20th Century Essays


Democratization Of the Bahamas

British -- as such, the island became part of the British Commonwealth at the end of the 20th century (The Commonwealth, 2016). It is interesting to note that its status as part of the commonwealth helped to issue this country the amount of democracy that it currently has due to its parliamentary system. Democracy is a pivotal way to involve people in their government and to ensure that the latter actually benefits the former. Thus, President Obama stated that "we've urged all parties to work together to sustain...democratic institutions" (Birnbaum, 2016). The complexity of the democratization process in the… Continue Reading...

Is Globalization a Good Thing

other countries. In other words, there was indeed a boom of technology and development at the turn of the 20th century. However, Mexico did not realize and absorb the benefits that were seen in other countries like the United States over the same time period (Beatty, 2015). Another effect that has been rendered on Mexico is that the increased globalization has led to a litany of brand names "imposing" their marketing and products on the people of that country. As explained by Bogin et al. (2014), globalization is described as a "biological, social and ideological process of change." This… Continue Reading...

Differences Between Capitalism and Socialism

of government that have persisted from the beginning of the 20th century through the present. Of course, those three methods would be communism, socialism and capitalism. This report will address a number of pertinent questions when it comes to this topic. Answers will include why some systems are pilloried, why some systems are seen as superior and how both of these lead to the ebb and flow of how governments are structured and react given economic troubles, war and so forth. While no single system is perfect, there are those that tout the "best solution" based on a number… Continue Reading...

California Drought

a lot of water is being literally wasted on 19th to 20th century technology in the flood-irrigated fields in that county. Indeed, the county is in this drought and it is in its fourth year of tenure. It has gotten so bad for many residents that people are literally painting their grass green because watering the grass into health is not allowed for under the law. Something that makes the proverbial knife go deeper with the California water restrictions is that while agriculture is exempt from the cutbacks despite them using 80% of the state's water, the revenue from… Continue Reading...

Dome Of St Peters Basilica

and one by one the other elements would fall, too -- till, finally, the 20th century architects like Marcel Breuer would see fit to give the world a new style -- called "Brutalism" that would serve as the tenement dwelling style in cities around the world: a style devoid of life, beauty, charm and grace -- the anti-thesis of Brunelleschi's achievement and a sign of what the world had lost in the intervening centuries. Works Cited "Architecture in Renaissance Italy." The Met. Web. 10 Sep 2016. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/itar/hd_itar.htm Hartt, Fred. History of Italian Renaissance Art. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 2006.… Continue Reading...

Evolution Of Management Style at Galaxy Toys

century or so (Roth, 1998). In the first half of the 20th century, emphasis was largely placed on structure, authority, and production; with little or no attention to employees (Adetule, 2011). There has, however, been a tremendous shift of management focus from structure and authority to people (employees) over the years (Griffin, 2008). The evolution of management theory over time depicts the ever changing role of managers or leaders in organizations. Each management orientation or school of thought, however, presents its own merits and demerits. With reference to Galaxy Toys, Inc., an American toy manufacturing company, this case study… Continue Reading...

Obesity and Fatness in America Body Image

the history of fat really took shape throughout the 20th century in the West, beginning with the turn-of-the-century medical "phase" followed by the middle-century misogynist "phase" from the 1920s to the 1960s, whereupon a new "health" phase took over coupled with marketing of health products and fitness gear/apparel.[footnoteRef:3] [1: Carla Rice, "Becoming "the Fat Girl": Acquisition of an Unfit Identity." Women's Studies International Forum 30, no. 2 (2007): 158.] [2: Rice, "Becoming the 'Fat Girl',"159.] [3: Peter Stearns, Fat History: Bodies and Beauty in the Modern West (NY: New York University Press, 2002), 4.] Thus, it is not surprising… Continue Reading...

African Masquerade Significant Thoughts

Kentucky at the Owensboro Museum of Fine Art. This work dates from he early part of the 20th century; its author is anonymous. There are several aspects of this mask that render it unmistakably recent, especially in comparison to the other works reviewed in this document. Firstly, it is decorated with a surfeit of colors including, red, yellow, brown, white, and black. Moreover, the main color of the face is white, which accentuates the sanguine lips and the white teeth showing from the slightly open mouth. The figures eyes are decidedly downcast, and fenced in by dark, bushy eyebrows.… Continue Reading...

Germany and the Holocaust

in a seemingly humane and otherwise "normal" society, as Germany was in the 20th century. In other words, it was not really any different from any other society or culture in the modern era -- and yet understanding how the Holocaust could have happened, how human beings of the modern era could take part in such a mass killing, has been the debate of historians. This paper will compare and contrast the arguments of Daniel J. Goldhagen and Christopher R. Browning -- both of whom give a distinct take on how such an atrocity could happen. The main substance… Continue Reading...

Why Shelters Have More Female Volunteers

female (Markovitz & Queen, 2009). Since animal rights have become a political issue throughout the 20th century, women have remained on the frontlines of volunteerism and also in professional animal welfare. For example, trends in veterinary care reveal a striking gender gap with more than 70% of veterinary school graduates being female in 2002 (Markovitz & Queen, 2009). The presence of women in animal rights and animal welfare reflects an overarching trend towards women in positions of altruism and political activism related to welfare and ethics. Although it is tempting to link together the related issues of animal rescue… Continue Reading...

Gatt and Nestle in the Philippines

baby formula company in the 19th century to a producer of a wide range of food products in the 20th century (largely a result of war-time acquisitions). By the end of the 20th century it was bringing in more than $6 billion in profits from factories and products sold around the world. The 1990s had been a period of expansion into emerging markets. Supermarkets however had not yet come to the Philippines. Mascenon knew they soon would as legislation was in the works to permit greater foreign investment in the country. Nestle's market share was high because of its… Continue Reading...

Poems and Chinese Literature

Chinese Cultural Revolution, which took places in the early to midway part of the 20th century. It largely appears as though the imagery evinced in this work are indicative of some of the more salient factors of this revolution. Regardless of the political orientation of those who took place in this revolution, one of the more demonstrable facets of its manifestation was a surplus of fighting, pain, bloodshed, and even death. All of these images are found in the aforementioned works of literature, which suggest that the most eminent repercussion of this revolution was a maturation of the people… Continue Reading...

Murder Inc Book Compared to Gangs Today

organized crime in the U.S. from late 19th century to early 20th century? TED Prints. Sherman, L., Gottfredson, D., & Mackenzie, D. (n.d.). Preventing Crime - What Works, What Doesn't and What's WPromising. National Institute of Justice. Whalen, R. W. (2014). Gangsters & Gangbusters in La Guardia's New York. Queens University of Charlotte. Continue Reading...

Prison Psychologists and Biases in Corrections

al. (2016) point out, prison wardens partnered with psychologists seeking training opportunities and subjects for experiments since the early 20th century. Prison psychologists have had at their disposal access to subjects for research into the endogenous and exogenous factors that may cause or contribute to criminal behavior. Prisoners have long been viewed as a relatively dispensable part of the human population and the lack of attention given to their treatment remains a major ethnical infraction (Magaletta, et al., 2016). The psychological make-up of offenders, whose behavior may be symptomatic of underlying preexisting conditions ranging from mood disorders like anxiety… Continue Reading...

Vietnamese History Throughout the Centuries

a continuity of thought in the Confucian tradition Many of the rituals continued until 20th century, highlighting the centrality of ritual to the political, social, and also cosmic order. Ritual was believed to be something that helped to distinguish human from animal. Confucian guidelines for social comportment and conduct remained formally used. In the 18th century, Trinh rulers and Minh Mang wrote the "Ten Moral Precepts" related to marriage customs and gender roles as well as behavior toward parents, duties to friends. Other Literati beliefs included Cult of the Trung Sisters, which was integrated into Confucianism as with other spirit… Continue Reading...

Maison Lanvin Company Analysis

fragrances. Despite the success of Lanvin House, the company experienced a decline in sales towards the end of 20th century. In 2001, Lanvin found a critical and financial success with the help of designer Alber Elbaz who used his technical and creative skills to design clothes, which women desired to wear. Lanvin is the oldest fashion house that is presently in operation. While the company designs the menswear, however, Lanvin is best loved by celebs, and editors, who buy womenswear exquisitely. Since 2001, Lanvin is flourishing in the fashion market. In 2005, Lucas Ossendrijver also signed collections with Lanvin… Continue Reading...

Hiv Aids Infrastructures Around the World

gradually became a global public health issue by the closing decade of the 20th century (Powers, 2016). The same forces that have driven globalization are believed to account for this growth in HIV / AIDS cases, and researchers have since termed the epidemic as "a disease of the global system" (Powers, 2016, p. 239). This paper reviews the relevant peer-reviewed literature as well as nongovernmental organizational resources to evaluate the adequacy of the public infrastructure developed in response to this global problem and a discussion concerning the most important needs in shaping and sustaining the infrastructure for dealing with… Continue Reading...

