on objectively measurable means. However, Wundt and Tichener still were interested in what are now considered scientifically measurable things… Continue Reading...

History Of Psychology Annotated Bibliography

with dreams. Unlike other historians of psychology, Moore (2011) goes back to the late 19th century to the work of Wilhelm Wundt. A little-known figure in early psychology, Wundt’s experiments involved perception and sensation domains of the human experience. While it seems commonplace now to consider human perception, sensation, and cognition, these were revolutionary fields of inquiry at the time. Moore (2011) then broaches other luminaries in early psychology, from Titchener to the rise of behaviorism with John Watson. Operationism is the basis of behaviorist inquiry. One of the unique elements of this article is that Moore (2011) describes… Continue Reading...

The Influence Of William Shakespeare and Robert Burns

English literature. The influence of Shakespeare influence grew further during the 19th century. It is mostly during this era that Shakespeare became a symbol of national pride and that his fame went beyond England (Marche, 2012). By this time, the British Empire was the strongest empire in the world, with colonies all over the world. Without the British Empire, it would have been quite difficult for Shakespeare’s work to spread internationally. As the empire spread, the English language spread as well. The British government found Shakespeare’s work a valuable tool in spreading its imperial power. His work was taught in… Continue Reading...

The Culture Of the Eastern Band Cherokee

maintain many of their ancestral tribal customs and in the 19th century purchased land in the Qualla Boundary. Many of the Eastern Band converted to Christianity as a result of exposure to the European communities of the 18th century. However, a revival of Cherokee traditionalism and the traditional religion of the Cherokee has effected a blend of religious views and practices that can be described as new age, Christian, and traditional Cherokee. The Eastern Band still performs traditional Cherokee dances, for instance, and students in the Tribe are required to learn the Cherokee language (Montgomery-Anderson, 2015). The community of… Continue Reading...

The History Of Security Measures

investments in the United States which began in earnest in the milled part of the 19th century. However, the means of effecting security as a private enterprise as it is known today is largely engendered by the efforts of Allan Pinkerton and his Pinkerton Agency (Hankering). This agency was exclusively for profit, and initially helped generate revenues by providing private security for railroads. Pinkerton eventually branched out to doing work for the public sector as well. One of the most significant developments in the U.S. related to security occurred in the early part of the 20th century. The state… Continue Reading...

Climate Change Impacts

for climate change: Global temperature increase of 1.1C since the late 19th century Oceans warmed 0.302F sine 1969 Shrinking ice sheets, especially in Greenland and Antarctica Glacial retreat Decreased snow cover Sea level rise Declining Arctic sea ice Increase in extreme weather events Increase in ocean acidification The Met Office cites Higher temperatures Changing rainfall Changes in nature Sea level rise Retreating glaciers Sea ice And ice sheets Many of these are the same: temperature rise, declining ice sheets, glacial retreat and sea level rise are on both lists. But there are also some differences between the lists, including snow… Continue Reading...

Industry and Ideology in Germany

(), 633.] The U.S. was not alone, however. Other countries too came into their own in the 19th century: fostered by Industrialization, their sense of nationality and the spirit of nationalism rose hand in hand with the production and assembly lines. Germany in the 19th century shared a similar sentiment: Georg von Schonerer promoted an ideology based on German ethnicity and pride, identifying the foreigner as a threat to Germany’s strength and power. In this sense, he set the stage for the wars in the next century, in which Germany attempted to assert a spirit of nationalism that brought it… Continue Reading...

Immigration Essay

was not passed, it helped set the stage like the Know-Nothing Party did in the late 19th century, to breed anti-immigrant attitudes among American voters. Many of those that disliked the arrival of undocumented immigrants felt so because illegals took jobs for lower pay that would have gone to working class Americans. These Americans could find no source of employment and saw the illegals as a step back from economic prosperity. The attitudes festered for years until the arrival of political figures that would help these Americans turn their anger into real political power. These political figures helped states… Continue Reading...

Examination Of Criminal Trial Essay

issue and Teddy Roosevelt as a member of the Board of Commissioners at the end of the 19th century in New York had pledged to crack down on election fraud because of the stronghold on the voting process held by Tammany Hall. Thus, this trial emerged just a few short years after that crackdown began as an example of the type of issues the city was having. This case in particular centered on Edward Lawless, the defendant, charged and then indicted for false registration, an election offense. The presiding judge was John W. Goff; the defense attorney was Patrick… Continue Reading...

Pearl Buck and Rudyard Kipling

East. Kipling’s Kim was a detailed account of the variety of life in India at the end of the 19th century. Buck’s The Good Earth, chronicled the lives of a peasant family in China as it dealt with the challenges and obstacles of famine, poverty, and oppression. Both authors were very successful in conveying the problems of everyday life in the East to Western readers: each work was hugely popular and captured the imagination of the West by supplying vivid details and characterization through a realistic lens—a lens that only could have been supplied by an author who had… Continue Reading...

Freedom and Bondage Essay

history. In the reform movement that arose in the 19th century those two themes coexisted side by side. how can this be ? And, in what ways was the language of freedom used to subvert and undermine the hard cold facts of slavery and bondage in the United States? Look at the cases of African American and women in comparison to white men in the United States. The two items, freedom and bondage, existed side-by-side in the 19th century. How so? Harvard professor and history scholar Henry Louis Gates, Jr., writes (in a PBS article) that while many assume… Continue Reading...

Conflict Management Styles Malaysia Vs Usa

who were brought over by the British in the 19th century, and Chinese, who have been migrating to Malaysia for several hundred years. This mix of people is compelled to live together in one country, so they rely on integration and finding compromise just to make their country work. It is no surprise, therefore, that this is the predominant conflict resolution style in the country. The integrating and compromising approaches align with face concerns, both self-face and mutual face. The different parties understand that if they work together to find common ground, they can help each other to save… Continue Reading...

Five Principles Of Management

n.d). Scientific Management Theory Contemporary management commenced its evolution towards the close of the 19th century, following the massive Industrial Revolution of the West. Huge factories replaced the small workshops that were operated by skilled labor manufacturing products without machines (crafts-style manufacturing). The factories employed several hundred or several thousand semi-skilled and even unskilled workers to control the advanced manufacturing machinery and tools. A large number of these factory supervisors and managers only possessed technical knowledge, thereby being ill-equipped to deal with the social issues bound to arise when individuals are made to work in large teams (as is typical for… Continue Reading...

The Palace Of the Emperor Titus

from each other by dead walls, covered at the top and closed at the end” according to one 19th century visitor of the Palace’s ruins.[footnoteRef:5] The Palace was used a baths house but its ornate style and size prompted Pliny to call it a Palace. Suetonius mentions that the Palace was quickly built to coincide with the opening of the Flavian amphitheatre.[footnoteRef:6] The Palace also housed murals by Fabulus. [2: Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, De Vita Caesarum Tit.6.1.3; Spivey, Nigel, Enduring Creation: Art, Pain, and Fortitude. Berkely, Univeristy of California Press, 2001, 26; Darwall-Smith, Robin Haydon. Emperors and Architecture: A Study… Continue Reading...

Tammany Hall in New York City

Police Board of Commissioners at the end of the 19th century had pledged to combat fraud and corruption and crack down on this type of abuse of the elections process—which is why Lawless’ crime was significant. Roosevelt had moved on from the Police Board in New York—to the White House. The man who spoke softly and carried a big state—the man who had sought to clean up NYC—was now at top of the world in Washington, D.C.—and under his watch, crime was not going to pay. Nonetheless, Tammany Hall would keep trying its tricks: its “rough-and-tumble style of politics… Continue Reading...

Digital Rights Management Ethical Dilemmas

over production should be owned by the people. Even a softer view than what the 19th century communists envisioned would still apply creator rights to actual creators. The royalty would go to the publisher/distributor, paid for their service. It is only disparity of bargaining power between creators and publishers that reverses this arrangement, but there is no ethical or moral reason why differences in bargaining power need to be codified into law. Producers have legal rights because of that codification, but I struggle to find a reasonable ethical argument that they should have such rights, and certainly would struggle… Continue Reading...

The Declaration Of Independence and Freedom

Practice” by Immanuel Kant 2 The idea of freedom in the 18th and 19th century was divorced from the centuries that preceded them—centuries in which the concept of freedom was attached to the concept of “free will” and thought of primarily in a spiritual sense—i.e., a religious sense. With the Protestant Reformation, a break from the religious doctrines of the Middle Ages, and the rise of the Enlightenment and Romantic Eras came a new approach to freedom. Freedom was thought of not as a choice one had between doing good and evil but rather as the liberty to do as one… Continue Reading...