Death and Faith from Existentialist Point Of View

psychology. This psychology as a field has become independent from philosophy in the 20th century when William James and Nietzsche influenced the results of Heidegger significantly by being a psychologist and a philosopher (questioned in Ecce Homo in its final chapter, "Who among philosophers before me has been a psychologist?"). There is no relevance for Heidegger in the fields of ethics, logic, traditional sciences or politics. Instead, he was concerned about the metaphysics, and specifically, that involves questions in ontology. From every possible angle, it looks like these questions are connected to mental and intellectual knowledge of existence that… Continue Reading...

The Grand Chessboard Book Analysis

dictating the world order, and attaining the special status of being the premier power. However, in the 20th century, the world witnessed a tectonic shift where a non-Eurasian state emerged as the only paramount power dictating the international political affairs. Moreover, the defeat and disintegration of the Soviet Union have been the final step in the ascendance of power to the western hemisphere. Lately, America has emerged as the first dominant superpower, although Eurasia still retains its geopolitical strategic importance, nevertheless, Europe has started exerting global political and economic power. Additionally, Asia and Eastern regions have been exerting political… Continue Reading...

Better Relationship with Russia a New U.s. Policy

the nature of the 21st century's globalized world (Scott). In the 20th century, the U.S. emerged as the dominant power in the world. However, as Russia and China grew and Russia became technologically advanced in terms of missile defense systems, the U.S. has found itself in a unique position. Moreover, Russia and China have declared that they will trade without using the U.S. dollar as a currency in the trade. This isolates the U.S. and weakens its dominant role in world trade. If the U.S. seeks to be not just a competitor but also a leader in the 21st… Continue Reading...

Contemporary Art 21st Century Asia

more about gender and oppression in general. Throughout the 20th century, Korean art aimed to celebrate the history and uniqueness of Korean culture. Japanese 21st century art represents a radical shift in aesthetics and artistic ideology. The whimsical work by Takashi Murakami epitomizes the 21st century Japanese zeitgeist. With postmodernist flair and meta-criticism of popular culture, Takashi Murakami incorporates some of the pop art elements of the American 1960s as with his "And Then..." series, depicting a Mickey Mouse-like head in multifaceted new ways. "Tan Tan Bo - In Communication" is one of the artist's most recent works, and… Continue Reading...

Muslim Americans and the Impact Of September 11th

Kennedy had described America as a "nation of immigrants" in the mid- 20th century, yet events unfolded that propelled America away from this identity to police state wherein security and safety become more important than the idea espoused by Kennedy.[footnoteRef:4] Following 9/11 immigrants groups were targeted by legislators, policy makers, and pundits: rather than the heart and soul -- the foundation -- of America they became public enemy no. 1. Detecting and preventing "terrorist" activity became the paramount objective of post-9/11 America. [4: John F. Kennedy, A Nation of Immigrants (NY: Harper, 2008), 1.] The attacks of September 11, 2001,… Continue Reading...

How Confucianism Impacted China

it would finally be displaced by the new thinking of the new leaders of the 20th century and the Cultural Revolution that followed (Adshead 278). The Han dynasty was a triumphant time for China: the people were prosperous and security was strong. Thanks to the guidance of Confucianism, the people were also united in belief and a solid strategy by the Han rulers saw that all were informed on the same way of life. From the top down to the bottom and back up again, Confucianism was used to bring all Chinese to the same level of thinking; in… Continue Reading...

How Hong Kong Responds to Fitness Clubs

cultural roots in both Western and Eastern systems (Hong Kong was a British colony throughout most of the 20th century), Hong Kong has been situated in a manner that is accepting of both East and West ideas. Still, Hong Kong's health and fitness culture is nowhere near as intensive as it has been in the West, which saw the rise of the "fitness craze" in the 20th century -- touched by everything from fashion to food to politics to lifestyle to body image (Tavel, 2013). As Adab and Macfarlane (1998) showed in their late 20th century study on exercise… Continue Reading...

Uk Trade Policy and Its Departure from the Eu

with the rise of the market state in the 20th century and the new nationalist push now in the 21st century, the mercantilist idea can be seen below the surface of motivations: a "crisis of legitimization" has given way to protectionist concepts and a desire by leaders to reduce trade deficits (Bobbit, 2011, p. 213). The current trading arrangements of the UK with the EU do not facilitate this protectionist desire. Those arrangements consist of the EU signing off on all trade deals first and foremost. In abiding by this transfer of authority from its own national capital to… Continue Reading...

Solow Growth Model and Unemployment

resource-poor country like Japan can grow at a much faster rate than a resource-rich country like Argentina in the 20th century. This is a matter of wealth creation -- how economies create their wealth, in general terms. There is also the matter of wealth distribution -- how the living standards of the average citizen have increased. The Solow Growth Model seeks to explain where growth comes from in an economy. The four basic assumptions of the SGM are that growth is exogenous, that the main driver of growth is factor accumulation (physical capital), that diminishing marginal products apply to… Continue Reading...

21st Century Isaiah Bible Christian

The return of the Jewish people to Jerusalem in the 20th century would be described as a beginning of yet another new age, similar to the potent changes taking place in the historical epochs in which the original Isaiah books were penned. Christians play a key role in the new world, particularly when viewed through the Isaiah texts. The role of Christians can be viewed as both symbolic and practical, with a theological and political impact. Theologically, Isaiah lays the groundwork for Christian consciousness and identity. The messiah is heralded as having a special relationship with both God and… Continue Reading...

Confucian Virtues and Gender

Accept, qualify or refute the contention that failure of late 19th-early 20th century reforms and the subsequent collapse of the imperial system spelled the end for Confucianism in China. Although the effectiveness of the attempted reforms implemented in China in the late 19th through early 20th century undoubtedly had significant implications for the followers of Confucianism and its status as a state religion, it would be a stretch to say that it spelled the end of this religion, or ideology, and that it was completely eradicated. Although the followers of Confucianism today represent… Continue Reading...

Weaving Themes in American History with High School

219). Tyrell (2007) adds that globalization and international commerce are not uniquely 20th century phenomenon. Although the USA did not depend on international trade in the 19th century and before, the nation was connected to a vast global market that was burgeoning, especially in specific industries In 2006, Florida mandated that American history "shall be viewed as factual, not as constructed, shall be viewed as knowable, teachable, and testable," (VanSledright, 2008, p. 110). This frightful law indicates the rigidity with which a hegemonic regime can enforce a specific historical narrative for political purposes. Unfortunate attempts at propagandizing through history… Continue Reading...

Film Culture and Its Impact on Civil and Social Rights

that propel people to demand their rights. [1: The Role of Film in Society.] Throughout the 20th century, African-Americans were treated as second-class citizens because of their historical antecedents with the general beliefs that they were forcibly brought from Africa and Caribbean as slaves. Thus, they were never treated equally with their white counterpart. During this period, African-Americans were stereotyped as being stupid, lazy, foolish, violent, cowards, animal-like and subhuman. In many occasions, the media had portrayed Black as sub-human. In the 20th century and early 21st century, African-Americans were portrayed with negative stereotypes in many American films, which reinforced… Continue Reading...

Hegel, Heidegger, and Nietzsche on Philosophy

he seeks to make sense of a world that had begun to blow itself to bits in the 20th century. For Nietzsche the most that a philosopher could accomplish was to annihilate -- for anything short of annihilation and the philosopher is still beholden to something outside of himself; he is still attached, "in the hand of one who is mightier", as Nietzsche puts it -- and thus a subservient.[footnoteRef:18] Heidegger had to live with the manifestation of what Nietzsche projected: the assertion of Self does lead tragically to the destruction of the Other -- and without the Other,… Continue Reading...

Causes and Consequences in American History

social, cultural, and geographic landscape of the nation, propelled the nation onto the national stage and ushered in the 20th century. Examining the consequences of wars like the Civil War reveals the web of events that can cascade from singular human decisions, those nefarious compromises made in the antebellum years. Bibliography Centre for the Study of Historical Consciousness (n.d.). Cause and consequence. Retrieved online: http://historicalthinking.ca/cause-and-consequence Tyrrell, Ian. "Commerce Pervades the World." In Transnational Nation. London: Palgrave, 2007. Continue Reading...

American History During Early 20th Century

income tax, a radical concept at the beginning of the 20th century. From income taxes came the ability of the government to create ambitious public works projects during the New Deal era. These projects were in many cases antidotes to a capitalist free market system that had been unregulated in spite of Progressive attempts to reform it through anti-trust laws. The stock market crash of 1929 precipitated many of the most notable New Deal acts. Among the most important New Deal decisions included the creation of the Works Progress Administration, which created massive amounts of jobs for unemployed Americans… Continue Reading...

Filipinos and the Catholic Church

Philippines and governed via a representative of the crown. This lasted until the 20th century when the Spanish-American War brought the U.S. into control of the Philippines, which did not sit well with much of the Filipino Catholic population. In the 20th century, the Philippines went through a cultural change as much of the world did -- modernizing itself in terms of embracing new ideas about women's role in society, birth control, government, etc. While on the surface, the Philippines is still very much a Catholic country, many of the principles of Catholicism have been corrupted and Catholics in… Continue Reading...

The American Prohibition Era

and political corruption. Therefore, during the late 19th century and early 20th century, pockets of areas in the United States began enforcing alcohol prohibition. Those that supported it saw the act as a victory for public health and ethics. Nonetheless, what may have seemed like a huge victory for morality, turned into a dangerous means of advancing and increasing the power of street gangs. "By eliminating legitimate suppliers of a commodity in high public demand, the state created a monopoly for illegitimate entrepreneurs. It was Prohibition that converted small, localized gangs into large, powerful, and wealthy regional and even… Continue Reading...

Teaching the Harlem Renaissance

how these works exemplify themes of the Harlem Renaissance and of the experience of African-Americans early in the 20th century. This could be something they turn-in for points, something they will perform, or any measurable output they will produce. 6. Closure Time: How will you bring the whole class together in the last 5-10 minutes to see if they got it and provide feedback on their performance before they leave the class? Students will provide feedback on one another's presentations, and then have to compose an answer to the student-friendly question while corroborating their responses with information gleaned from… Continue Reading...

21st Century Skills and Competencies

time by theories grounded in the psychological concepts devised throughout the 20th century: Trait Theory, Behavioral Theory, the University Theories, Contingency Theories, Organizational Culture Theory, Motivational Theory, Needs Theory -- these are just a few examples of the types of ideas about leadership that have grown out of the 20th century's focus on psychology as a means of understanding human behavior. These theories and concepts have moreover built on one another over the years so that each is a reaction to that which came before. Of course, in some cases a new idea has come along that is completely… Continue Reading...

Ip Man the Grandmaster and Women in Kung Fu

that is incongruous with the reality of the situation in Hong Kong in the 20th century: "There were fights, though. Leung Sheung and Wong Shun Leung, two of Ip Man's early students, fought with several champions from the various schools in Hong Kong and won, thus spreading the reputation of Wing Chun. These were bloody and brutal events, not some noble contest where no one gets hurt and nothing gets broken" (Nielson par. 6). Nielson's pot shot at Wei's unrealistic kung fu sequences is not undeserved -- after all, for a film that attempts to mine the depths of… Continue Reading...

Gun Fu and Hong Kong Cinema

with references to Kubrick's Shining, to the noir films of the 20th century, to The Three Stooges and so on. Jackie Chan's films drew inspiration from Buster Keaton, and Woo likewise drew inspiration from Western cinema -- from filmmakers like Hitchcock and Scorsese (Pierce). All of these filmmakers likewise had an impact on the West -- Woo especially, whose Better Tomorrow and its introduction of gun fu into the action genre inspired Western filmmakers from Robert Rodriguez to Oliver Stone to Quentin Tarantino to the Wachowskis ("John Woo's Influence on American Films"). A look at some of the films… Continue Reading...

Understanding Depression

Earlier it was mentioned that depressed people were locked away during the 19th century and even in the 20th century. Although some people are institutionalized for chronic and manic depression, many suffer with depression and have been accepted despite their medical condition. Still, the word itself is thought of as pertaining to the act of being insane, of losing control. Depression can be used to describe a sink hole. When a sink-hole forms, everything near it sinks with it, leading to a dark hole full of mess and debris. When people are depressed, many may feel like they are… Continue Reading...

Bessie Smith and the Blues

particular reading. This chapter examines the blues songs by Gertrude Rainey and Bessie Smith from the early 20th century. To judge of these songs by the lyrics alone and the context in which they were written seems unfair. It would help me to better understand them to hear them performed. Music is more than just the words that are composed. Having to dissect the lyrics without actually hearing the songs is what I did not like about this chapter. I am not very familiar with blues music so I also did not really know how to hear these songs in… Continue Reading...

Hierarchy and Culture Reflection

of art. As the reading shows, these terms came into being in the late 19th century and early 20th century. The terms themselves originated from the scientific belief that intelligence could be determined by the shape of one's skull/brain: high-browed people were deemed more intelligent and superior while low-browed people were deemed as stupid and inferior. Perhaps it is not surprising that this categorization coincided with racial attributes. African-Americans were viewed as inferior, for example. And as Mathew Arnold showed, the way that people actually revealed themselves and their tastes and level of intelligence could be indicated by their… Continue Reading...

Eugenics Movement

organized psychology’s role in contributing to the eugenics movement during the 20th century (Newhouse, 2016). To gain some new insights into this issue, this paper reviews the relevant primary and secondary literature concerning organized psychology’s long involvement in the eugenics movement and how this involvement provided the scientific basis for the selective breeding and extermination of human beings. Finally, a recapitulation of the main findings from the primary and secondary literature concerning these issues and the lessons learned are presented in the conclusion. Review and Analysis The origins of eugenics can be traced to the late 19th century when… Continue Reading...

Guantanamo Bay Essay

it is reasonable to conclude that the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base served a purpose early in the 20th century for the United States, but that purpose has long since vanished, leaving behind a legal and moral morass that demands resolution. Continue Reading...

Global Warming Implications Essay

is comparable to the last 50 years of the 20th century (Sumner, 2015). Moreover, there is also other clear evidence that the world is becoming hotter. In this regard, Smallman and Brown (2015) caution that, “There is now mounting evidence for global warming from multiple measures, including the northward shift of species ranges, the rising elevations at which species are typically found, the bleaching of coral reefs, the pattern of record warm years, the thawing of permafrost, and the retreat of glaciers” (p. 325). There is also clear evidence that global warming has continued to increase since records were… Continue Reading...

Religious Revolution

popularized and how its meaning took on a new form in the U.S. in the 20th century, essentially altering much of how these two groups have been defined throughout history. The success of this research was that I was able to expose myself to a lot of different sources that I would never have come across had I not persisted in locating texts from scholarly journals. The challenge was to keep digging and refining my keyword searches and search options so as to locate journals with publications that would serve the purpose of this study. III. WHAT I HAVE… Continue Reading...

Latin American Revolution

itself: it is about escaping the spider’s web, as Holloway has stated. The Mexican Revolution of the early 20th century, when the Cristeros fought against the new secular government that seeked to abolish the old culture is an example of one revolution that underscores the ideas put forward in both Holloway and Coronil. The Mexican Revolution saw one revolutionary body (the secular government) come to power and attempt to suppress a popular culture that philosophically opposed the new direction of the government. In doing so, the revolutionary government created a counter-revolutionary force (or a separate and distinct revolutionary force) that… Continue Reading...

Altruism Vs Rands Selfishness

reason the author contends that the default ethical theory for Western society during the 20th century when she was writing is altruism is because of the way it circumscribes the very field of morality. She posits the notion that altruism is the de facto form of morality because it defines values in regards to who benefits from them. As previously identified, with altruism the beneficiary is always another and never the self. Altruism, then, is responsible for reducing the field of morality simply into a matter of whether or not one is doing something for someone else. If so,… Continue Reading...

Prosecution Of Andrew Fastow

WorldCom—was one of the defining financial scandals of the early part of the 20th century (McLean and Elkind, 2013, p. 8). The financial misrepresentation of Enron was either directly perpetrated by or allowed by Fastow. He has never attempted to hide this fact. As such, he would become one of the insiders whose information about Enron’s dealings were instrumental in the convictions of fellow conspirators Kenneth Lay and Jeff Skilling. Even Fastow’s wife served time for her role in Enron’s fraudulent activities. Consequently, Skilling pled guilty to the aforementioned charges, and elucidated a substantial amount of information about how… Continue Reading...

Organizational Culture and National Culture Of Automakers Comparison

to create jobs, for national security reasons, and simply because shipping cars overseas was impractical for much of the 20th century. This paper will look at three major automobile manufacturers, one each from Europe, Japan and America, to examine the differences and similarities between them. Each company evolved differently, and did so on the basis of both national culture and in terms of the markets in which they operated. The companies studied are Ford, Hyundai and Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi. The latter makes a nice case study because it is a French-Japanese firm, one of the biggest and most powerful transnational automakers,… Continue Reading...

Political Systems in Ireland and Britain

and finally, their political cultures also differ from one another. By the early 20th century, Ireland had fully adapted most British parliamentary democratic institutions, albeit with important tweaks. One tweak has been the evolution of the Irish constitution. The current Irish Constitution (Bunreacht na hÉireann/The 1937 Constitution of Eire) dates from 1937. In contrast, the United Kingdom has actually never had a singular document it would call a Constitution. Instead of a formal Constitution outlining the systems, branches, forms, functions, and limitations of government, Britain relies on its system of common law, and the traditions that have long been embedded… Continue Reading...