Lynchings and Mob Violence in America

Mexicans responded. Overall, the work is very well-conceived and executed and provides a significant insight into the world of 19th century and early 20th century America. This paper will provide an examination of the article by Carrigan and Webb and discuss its aims, merits, and accomplishments in detail in order to show why this article can be recommended to anyone interested in American history. The article focuses on documenting the number of lynchings suffered by Mexicans in America during the 19th and early 20th centuries. It provides a history of research on mob violence against Mexicans, details about particular… Continue Reading...

Graphic Design Historical Compare and Contrast

poster—both an organic and an instrumental sense of life that the 19th century handbill just isn’t able to create. If the handbill is akin to the printed words from a megaphone, the Scher poster is more like the captured bars of music laid in to printed form. As one critic describes, “The play's title and theater logos surrounded the tap artist in a typographical be-bop, like urban noise” (pentagram.com). The reaction to Scher’s work was positive, so positive that the graphic design became a part of the visual landscape of New York in the 1990s. This promotional material, and… Continue Reading...

Africa from Colonialism to Neocolonialism

abolishment of slave trade was largely spearheaded by Britain in the 19th century. In the words of the authors, the transition from slave trade to colonialism was in essence informed and fueled by “the realization of Britain that instead of transporting the Africans to the New World to work under service condition in white-owned plantations, it was better to leave the Africans where they were and encourage them to produce what was needed by British industries” (220). During both periods, countries that were once prosperous ended up being impoverished. A perfect example on this front would be India. According… Continue Reading...

Elizabeth Jane Gardner

not actually admit women until nearly the very end of the 19th century—but by then Gardner had already made a name for herself and distinguished herself among her peers by being the first female to exhibit at the Paris Salon and the first female to win a medal there. In 1887, upon being awarded with the prize, she wrote home to her brother John who still lived in New Hampshire, stating, “The jury voted me the honor by a very flattering majority – 30 voices out of 40. ... No American woman has ever received a medal here before.… Continue Reading...

Charlotte Perkins Gilman “the Yellow Wallpaper”

era in which Gilman was writing, “puerperal insanity, a severe form of mental illness labelled in the early 19th century and claimed by doctors to be triggered by the mental and physical strain of giving birth” was a common diagnosis (Gilman). Again, the fact that giving birth was viewed in pathological terms highlights the extent to which the simple act of being a woman was viewed as suspect in Gilman’s era. Childbirth was viewed as inevitably painful until well into the mid-19th century, and even for middle-class women, controlling fertility was difficult. Women often had many more children than… Continue Reading...

New Jim Crow Essay

from the beginning.  So while slavery ended in the 19th century, Jim Crow replaced it and today the New Jim Crow via mass incarceration of the black male population is the means of control and oppression that the elites use to enslave the black community.  If this is not a human rights and civil rights issue, I don’t know what is. The war on drugs and involvement of U.S. Presidents has been particularly problematic.  President Clinton, for instance, promoted a “get tough” on crime policy and endorsed the “three strikes and you’re out” law, which essentially threw the book… Continue Reading...

Muslim Women in Eastern and Western Literature

as she peers over her shoulder at the viewer with absent eyes” (Engh). 19th century art helped to further the ideas of fluid, frequent sex and the notions of opium enhanced pleasure; these images helped to foster and identification of the Middle East as an arena of indulgent sex, pleasure enhancing substances, and tantalizing, exotic women more than willing to cater to the whims of men (Engh). These women have been portrayed as exotic and uncivilized in literature as well. In a post 9/11 world, western literature and media representations of women in the Middle East are viewed in… Continue Reading...

The Character Of the Oklahomans

of the United States. In the first half of the 19th century, the region was part of Arkansas Territory. The Native Americans were forced on the Trail of Tears and made to settle in Indian Territory in modern-day Oklahoma. In the latter half of the 19th century, cattle ranchers from Texas drove their cattle through Indian Territory to states up north and out west, paving cattle trails along the way. More and more whites began to settle in the area as a result of these cattle trails and the expansion of the railroad. Then when oil was found, Oklahoma… Continue Reading...

Abortion

much of America’s existence the procedure was legal and used frequently. In fact, until the last quarter of the 19th century when the act of abortion was considered to be a crime, abortion was definitively legal before a period of time called the quickening—the fourth month of pregnancy (Reagan, 1996). It’s important to consider that from a historical perspective, ending a pregnancy was considered common and something at least initially a woman could engage in herself. “Colonial home medical guides gave recipes for ‘bringing on the menses"’ with herbs that could be grown in one's garden or easily found… Continue Reading...

Abortion Interview

of America’s existence the procedure was legal and used frequently. In fact, until the last quarter of the 19th century when the act of abortion was considered to be a crime, abortion was definitively legal before a period of time called the quickening—the fourth month of pregnancy (Reagan, 1996). It’s important to consider that from a historical perspective, ending a pregnancy was considered common and something at least initially a woman could engage in herself. “Colonial home medical guides gave recipes for ‘bringing on the menses"’ with herbs that could be grown in one's garden or easily found in… Continue Reading...

Sue Monk Kidd's Invention Of Wings Literary Analysis

popularized by former slave W.E.B. DuBois and used by Wilson to discuss the meaning of racial identity in the 19th century: the black triangles symbolizes souls yearning to fly over the wall of slavery like the feather that rushes upward on the sea winds early in the novel. This use of symbolism works together with the theme of power: the slaves have the yearning for freedom, which they hold in their hearts and minds, but they lack the power to make freedom possible. That is where Sarah and her sister come into play. Sarah loses the power of speech… Continue Reading...

Government Intervention Essay

line with Emerson’s notion of self-reliance, which fostered so much innovation and industry in the 19th century. Franklin Roosevelt on the other hand was more like his cousin:  “Our greatest primary task is to put people to work.”7  FDR announced that he was ready to use his Constitutional authority to put the nation to work, which he did through his Alphabet Soup programs.  He justified this intervention by appealing to the same big-heartedness that TR appealed to.  However, Hoover, two years before him argued against interventionism:  “The spread of government destroys initiative and thus destroys character…all this shouldering of… Continue Reading...

The Palace Of the Emperor Titus

dead walls, covered at the top and closed at the end” according to one 19th century visitor of the Palace’s ruins.[footnoteRef:5] The Palace was used a baths house but its ornate style and size prompted Pliny to call it a Palace. Suetonius mentions that the Palace was quickly built to coincide with the opening of the Flavian amphitheatre.[footnoteRef:6] The Palace also housed murals by Fabulus. [2: Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, De Vita Caesarum Tit.6.1.3; Spivey, Nigel, Enduring Creation: Art, Pain, and Fortitude. Berkely, Univeristy of California Press, 2001, 26; Darwall-Smith, Robin Haydon. Emperors and Architecture: A Study of Flavian Rome. Brussels:… Continue Reading...

Medical Evacuation Evolution in the Us

battlefield. Organized trauma care was also suggested and practiced in the late 19th century. In the past priority of care for a patient depended on their rank, the surgeon\\'s best guess, or the order of arrival (Hawk, Calhoun, & Andersen, 2009). However, with the use a triage system, patients were evaluated on their needs and the seriously wounded would receive first attention regardless of their rank. This would be followed by those with less serious injuries. 2nd Historical Interest Timeline: 1911 to 1940 The unprecedented mass casualties of World War 1, there were terrific strains created on the medical… Continue Reading...

Late 19th and Early 20th Century Changes in the Us

Paragraph 1: Explain the ways and causes in which the “New South” emerged economically in the late 19th century and the impact on the region after the Civil War. The New South was characterized by a shift from a plantation-based economy to one which was more industrialized and therefore similar to the North (Dixon, 2009). Unionization proliferated, giving new empowerment to lower class whites. Skilled labor, capital, and new wealth was generated. The South began to rebuild. On the other hand, African-Americans were simultaneously disempowered through a network of Jim Crow laws. Paragraph 2: Explain the European and Asian… Continue Reading...

Depression or Oppression in the Yellow Wallpaper

– a fact proclaimed by his male gender. Charlotte, on the other hand presents a typical 19th century woman disposition of passivity and meekness. She even hides that fact that she is keeping a diary from John so as not to upset him. As she points out at some point, in reference to her diary, “I must put this away, - he hates to have me write a word.” It should be noted that towards this end, Charlotte is not allowed to make and exercise her decisions. Human beings desire and crave a certain level of autonomy or right… Continue Reading...