Globalization Is Not Americanization

States of America, globalization nevertheless reached a peak in the 20th century, when a globalized economic, political, and cultural landscape became inevitable and entrenched. While it seemed that McDonald’s, Coca Cola, Shell, and other proudly American companies have dominated the corporate landscape of a globalized international economy, a wealth of non-American companies have likewise participated in the dissemination and distribution of ideas and neoliberal policies that characterize postmodern globalization. In some ways, globalization is the antithesis of Americanization. As Collins (2015) points out, globalization “has led to the continuing deindustrialization of America,” as labor markets have become transnational (p.… Continue Reading...

Europe and the Modern Era

continent see itself as a Christian continent—i.e., a Roman Catholic continent. Hillaire Belloc, a 20th century English historian once remarked upon this point that “Europe is the Faith, and the Faith is Europe” (Lucie-Smith, 2011). Roman Catholicism helped give shape to the West’s ideals and scholars like Thomas Aquinas incorporated the ideals of the classical philosophers into the Catholic philosophy of Europe so that striving for the Transcendental values aligned with living a Catholic life in grace, in Christ, for Christ, and for the Church. As trade with other countries began to allow nations to prosper and princes became… Continue Reading...

Role Of Privately Owned Media in a Democracy

have high barriers to entry, the power of media increased during the 20th century. Media outlets find themselves with only a handful of competitors. This power means that the messages that they disseminate will come to dominate the common discourse. People know what their information sources tell them. Thus, media plays a role in educating people, and plays a role in shaping the public discourse. The media determines what subjects to discuss, and what the tone and content of that discussion will be. For many adults, and in particular in the pre-Internet era, the media was the dominant way… Continue Reading...

Oral History Of the Russian People

of generations of women who experienced the great challenges that Russia endured during the 20th century, the old maxim proved true: meet the new boss, same as the old boss. However, what Alexievich also shows, and which the survey textbook such as Suny’s Experiment cannot show, is how the lives of the ordinary Russians are really what matter: they make up the backbone and soul of the country. Their stories are the soul behind the soul that one of Alexievich’s subjects looks to find in Secondhand Time.[footnoteRef:5] The survey textbook is concerned with facts and figures, dates, names in… Continue Reading...

Reminiscing on My Teens

it was my indoctrination into the outlaw culture which typified the lat 20th century America in which I was reared. Soccer was not nearly as popular as the three main sports in this country (which included football, basketball, and baseball), so I felt I was at variance with the mainstream in this respect. Moreover, within the actual competitive soccer field, my teammates and I were definitely pariahs. We did not all dress alike, wear the same warmup clothes before and after games, or even wear conventional clothing and name brands the way players on the other competitive teams did.… Continue Reading...

The Tourism Industry in Mexico

one of antagonism. In the Mexican Civil War of the 20th century, the U.S. was supporting the authoritarian regime against the Cristeros. It warred with Mexico over Texas and beyond. It has used Mexican labor cheaply so that cheap products could be built inexpensively and shipped back across the border so corporations can make more profit than if they had hired American labor. In chapter “Cancun and the Campo,” this fact is made all the more apparent: “Employees are offered short-term contracts rather than the previously common long-term contracts, are expected to work longer shifts, and must forgo vacation… Continue Reading...

Abortion and Ethics

in a few years it will be much higher than it was at the middle of the 20th century. This is because children are not looked at very favorably. Few people accept the responsibility that they entail. Abortion is their way around having to deal with this responsibility and they justify it by saying that they are not ready or do not have a stable life or do not want children or cannot afford to raise a child. They say everything but what they should say, which is, “I accept it.” Acceptance of a child developing in the womb… Continue Reading...

History Of Immigration in United States

a settler nation, immigration trends changed in the early 20th century. Immigrants from Southern Europe and Eastern Europe started to pour in before the First World War, pushed by economic uncertainties and outright poverty and pulled by the promise of readymade jobs in rapidly industrializing America (“Immigration in the Early 1900s” 1). American immigration policy favored these new immigrants to fill needed low-wage positions in industry. As Zolberg points out, the new immigrants were expected to assimilate into America’s “melting pot” ideal, rather than to create a multicultural nation but self-segregation of immigrant communities proved inevitable. Race-based immigration policies… Continue Reading...

Future Of the Wto

some nations are more equal than others (as Orwell ironically pointed out in the mid- 20th century). Conclusion The rise of globalization has shifted the balance of power from the formidable unipolar world of the 20th century to the proposed and indeed happening multipolar world of business and trade. Lamy (2012) notes, for instance, that emerging nations like India represent a new source of influence altering “the pattern and scope of international trade, creating new supply and demand pulls and flexing their influence in international organizations.” Meanwhile, the threat of trade wars—manifested most recently in the GOP’s border-tax proposal—has jarred… Continue Reading...

Life Of Arthur Koestler

was symbolic of the growing power of Hitler and other fascists during the midway point of the 20th century, including others such as Mussolini and Franco. Furthermore, this work or literature was a thinly veiled recollection of Koestler\'s own experience as such a political prisoner of Franco\'s fascist regime during the Spanish Civil War. Thus, the events which led to the book\'s creation and its ensuing critical and popular reception were central to the transformation in Koestler\'s life which they heralded. In order to properly contextualize the impact of Darkness at Noon, it is necessary to elucidate the actual… Continue Reading...

The Culture Of the Eastern Band Cherokee

the American Kermit Houston Hunter in 1950, which describes the history of the Cherokee from the 18th to the 20th century. The Eastern Band Cherokee have performed this play in North Carolina since the mid-century and it is still being performed today at the Mountainside Theatre (Cherokee North Carolina, 2018). Location, Environment and Ecosystem The base of the Cherokee Tribe in North Carolina is located in the Smoky Mountain region. Originally, the Cherokee were spread throughout the region today known as North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. They mostly populated the Alleghany River area and the Appalachian Mountain chain,… Continue Reading...

The History Of Security Measures

significant developments in the U.S. related to security occurred in the early part of the 20th century. The state of California was responsible for creating a regulations for detective agencies (Bureau of Security) (which is what Pinkerton’s business started out as). Today, there are a host of regulations for this industry. Security companies continue to provide services for both the private and public sectors. There are different areas of focus such as cybersecurity, burglary and home protection security, and security for public spaces such as grocery stores, night clubs, and others. Works Cited Department of Consumer Affairs Bureau of… Continue Reading...

Climate Change Impacts

uptick in recent years, and by the time we get to the 20th century it is basically a straight upward line, to the present level around 400ppm. The 1950 level was only at around 320, so nearly a quarter of the carbon in the atmosphere has been added in about the last 70 years or so, and that is for all-time. The UK website explains that the increase in carbon dioxide levels in the environment has occurred since the Industrial Revolution, which brought about many changes in technology, including the development of fossil fuel engines. 2. The NASA site… Continue Reading...

Du Bois Vs John Lennon Sociology

Black Folk, was one of the most notable African-American activists of the early 20th century. In this seminal work, Du Bois outlined what he called the double consciousness of African-Americans, “the sense of looking at one’s self through the eyes of others” (Du Bois 5). Black people were simultaneously excluded from mainstream American society yet also forced to understand it, given that they were rendered into a state of economic dependence on whites, thanks to the legacy of slavery Du Bois also made a claim for African-American culture to be the most American of all cultures, given that it… Continue Reading...

Sex and Gender in Media

not, as the author notes. But by the latter half of the 20th century, women and African Americans were beginning to be more emboldened, more assertive with their looks—more willing to gaze, even to gaze defiantly, and to criticize with their looks the world that was all around them: “Critical, interrogating black looks were mainly concerned with issues of race and racism, the way racial domination of blacks by whites overdetermined representation,” says the author (p. 118). However, with the inclusion of gender in the politics of the gaze, the issue of domination stopped being just about race and… Continue Reading...

Death Penalty As a Deterrent for Murder

these objectors are not a few. Richard Wright famously opposed it in the 20th century with his novel Native Son, in which a young black man named Bigger Thomas irrationally murders a young white woman in her bedroom. He is arrested, tried, convicted and sentenced to death. He expresses no remorse for his actions but exhibits a kind of pathetic innocence in the sense that he is portrayed almost as a victim of the kind of racial oppression described by Davis in her speeches. He rejects the overtures of a priest. His lawyer attempts to persuade the jury that capital… Continue Reading...

Ee Cummings Modernist Poet

a literary period from the first half of the 20th century, one that reacted to the external influences of an increasingly industrialized society, and one that was becoming more and more globalized. This was a population of people who had been hardened and drained by two world wars. This was a population of people who were pondering the future of humanity, human existence, the human condition and their place in the world. When compared to the romantic period, modernism appears edgier and less serene. The romantic period had more of a focus on the natural world and the experience… Continue Reading...