The History Of Oklahoma

even before statehood was accomplished in 1907. It starts in the 19th century when the land was being used by cattle herders, farmers, settlers, and Indians who were placed there in what was then known as Indian Territory. Some of these Indians were fierce, like Quanah Parker, the warrior Comanche who killed many settlers and made the region a frightening place. However, Parker converted to Christianity later in his life, after coming into contact with people like Teddy Roosevelt who cherished the frontier life and had great respect for people who lived out at the edge of society. The… Continue Reading...

Link Between Gender and Culture

Woolf explores the misogyny that artistic women have endured from the 19th century renaissance (223-233). Woolf captures the misogyny through Shakespeare’s imaginary sister. In her book Woolf explains that way women were discouraged from pursuing art. During this time women were as having no value other than bearing children and taking care of the home. The gender discrimination has been experienced in many societies especially in areas such as education, awareness and status, and the socio-economic environment. Women are still more restrained to their domestic duties that rob them of the opportunity to exercise their artistic selves. Women are… Continue Reading...

Goya Rodin and Modern Art

obsession with passion and irrationality. 3. (Ch 27) How did Daumier impact French society in the 19th century? Daumier was a caricaturist in his early years. He mocked the polite society that emerged in France following the destructive years of the French Revolution and its immediate aftermath. Daumier sympathized with the poor. He reflected the hypocrisy of the upper classes, of the industrial revolution, and of the law. As he aged, he took up painting and adopted a Realist or Naturalist style. This style helped him to depict the poverty of the working classes in very evocative terms, for example,… Continue Reading...

The Controlled Woman Comparing Female Freedom and Male Domination in Two Short Stories

Female Freedom in the 19th century: Two Short Stories The short story entitled the “Story of an Hour” by Kate Chopin and “The Yellow Wallpaper” by Charlotte Perkins Gilman both approach the subject of female sanity and wellness from different angles. Both stories suggest that society and those closest to the woman have really no idea about the inner life of the female, nor what is best for her mental health and overall well being. The incorrect assumptions of those around them are precisely what contribute to the ultimate tragedies and unraveling of… Continue Reading...

Popper S Logic Of Science

London in the same manner as Snow did in the 19th century? How should we proceed to understanding the world and ourselves without a little license, a little liberty, and a little creative imagination and energy? Granted, Snow verified his inquiry by examining the facts and looking at the water from the well at what turned out to be ground zero for the cholera outbreak in the city. Thus it is important to consider that imagination and intuition are only helpful tools; microscopes and lenses are more helpful tools; and hard data is still more helpful. But all these… Continue Reading...

What Did Goya Paint

Goya and Redon Francisco Goya was an 18th- 19th century Spanish painter and printmaker. Odilon Redon was a 19th-20th century painter and printmaker. The two artists, though separated by a century, share a similar style and perspective. Goya lived through the Romantic-Enlightenment era and saw the unraveling of society on the Continent as the Old World values were swept away be Enlightenment philosophy and Romantic dreams. Redon lived to reflect the aftermath of that era: his symbolist paintings show a world that is half-mad, yet totally focused on itself and its grandiose ideas. Together, Goya and… Continue Reading...

Nature Vs Nurture Vs Free Will

human behavior—that some people were simply born with greater gifts, such as intellectual ability, than others. Galton was a 19th century philosopher and scientist and his views aligned with ideas like the Great Man Theory, which articulated the position that great leaders are born, not made. This paper will show how the debate between nature vs. nurture has never really abated and how there is most likely a little bit of evidence to support both sides of the argument—meaning the truth is probably somewhere in the middle. Darwin introduced the idea of the theory of evolution in the 19th… Continue Reading...

Health Psychology Social Media Trends

Although self-help books have been best sellers for more than a hundred years, and even 19th century magazines printed personality self-quizzes, the ease of taking and scoring them online has caused an explosion of self-analysis (Bisceglio, 2017). Although some of the quizzes are clearly silly, others, like online versions of the Myers-Briggs, are also used in a serious setting as a method of analyzing prospective employees. “In-depth psychological assessments like the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator began popping up in the first half of the 20th century for the purpose of scanning and sorting employees in industrial workplace,” and despite being… Continue Reading...

Women Abolitionists in the 19th Century

Weld and Truth: Speaking Their Minds Angelina Grimke Weld and Sojourner Truth were two 19th century women who spoke up for abolition. Weld was a white Southerner; Truth was a runaway slave who became an itinerant preacher. Both women supported women’s rights and an end to slavery. One was white and from a wealthy family, another was black and poor—but both shared the same spirit and ideas, and both had seen slavery up close and personally. While Truth experienced it, Weld witnessed it, and the experiences of each transformed them and informed their speeches—Weld’s speech in Philadelphia in… Continue Reading...