Personal Self Assessment and Self Awareness

as far as Asclepiades, it was never fully accepted as a viable model of health and healing until the 20th century (Curtis & Gaylord, 2004, p. 8). The mechanistic view predominates throughout the Western world, but even then, traditional and religious beliefs often interact with, overlap, or interfere with the view that the physical body can or should be treated without regard for the mind, one’s spiritual beliefs, or contextual variables. While some healthcare scenarios certainly do call for a mechanistic view, allowing for quick and effective responses to emergency situations in particular, long-term healthcare and preventive medicine require… Continue Reading...

Mindfulness Health, Healing, and Self Awareness

as far as Asclepiades, it was never fully accepted as a viable model of health and healing until the 20th century (Curtis & Gaylord, 2004, p. 8). The mechanistic view predominates throughout the Western world, but even then, traditional and religious beliefs often interact with, overlap, or interfere with the view that the physical body can or should be treated without regard for the mind, one’s spiritual beliefs, or contextual variables. While some healthcare scenarios certainly do call for a mechanistic view, allowing for quick and effective responses to emergency situations in particular, long-term healthcare and preventive medicine require… Continue Reading...

Katherine Graham and the Washington Post

threatened her with extinction when she decided to run the story that would shape the latter half of the 20th century and blow the lid off Washington politics forever (Graham, 1998). Her commitment to honest reporting and to telling the story drove her to stand by her reporters and to not give up the paper to someone who would let the politicians off the hook. She allowed the two most famous reporters in American history—Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward—to tell their story to the world through The Post. It was unprecedented. Relationship to Women’s History By the 1970s, the… Continue Reading...

The Vice Commission and Chicago in 1911

could go? The conditions in the city in the early 20th century indicate that there was a great deal of oppression going on but that there was also a serious problem with regard to how the culture was developing a crass attitude about family, life, sex, work, money and decency. The thought of so many women suffering from because of economic and social pressures is truly troubling. References Vice Commission of Chicago. (1911). The Vice Commission of Chicago reports on the working conditions in department stores that lead female employees into prostitution, 1911. Major Problems in American Women’s History, 270-273. Continue Reading...

Industry and Ideology in Germany

in the Austro-Hungarian Empire” (), 342.] These two countries both displayed nationalistic fervor throughout the 20th century and the wars that each engaged in were devastating for a great many people. While their respect ideologies helped them to become strong as nations, their relentless drive for dominance led to destruction across Europe and Asia. The ideology is what allowed the concept of nation to grow in these regions and the economic investment in these regions allowed for the industries to grow as well. The integration of ideology and investment served to establish a foundation of pride in the people, and… Continue Reading...

Women in 20th Century Canadian Society

Women in 20th century Canadian Society: Social Conventions and Change 20th century society placed Canadian women within restrictive conventions and norms. There was a very pronounced domestic expectation placed upon women that they would have jobs or careers, but only until they married. Once married, the expectation was that they would abandon their careers to be housewives, working within the domestic sphere of the home, cooking and cleaning and tending to the general needs of the family. During this period, the expectation was that the… Continue Reading...

Star Wars Vs Lord Of the Rings Comparison

two films by comparing and contrasting them. Narrative Analysis Star Wars was released in 1977, produced by Lucasfilm and distributed by 20th century Fox. The Lord of the Rings was released in 2001, produced by WingNut Films and the Saul Zaentz Company and distributed by New Line Cinema. George Lucas directed the former, Peter Jackson the latter. Mark Hamill, Harrison Ford, Carrie Fisher and Alec Guinness stared in Star Wars. Elijah Wood, Ian McKellen, Viggo Mortensen and Orlando Bloom starred in The Lord of the Rings. Each is the first film in a trilogy. Both films are epics that explore themes… Continue Reading...

Examination Of Criminal Trial Essay

trial is for false registration, an election offense. In the early 20th century in New York, election fraud was a serious issue and Teddy Roosevelt as a member of the Board of Commissioners at the end of the 19th century in New York had pledged to crack down on election fraud because of the stronghold on the voting process held by Tammany Hall. Thus, this trial emerged just a few short years after that crackdown began as an example of the type of issues the city was having. This case in particular centered on Edward Lawless, the defendant, charged… Continue Reading...

Sexism in Advertising Media

ready to please their husbands that was promoted in mid- 20th century advertisements—in advertising today, sexism is most readily displayed by way of objectification, as seen in Go Daddy ads, Victoria’s Secrtet ads, beer commercials, and so on, where women’s bodies are like commodities. Feminism challenged the notion of this objectification of women for a time, but in the post-feminist culture of today, sex has bombarded media and women appear more objectified than ever—and willingly so. Women in the media appear to celebrate their sexuality in a way that would have been frowned upon in the Feminist era as a… Continue Reading...

Black Lives Matter

and reassess whether the BLM movement is really of the same spirit as the Civil Rights Movement of the 20th century, when respect was earned and won by way of decent rhetoric, speeches that were moving because they inspired rather than threatened, and by way of the demeanor of those who sought the change. As Reynolds argues, the BLM is different because “at protests today, it is difficult to distinguish legitimate activists from the mob actors who burn and loot. The demonstrations are peppered with hate speech, profanity, and guys with sagging pants that show their underwear. Even if the BLM activists… Continue Reading...

Information Technology in Healthcare Administration

the concept of electronic health records directly from the 20th century to the 22nd. Introduction and Major Technologies There are several major information technologies that will transform healthcare over the course of the coming years. In laying out a plan for the next decade, it is important to understand not the individual technologies so much as the broad trends. The shape and direction of these trends informs us as to the potential developments in the future. We can already imagine what some of these developments will look like – they range from modest improvements over today\\'s technology to quantum… Continue Reading...

Pearl Buck and Rudyard Kipling

Success The extent of Buck’s success in conveying the problems of everyday life for an ordinary peasant family in 19th- 20th century China can be measured in the stunning descriptions and realism found on every page of The Good Earth. Buck’s style of writing is simple and direct and not encumbered by abstract or metaphorical prose that obliterates the narrative structure of some works. Buck’s method of telling the story is straight-forward and the introduction to the saga of Wang Lung and his family is given with precision and simplicity: “It was Wang Lung’s marriage day” (Buck 1) is how the… Continue Reading...

Latinos and Deportation Arrests

US, noncitizen detention pursuant to the deportation of immigrants has been utilized throughout the 20th century at the nexus of national crises, xenophobia, and racism” (p. 35). Racialization and criminalization have often been linked in American history as a way for the elites to control a narrative to help them maneuver themselves into positions of power while riding the fears and anxieties of the majority ethnicity in the nation to their political seats of authority. This has in turn facilitated the Immigration Industrial complex—an industry that operates similarly to the prison industrial complex in that it seeks to marginalize… Continue Reading...

Sexism and the Media

time of Bernays in the first half of the 20th century how to use female sexuality as a means to manipulate the consuming consciousness. Sex sells even still today just as it did a century ago. The fact that women now view the selling of their sex as empowering (whereas they used to view it as exploitative) just because now they want to do it and they want to do it precisely for control does not really justify it in the least if one is going to judge the matter from any traditional standpoint or even from a feminist… Continue Reading...

Gender and Culture in Crime

Race, and Ethnicity: Gender in Criminal Justice Since the criminal justice field was founded in the 20th century, it has increasingly focused not only crime and what causes it but also on the ways in which crime is perceived, perpetuated and altered in perception over time. While women have played a pivotal role in advancing a variety of other disciplines, from literature to business management to psychology and so on, in the field of criminal justice there is a considerable skew towards male dominance of the discipline. For example, as Fahmy and Young (2017) show, more studies on criminal justice… Continue Reading...

Imperialism and the Industrial Revolution

World War. Many nations exhibited signs of imperialism in the 20th century. England, Germany, Russia, the U.S., Japan, and China—all of them engaged in efforts to expand their influence and grow their power. In every case, imperialism led to more conflicts and to more wars (Llewellyn et al., 2014). That is because the aim of imperialism is for a powerful state to seize control of weaker states outside its own borders and territories and govern them as colonies. The era of imperialism that existed in the 20th century following the Spanish-American War, World War I, World War II, the Korean… Continue Reading...

Niger Sudan and the Issue Of Slavery

20 million Africans (Curtin, 1972). This slave trade lasted for centuries, spanning the 15th to 20th century. Many people lost their lives because of the harsh conditions of this slave trade and, if they managed to survive, they were sold into chattel slavery to farm and till the lands of the New World in most cases. The immoral nature of this slave trade was hotly contested and debated among the civilized world in the West but it took centuries before the practice was finally abolished. Still, as parts of Africa are subjected to war (as in the Sudan) and… Continue Reading...

Labor Unions

true. While some labor unions became little more than fronts for organized crime later in the 20th century, the reality of the situation from 1865 to 1940 was that workers needed protection from unscrupulous owners. This protection helped to make the workplaces safer and better regulated, which helped make industries fairer, better run, and more acceptable to the public—the people who would in the end do the consuming. In my workplace today, I benefit from two days off per week—a maximum 40 hour work-week (overtime is compensated with pay at time and a half). I enjoy safe working conditions… Continue Reading...