Treatment and Therapy Of Cholera

sanitation in the public water system. But during the 19th century, knowledge about the spread of germs and disease was less widespread, and cholera, although widely accepted as a serious threat to public health, was still controversial in its ascribed origin. The hero of cholera research is John Snow, who, through the use of city mapping was able to trace an 1854 London epidemic to a single water pump and even was able to identify the microbe that had caused it, using an ordinary microscope. Such particles were not found in other pumps far away from the disease outbreak.… Continue Reading...

The Legacy Of Slavery in the U S

possible and that still exists today. The fact is that while slavery may have ended in the 19th century, the mentality of slavery continues to exist. There is still an enormous gap between the rich and the poor, and that gap can be seen in racial terms, as most of the poor are primarily blacks. The black population was never fully treated equally even after Emancipation. It was still seen as lesser than, and the white power structure still used its influence to create an environment in which blacks would go on being oppressed. They could use Jim Crow,… Continue Reading...

History Of Populist Movement in America

in the more rural regions of the United States, during the late 19th century. The movement evolved due to the changing demographics in the nation, and a sense of disenfranchisement and disempowerment among rural residents—particularly those in Midwestern and Western states. Touted as a grassroots movement of the people, populism used rhetoric that slammed political power being centralized in Washington. 2. Farmers essentially started the populist political movement as a means of gaining political and economic power. With industrialists encroaching on the economy, and brokers controlling the prices of agricultural commodities, farmers had little control over the income they… Continue Reading...

The Case for the Resurrection Of Jesus by Habermas, Gary. and Michael Licona,

very likely that God is dead, just as Nietzsche said in the 19th century. If the Resurrection did take place, it means that the story of Christ is very real and that mankind has to adhere to the teachings of Christ in order to attain Heaven. The argument is a valid one and a critical one to put in context especially for modern readers. It really does come down to an either/or choice: either Christ was God and did as the Church says He did, or he was not and all his teachings were fanciful and unrealistic and his… Continue Reading...

Halloween 1978 the Horror Movie

the film alludes to the increasing feminism in the 19th century (193). Michael’s enrage on illicit sexual behavior by the teenager babysitters could be interpreted as a reaction to feminism according to Hutchings (193), “... the slasher offered a conservative moralism regarding sexuality which was itself just one part of a broader turn to the right that took place in American film and American society towards the end of the 1970s (p. 193)”. The teenage babysitter’s girls are constantly engaging in social activities such as smoking pot and freely engages in sex which underscores the presence of feminism in… Continue Reading...

Fracking

based on the utilitarian ethical principle developed by J.S. Mill in the 19th century. It is a pragmatic and practical approach to constructing an ethical system that many businesses and communities can benefit from. A business that puts the greatest good at the front and center of its corporate strategy is a business that will develop a good reputation among consumers and that will win the trust and love of communities. It is one that will engage in corporate social responsibility and develop corporate social responsibility strategies that will benefit the communities it serves. This approach is one that… Continue Reading...

Discovery Of Planet Pluto

comet containing gas and ice. According to Ley. The discovery of Pluto dates back to early 19th century with the discovery of Uranus by Sir William Herschel which was beyond Saturn that for centuries had been recognized as the outermost planet. Urbain Le Verrier’s exploration of the existence of Neptune following the perturbations identified in the Uranus orbit further increased the interest of exploration that led to the discovery of Pluto [footnoteRef:3]. Theorizing that the puzzling perturbations in Neptune and Uranus orbits, the founder of the famous Arizona Flagstaff Observatory Percival Lowell posited the existence of gravitational influence of… Continue Reading...

Recent Immigration in the United States

the world and not just in the United States. Several thinkers in the 18th and 19th century developed ideas and theories to explore the idea of assimilation of different cultures into mainstream culture. It was, however, Israel Zangwill, a British writer, who came up with term melting pot in a work titled ‘The Melting Pot: Drama in Four Acts’. This was in 1909 and Zangwill noted that the United States represented the great melting pot of the world where all European races were melting and going through a reformation. He noted that America would end up as a fusion of… Continue Reading...