Shakespeare in Love Gender Communication

exists as a universal construct (Butler, 1988, p. 519). The 20th century feminist theorist Judith Butler took De Beauvoir’s thesis one step further to argue that gender is a performance not connected to the physical body at all and both men and women can effectively perform the female role. This notion is not as radical and contemporary as it may seem. As the film Shakespeare in Love highlights, in Elizabethan times, women were considered to be inferior beings, incapable of acting on stage at all. The film is a highly fictionalized version of life on the Elizabethan stage, and… Continue Reading...

Escobar’s “bloody Christmas

Americans and other minority individuals” (p. 173). In other words, all throughout the 20th century there has been tension between the Hispanic community in L.A. and law enforcement. Escobar shows that leading up to Bloody Christmas, the police department had been very corrupt, had been taking bribes from individuals involved in prostitution, gambling and liquor establishments and had been persecuting organized labor as well. The Mexican American community on the other hand was trying to clear its name from charges of being “criminally inclined” by the LAPD (Escobar, 2003, p. 178). A culture war was truly underway in L.A.… Continue Reading...

China Mao and the Cultural Revolution

of China Wild Swans is the story of three generations of women in China in the 20th century. The author is Jung Chang: her autobiography comprises the last third section of the book; the first two sections are devoted to telling the story of her grandmother Yu-Fang and her mother Bao Qin. Instead of writing a straight autobiography, Chang chose to begin her story two generations back—the purpose being to provide not only personal historical context but also a sense of the cultural historical context in which her family came into being. By beginning the book with the statement that… Continue Reading...

Ironic Humor in Trifles by Susan Glaspell

of womanhood that had emerged by the end of the 20th century, at which point women had entered into the workforce, were running large companies, and were no longer expected to stay in their homes like birds in cages. This paper will show how Glaspell uses symbolism in Trifles to illustrate the oppression of womanhood prior to their sociopolitical emancipation in the 20th century—and the ill effects that could follow that oppression when the jars of sanity began to break. Symbols abound in Trifles—and all of them serve as an indication of how Mrs. Wright was pushed the brink.… Continue Reading...

The Great Depression and White Evangelicalism

sustained many poor whites during difficult economic circumstances in the early half of the 20th century in America. Rather than a source of repression, Flynt argues the religion provided a sense of purpose and a way of making sense of senseless circumstances. Flynt is interested in giving voice to his subjects on an individual basis to humanize them and present their unique perspectives. He begins his article not with a theoretical overview but with a description of May Jordan, a congregant at the Buck Hill Baptist Church, the daughter of a faith doctor. Jordan left a series of journal… Continue Reading...

Women and the Day Nursery Movement

the Day Nursery Movement that got underway in the early 20th century as a result of progressive-minded women looking to help single mothers who needed someone to watch their young children while they went to work to earn a living for their families. The purpose of Durst in writing the article was to highlight Day Nursery Movement in America and show how women worked together to help one another at a critical time in Progressive America. Durst’s article is well-researched and information and sheds light on a subject that is usually off people’s radar. Durst’s main thesis is that… Continue Reading...

Lynchings and Mob Violence in America

and executed and provides a significant insight into the world of 19th century and early 20th century America. This paper will provide an examination of the article by Carrigan and Webb and discuss its aims, merits, and accomplishments in detail in order to show why this article can be recommended to anyone interested in American history. The article focuses on documenting the number of lynchings suffered by Mexicans in America during the 19th and early 20th centuries. It provides a history of research on mob violence against Mexicans, details about particular cases, historical context, statistics on lynchings (most took… Continue Reading...

The Economic Costs Of Air Pollution

and its updated replacement, the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR) (Harvey 6). Conclusion During the early 20th century, belching smokestacks were viewed as a sign of industrial development and economic progress, but the research showed that things have changed in substantive ways since that time. Indeed, a growing body of scientific evidence confirms that air pollution exacts a heavy economic toll on a country, the majority of which is related to health care costs and losses in worker productivity. The research also showed that air pollution is measured by analyzing the amount of PM2.5, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and… Continue Reading...

Women Empowerment in Iran

college education was delayed significantly until the last decades of the 20th century yet in other Western nations like in England, the first women joined university in 1893. Similarly, in the US universities like Chicago, Cornell and Berkeley started to admit female students in the 1890s. This time gap puts the Iranian women at a much lower status educationally. It is worth noting however, that since the 1979 revolution, the rate of women enrolment in tertiary education has gradually increased. The UNESCO puts the enrollment figures of women in Iran at 51% in 2005 which is an impressive rate… Continue Reading...

Africa from Colonialism to Neocolonialism

hypothetically be deemed to be a consequence of the end of colonialism in the 20th century. In this case, Lagan (2017) is of the opinion that it could be argued that former colonial masters and emerging economic powerhouses have systematically sought to reestablish control in some jurisdictions without necessarily assuming actual colonial rule. With their economic authority, such nations have largely been successful in extending their influence in Third World nations. Like is the case in many African nations, Burkina Faso was historically deemed to be an agrarian state. It is, however, important to note that the country has… Continue Reading...

Assessing the Benefits Of Marijuana

with drugs, nearly fifty thousand of them solely for crimes involving marijuana. In the last years of the 20th century, a series of Supreme Court cases and government actions specifically involving marijuana led to a substantial increase in the power of the government at the expense of the Bill of Rights. As a result of the war against cannabis, Americans are demonstrably less free today” (Pollan, p.126). The federal government maintains that marijuana must be subject to the very same thorough scientific examination and clinical trials applied by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) to every other novel medication.… Continue Reading...

The Character Of the Oklahomans

farming to the middle of the century when they were focusing on conservation to the end of the 20th century when they were dealing with the grief and sorrow of being the victim of a terrorist attack, the people of this state have always found a way to survive and thrive. The Dust Bowl was one of the first times the strength and character of the Oklahomans was really put to the test. The Dust Bowl killed off crops and forced farmers into poverty. Many of them had to escape west just to survive. Their story was even preserved… Continue Reading...

Physical Education and the Zpd

is facilitative. The reason is found in Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development (ZPD) theory. Vygotsky was an early 20th century Soviet thinker who articulated the idea that individuals learn most effectively when they are aided by other skilled individuals who know how to perform a certain task. Child learners can benefit, for example, from being placed in a zone of proximal development: alone or confined to a sphere in which they are surrounded by only their own peers—young children like themselves who have none of the skill sets that this same group of learners is expected to develop over… Continue Reading...

Arguments for and Against the Existence Of God

but the debate has not stopped there of course. During the early half of the 20th century, philosophers such as Robin George Collingwood examined Saint Anselm’s ontological arguments in support of the existence of God to develop a better understanding of the rationale and its relevance for modern humanity.[footnoteRef:17] In this regard, according to Lobont, Collingwood “writes that philosophy must renounce the judging of truth-claims regarding the general nature of reality, and aim to uncover the actual beliefs about reality held by men.”[footnoteRef:18] [17: Florin Lobont, “Ontological Proof and the Critique of Religious Experience.” Journal for the Study of Religions… Continue Reading...

Muller V Oregon 1908

the decision demonstrates that at the turn of the 20th century, gender as well as physical differenced had greater sway in the determination and enforcement of labor contracts. A question that comes to mind at this point is: is a woman’s physical and mental wellbeing a concern that ought to attract legal protections? References The Oregon Encyclopedia. (2018). Muller v. Oregon (1908). Retrieved from https://oregonencyclopedia.org/articles/muller_v_oregon_1908_/#.WrQFOWpubIV Continue Reading...

Promoting Physical Activity in the Community

economic cost, which was measured at the end of the 20th century at $24 billion or 2.4% of money paid on health care per year (Colditz, 1999). There is also the problem that this particular population is from a low income community, an environment that can cause people to want to stay indoors and not get outside an exercise for fear of being attacked, assaulted or just from a fear of feeling unsafe in the community (Molnar, Gortmaker & Buka, 2004). Thus, part of the problem of addressing this issue is helping people to find ways to overcome insecurities… Continue Reading...

Late 19th and Early 20th Century Changes in the Us

million in the 1880s then surging to 8.2 million in the first decade of the 20th century” (“The New Immigrants,” 2016, par. 4). In contrast to previous, largely English immigration, immigrants after the Civil War were largely Irish, Eastern European, Italian, German, and Asian (“The New Immigrants,” 2016, par. 4). This created a newly diverse American culture. More of these immigrants settled in cities. The concentration of immigrants allowed the new immigrants to retain more of their culture than immigrants in previous eras, but also generated greater cultural hostility from native-born Americans. Paragraph 3: Describe the outbreak of the… Continue Reading...

How Scientific Research Works

by the disappearing or challenged framework. This occurs with some regularity in the modern world. Even in the early 20th century, scientists were examining genetics as the main differentiating factor in human development. They implemented eugenics programs, acting upon that paradigm, which was in fact founded upon a particular philosophy. Later, behavioral sciences introduced a new perspective and a new paradigm developed, with a new philosophy working its way out through the cracks. Philosophical positions thus strike me as attempts to make sense of the scientific paradigms that the scientific community presents—but scientists themselves can be standing upon the… Continue Reading...

Health Concerns Related to Fukushima

with the issue of radiation exposure earlier in its history in the 20th century as a result of two nuclear bombs being detonated—one of Hiroshima and one over Nagasaki—its scientists and policy makers were well aware of the inherent risks associated with high levels of radiation. So the policy that was implemented when the Fukushima plant melted down was to evacuate those persons who were likely to be exposed to the highest levels of radiation in the vicinity. This policy has been effective in mitigating the risk of thyroid cancer development so far—but as Takahashi et al (2016) point… Continue Reading...

The Artistic Appeal Of a Clock

aesthetic that was popular during the Edwardian Era—i.e., the first decade of the 20th century. Its rounded, elegant features and symmetrical design communicate a harmonious sense of time and its fullness. The clock hearkens back to an era when the world seemed a calmer place full of creativity, order, elegance and charm. Looking at the clock, you feel transported to a higher place: it has a transcendental quality that inspires the viewer to think not just about the time of the day but also about what time means, what life means, what beauty means, and why we are all… Continue Reading...

Hannah Hoch

came to the fore to challenge the sensibilities and pretensions of the early 20th century. Dada was as much a protest against the bourgeois as it was a slap in the face of the rising Fascist Movement. Hitler despised the Dadaists and the Dadaists despised him. Hoch counted herself as one among the Dadaists during the Weimar period—a period in which art and life came into intense conflict, while the universal stage was being set for the final showdown between the new and the old in WWII. For that reason—and for the reason that Hoch’s art gets to the… Continue Reading...

Why Vaccinations Should Be Compulsory

your child, 2018). Statistics: According to the U.S. government, during the first half of the 20th century, polio represented one of the most feared diseases in the country, accounting for tens of thousands of cases of paralysis and accelerated death (Five reasons to vaccinate your child, 2018). Result: Since the introduction of vaccinations, however, there have been no reports of polio in the United States in recent years (Five important reasons to vaccinate your child, 2018). In some other countries such as Pakistan, the picture is not so bright and the people in at least two other countries besides continue… Continue Reading...

The Purpose Of Violent Force in Politics

the ideology of the Party. This paper will show how the role of violence was a mainstay throughout the 20th century and into the 21st and what its role meant. As Stalin wrote in 1930, “the Party’s task is to wage a determined struggle against [the negative] sentiments, which are dangerous and harmful to our cause” (Stalin, 1930). Struggle was everywhere in the minds of leaders around the world. Stalin wanted to transform Russia’s class-based country into a collective—and he had to use violence to make it happen. The peasant class had no interest in being forced to work… Continue Reading...

Trends and Developments in Nursing

rise of formal education and training for nurses—especially in the latter half of the 20th century when more and more doctors were leaving primary care for special practice and APRNs were being trained to fill the gap in primary care (O’Brien, 2003). Second, there is the rise of advocacy in terms of improving the quality of care provided to patients. This resulted in a push for the application of more evidence-based practice (EBP). In my own perspective on Nursing Practice, I view this focus on EBP as one of the most important developments in the history of nursing, as… Continue Reading...

What Did Goya Paint

Goya and Redon Francisco Goya was an 18th-19th century Spanish painter and printmaker. Odilon Redon was a 19th- 20th century painter and printmaker. The two artists, though separated by a century, share a similar style and perspective. Goya lived through the Romantic-Enlightenment era and saw the unraveling of society on the Continent as the Old World values were swept away be Enlightenment philosophy and Romantic dreams. Redon lived to reflect the aftermath of that era: his symbolist paintings show a world that is half-mad, yet totally focused on itself and its grandiose ideas. Together, Goya and Redon cover three centuries of… Continue Reading...

Nature Vs Nurture Vs Free Will

nurture argument is one that has been around for many years—especially since the behavioral sciences emerged in the 20th century with the experiments of Skinner and Bandura. It was Bandura’s (1977) theory of social learning that viewed all behavior as learned from one’s environment. Skinner (1957) likewise postulated that it was the “nurturing” side of one’s experience that shaped human activity, thought and expression. Galton (1883) on the other hand felt differently. He predated both Skinner and Bandura and was himself a student of Darwin. He thus postulated that “nature” was responsible for the development of human behavior—that some… Continue Reading...

Health Psychology Social Media Trends

“In-depth psychological assessments like the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator began popping up in the first half of the 20th century for the purpose of scanning and sorting employees in industrial workplace,” and despite being “dismissed by the scientific community as unreliable—if not dangerously discriminatory—they, too, have persisted” (Bisceglio, 2017, par.9). Personality tests promise a very easy and accessible method of understanding the human character and self, in an environment which can be confusing, where there are so many opportunities to challenge conventional notions of selfhood. Their most severe critics allege these quizzes promote narcissism and encourage the culture’s continued fixation… Continue Reading...

Fascism and Communism in Perspective

forms of totalitarian ideologies and thinking that shaped the 20th century. Further, Robert Paxton (nd: Pp28) points out at WWI as the most central cause for the thriving of the fascist movement. He indicates that “The experience of WWI was the most decisive immediate pre-condition for fascism. The successful campaign to bring Italy into the war in May 1915 (the ‘radiant Nay’ of Fascist mythology) first brought together the founding elements of Italian Fascism.” Further he notes that “…the great war by itself suffices to explain both Fascism and Bolshevism” (Robert Paxton (nd: Pp29). Both fascism and communism are… Continue Reading...

State Vs Federal Crime

converts the kidnapping into a federal offense (Bacigal, 2008). Kidnapping for the purpose of obtaining ransom was commonplace in the 20th century (Hickey, 2003). In what inspired what is popularly referred to as ‘the Lindberg Law,’ Charles Lindberg’s son was kidnapped in 1932 – with those who held him against his will demanding ransom for his release. It is this particular event that “led to the passing of the ‘Lindberg Law,’ which focused on kidnapping across state lines and made it a federal offense punishable by death” (Hickey, 2003, p. 272). Later on, an amendment to this law permitted the… Continue Reading...

Commercials and the Media

to the Frankfurt School, the culture industry and consumerism were responsible for turning human beings in the 20th century into empty, vacuous, sated buyers of goods and services that they really had no need or use for (Jeffries). Whybrow notes that “the human animal is a curiosity-driven pleasure seeker easily seduced” (111), and that this seduction is particularly the purpose of the commercial culture. Bernays, after all, understood how to use psychology to lure adults into desiring what companies had to sell them—all by using advertising to appeal to their senses and stimulate their impulses (Jones). The same method… Continue Reading...

Ratifying the U.s. Constitution

any foreign wars. History shows just how true that is. One glance at the 20th century shows an America led around by the central government getting into war after war all over the world. So in this perspective, Alexander Hamilton was dead-wrong about the Constitution keeping the states out of foreign entanglements. The 20th century is one, big long foreign entanglement, from the Spanish American War to WWI, WWII, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Gulf War, to the post-9/11 wars, including the Wars in Afghanistan, Iraq and Syria. And on whose behalf were these wars fought? The… Continue Reading...

The Gold Coin's Meaning

was a solemn reminder of what America had hoped to be at the turn of the 20th century, when so much was set to change. In under two decades, the central bank would be created—the Federal Reserve—which would flush easy credit into the system and spark the Roaring Twenties that would end with a bust in 1929 and lead to the abandonment of the gold standard in 1933 under Roosevelt. The half eagle would suddenly have far more valued then than it had forty years prior—particularly as it was now in demand by Uncle Sam: Americans were required to… Continue Reading...

The Problem Of Poverty

Jim Crow laws flourished in the post-Civil War years and into the 20th century. Inequality was still rampant as segregation was enforced in many states. Blacks did not have equal rights and were not permitted to eat in certain restaurants and go to certain places where whites were allowed to go. Whites kept for themselves access to the best schools and jobs and all socioeconomic opportunities were theirs first. Blacks and other non-whites were always expected to take up menial jobs and work for the white ruling classes. The Asians when they came to America were basically forced to… Continue Reading...

Us Foreign Policy and the Use Of American Military Power

several areas, it was shallow-rooted and susceptible to failure and backlash. During the last decade of the 20th century, the Yugoslav succession wars and quandaries of Somalia, Haiti and other "failed" nations, ensured humanitarian intervention was prioritized in the US foreign policy’s agenda. Kosovo witnessed a fair amount of success, though Rwanda was an utter disaster. Confusion reigned over policy objectives as well as means (Rosen, 2003). Nevertheless, in spite of ambiguity, a majority of citizens felt an apparently unstoppable positive trend was being depicted in global developments. Thus, from the US standpoint, foreign participation was an issue of choice,… Continue Reading...

Political Expression in Today's World

unyielding dictatorship from which no one can hide. China’s state power came from the revolution of the 20th century, in which the communist Mao Tse Tung reorganized China’s power structure, overhauled the social organization of the country, and ruled through total coercion. His authority was not recognized as legitimate, which was why force had to be applied. In Saudi Arabia, state power is manifested in the form of a theocracy in which authority is granted by way of the religious culture, which serves as the dominant force of information in the Kingdom. The rulers of the KSA are a… Continue Reading...

The Reagan Administration U S Diplomatic Relations with the Uk Throughout the Falkland War

this was a clear and major objective of the American diplomacy in the latter half of the 20th century, the conflict and its resolution was a tough foreign policy dilemma. It was a dilemma because on one hand, the US wanted to maintain its special relationship with the UK which had been a strong ally for a very long time, while on the other hand, the US also did not want to make enemies of the Argentinians to prevent the country from becoming the next target for Soviet-sponsored communism (“Telegram from the Embassy,” April 27, 1982). This is why… Continue Reading...

The Legacy Of Slavery in the U S

at the hands of those in power—even from presidents (Coates). Even into the 20th century, blacks were not being treated equally to whites, though they had been free for a hundred years already: “From the 1930s through the 1960s, black people across the country were largely cut out of the legitimate home-mortgage market,” Coates points out. Even still today, blacks suffer from inequality: “Effectively, the black family in America is working without a safety net. When financial calamity strikes—a medical emergency, divorce, job loss—the fall is precipitous” (Coates). This makes it very hard for the legacy of slavery to… Continue Reading...

Privatization Of Space Travel

If not strictly military in nature, it was close. The costs associated with space exploration in the 20th century was extraordinary, and there was absolutely no monetary gain to be had from such exploration. It was, at that time, only in the realm of science fiction that money could be made from space, aside from launching satellites. Yet today, it is not out of the realm of possibility that money can be made in space – and certainly we can envision a point in the future, far or near, when there is a viable business venture in space tourism,… Continue Reading...

A Scene in Hitchcock S I Confess

Movement would also pick up this idea all throughout the latter half of the 20th century, culminating of course in the Supreme Court decision of Roe v. Wade in which the woman’s ultimate service (childbearing) was no longer deemed a duty but a right (aka the woman’s right to choose whether to bear a child or abort a child in the womb). The ideal image of womanhood presented by Hitchcock in the film was a presentation of an image that Feminists objected to in the years that immediately followed the film. The stylized camera-work of Hitchcock, in which the… Continue Reading...

The Fall Of the American Family

political stance as a way to explain the transformation from traditional family norms of the early 20th century to the mixture of families today. Today, single parenting is the new norm as half of all marriages end in divorce. More and more people are going unwed and not having children as well. The population is aging and there are effects to all these factors that are discussed as well. The pros and cons of these trends are examined and described. Introduction The traditional family of one hundred years ago used to be the sociological norm; today, however, the new… Continue Reading...

A Brief History Of Leadership

intensified. This essay seeks to track the changes in the definitions of leadership from the turn of the 20th century up to the present. The evolution of leadership definitions Defining leadership has not been that easy for scholars and practitioners. It is now more than a hundred years since academicians started researching on leadership. Through this period, the definition of leadership has undergone numerous changes. Factors such as the prevailing politics, world affairs and people’s perceptions have been responsible for this evolution of definitions. It is commonplace that persons from different social and cultural backgrounds may not view leadership… Continue Reading...

Rousseau and Human Rights

for the Western nations, especially following two World Wars in the 20th century that decimated Europe and parts of Asia. Liberalism was the main driver of the UN’s declaration of human rights—but the coming Cold War, the onset of which was very much in the minds of world leaders immediately following the carve-up of Europe between the unlikely Allies (capitalists in the West, Communists in the East), also played a part in the declaration: the West was anxious to promote itself as the standard bearer of liberal ideals—freedom, democracy, equality, brotherhood, human rights—i.e., the natural rights of man, as… Continue Reading...

Why the Beatles Were Loved

the door in 1962. What It Means The Beatles represented a paradigm shift in the latter half of the 20th century. They tapped into a cultural change that was occurring among the people their own age all over the West. They inspired countless later musicians, from Kurt Cobain of Nirvana to the infamously indie Daniel Johnston, whose own songs have been covered by popular artists in our own time. It was not just the music itself that inspired, however; it was also the way the group worked. For instance, with Sgt. Pepper’s the group put a lot of time and energy… Continue Reading...

The Mis-education Of the Negro by Carter G. Woodson

positions of power in any field. For Woodson to recognize these facts would have been remarkable in the early 20th century. Yet Woodson accomplishes far more than mere complaining in the book. The author sets forth a comprehensive strategy whereby the African American community can counterbalance the mis-education of the Negro. For example, Woodson shows that the substantive content of the curriculum and of classroom discourse can be changed dramatically by having more African Americans take charge of their own narrative. Instead of stories that are even inadvertently racist in nature, designed to depict non-whites as being inferior or… Continue Reading...

Can Nato Still Keep the Peace

Germany, Poland, Italy, Spain—they had all been wracked by war in the 20th century and the U.S. emerged as the sole dominant power. NATO was less about ensuring peace than it was about the European states hitching their wagons in a docile manner to the guiding ship that was the U.S. Toje explains Europe’s willingness to enter NATO in this manner: “The drawbacks of the dependence on the United States (US) during the Cold War was for the Europeans by far outweighed by the security guarantee embedded in the American commitment to Article 5 of the 1949 North Atlantic… Continue Reading...

Hunger Eradication and Extreme Poverty

the rural setting. ii. Historical Analysis The pace of poverty and hunger reduction in Sub Sahara Africa picked in the 20th century and subdued in the 21st century. The world made substantial progress between the 1990 and 2015 following the setting of the Millennium Development Goals. In the 1990 – 2015 period global poverty declined by half, while hunger and poverty declined by 15% and 21% in the developing world. However, the decline had been uneven with the low-income countries still reporting 28% and 48% hunger and poverty prevalence by 2010. Poverty and hunger in concentrated in low-income countries that have… Continue Reading...

What Makes Venice Beach Unique

shift that would redefine America for the rest of the 20th century. The Doors formed in Venice Beach in 1965 and went on to lead the counter-culture movement for the Rock ‘n’ Roll generation of the latter half of the 1960s. They embraced the drug culture, the anarchy culture, the protest culture, and the beatnik culture. From the 1960s on, Venice Beach became culturally relevant again: it was no longer the pristine innocence that Kinney originally planned in 1905, but it was something unique that offered Americans a place to go to get away from the established order, the… Continue Reading...

Jerusalem Dome Of Rock

of the Middle Ages to the modern era. In the 20th century, Zionists were seeking a home for the Jews to call their own. The British were in control of Jerusalem and Palestine at the time and they arranged to give access to the region to the Zionists with the Balfour Declaration. The Jewish state was recognized by the U.S. in 1948—which gave them access to the structure, but today the site is still governed by a Muslim committee called the Waqf, which does not permit any excavation on the site as Muslims would view such as desecration (Hammer).… Continue Reading...

Fracking

is not ethical is the story of Enron. At the end of the 20th century, Enron transitioned from an energy company into a financial company and posted huge profits and its stock price soared. It turned out, however, that Enron was cooking its books in order to dupe investors and that the auditing firm that should have caught on to what Enron was doing simply stopped paying attention and began accepting the bogus stories Enron was spinning. In the end, both crashed and took a lot of people down with them. More recently, there was the enormous scandal that… Continue Reading...

Why Marijuana Should Be Legalized

ahead and banned it. History is on the Side of Weed Nonetheless, in spite of what Americans in the 20th century did, history is on the side of weed. Cannabis was a common plant in the Neolithic Age and could be found everywhere from Northern Europe to China, as Elizabeth Barber has shown. Additionally, Russo notes that it was very likely one of the first plants to ever be cultivated by human societies—probably because of its wide range of uses. So consider that: why would a government in today’s world outlaw a naturally occurring crop that has so many great uses?… Continue Reading...

Why Animal Testing Should Be Banned

that can benefit humans. For instance, Claude Bernard, a French physiologist in the early 20th century who was widely referred to as “the father of physiology” claimed at the time that, “Experiments on animals are entirely conclusive for the toxicology and hygiene of man. The effects of these substances are the same on man as on animals, save for differences in degree” (as cited in Hajar, 2011, p. 2). Moreover, Bernard went on to even include animal experimentation as an fundamental element of the modern scientific method (Hajar, 2011). Against this backdrop, it is not surprising that many scientists… Continue Reading...