Church Essays


Liberation Theology Meets Humankind Embrace

history, as well as the challenges it presents for the church's faith. The subsequent section will deal with the accepted practice of liberation theological reflection. Finally, the paper will connect humanity with theology by analyzing diverse social elements of our lives. However, considering this dissertation's word count constraints, liberation theory's history and development cannot be adequately covered by the paper. Theology as Critical Reflection Liberation theology mulls over practice, bearing the element of faith in mind. For comprehending this statement's scope, evaluating the question raised at the start of this discussion, for understanding the close interrelationship between spirituality and… Continue Reading...

The Book Of Tobit Review

an important work in certain sects of the Christian church, with the Catholics being the major one. The book, as the title infers, is about a man named Tobit. He was an Israeli that lived about seven centuries before the time of Christ. One of the main things he made it a point to do was offer proper burial and final resting for fellow Israelites that had fallen. The man ends up living to an old age and he is highly regarded for the works he completed. When it comes to Judaism, he is highly regarded and his work… Continue Reading...

Children Of Divorce and How They Can Be Helped

so that it can develop and grow and contribute not just to society but to the life of the church overall. As Christ likewise admonishes His followers to "let the little children come to Me, and do not hinder them!" (Matthew 19:14), it is clear that in this context divorce can serve as a hindrance because it takes away from the totality of the family unit that is meant to serve as the foundation for the development of the child -- not just psychosocially but also spiritually, from the Biblical perspective. A couple who divorces ends up pulling the… Continue Reading...

Use Of Self Images in Baroque Art

London-painted Continence of Scipio (which hangs in Oxford's Christ church Picture Gallery). This portrait is said to have been made for the duke of Buckingham in 1620 -- 21.[footnoteRef:10] [10: Ibid] The canvas used for painting van Dyck's self-portrait is clearly reused. A mustached individual's portrait is clear in x-rays of this painting, towards the left side of van Dyck's head. Obviously, the artist, who was 21 when he created this piece, was already inspired by Titian and other Venetian painters, as evidenced by the refined technique he adopted. The result was a tremendously sophisticated artwork. The self-portrait found… Continue Reading...

Renaissance and Rise Of Humanism in Painting

of the time, the stories circulated by the saints, the gospels and epistles and the church. All of this would have been apparent to a contemporary of the Renaissance and the symbolism and religious ideas expressed by the painting are combined with the artistic heightening of the natural world (and its incorporation into the scene so as to deepen it both visually and literally by placing it in the here and now). Filippino Lippi gives it an even more artistic structure by framing the outside world -- the rocky backdrop -- within a window frame, at which the Lady… Continue Reading...

Civil Rights and Religion

Federalism and Religious Freedoms: The Importance of and the Adherence to the Separation of church and State in a Multicultural Environment Although it is clear that many religious concepts were embedded into the original drafting of the Constriction and the Nation's laws, maintaining a separation of church and state in the official capacity allowed the country to prosper in many ways. Having civil laws that govern beyond religious controls allows for a level of stability that can accommodate many difference ideologies. Federalism and Religious Freedoms A Federalist design works to protect religion and religious leaders by allowing… Continue Reading...

Mark and Mathews Presentation Of Jesus’ Disciples

rejection, suffering and, sometimes, death for any of the disciples or the early church. The 12 disciples are first mentioned in Matt 10:1 when Jesus sends them to attend to the house of Israel. These disciples were closer to Christ that Jesus' own brothers and even mother (12:49). They always sought direction from him in private and public arena (13:10; 20:17; 24:3). When Jesus first commissions disciples in Mathew, he instructs them not to enter any Samaritan town or mingle with the Gentiles. He pointedly insists that they go to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.[footnoteRef:19] [19:… Continue Reading...

Rubens, Caravaggio, and Bernini Baroque Artists

this exhibit to convey the spiritual ecstasy of St. Teresa, canonized a saint by the church in the 17th century -- and a fitting subject for the Baroque artist. The presenters read an excerpt from St. Teresa's own writings depicting her spiritual ecstasy and they correspond to the visual style that Bernini uses to express this overwhelming, passionate love of God and faith. That was one of the main purposes of the Baroque artists, as the presenters point out -- to inspire religious faith. The video is very helpful for giving background information on Bernini, on his deep religious… Continue Reading...

Dome Of St Peters Basilica

-- this sacristy was designed to serve a as a side altar in the church. Brunelleschi designed the entire church and one of its novelties was the use of arches that were purely aesthetic -- they served no purpose in terms of providing support. The point of them was to give the interior of the church a geometric harmony. Brunelleschi was incorporating the uniqueness of classical design, columns and arches into the aesthetic of religious architecture: the Old Sacristy thus followed in this idea of proportion and linear harmony and unity -- a movement that would be followed by… Continue Reading...

Byzantine Art from the Middle Ages

erudition was on another level entirely. Together they set the church on a new course -- a course away from blind ambition, power, wealth and intrigue and onto the one best described as the straight and narrow -- the life of penance, of commitment to the service of God. As Europe began to be consumed by wealth and riches by the end of the Middle Ages, it needed reformers -- men like Francis and Dominic to remind it of its Christian duty. Thus, the painting by Bonaventura Berlinghieri entitled Saint Francis of Assisi (1235) serves as a celebration of… Continue Reading...

Orthodoxy Of Abrahamic Religions

Along those same lines is Martin Luther. Martin Luther had his own issues with Abrahamic religions, the Catholic church in particular. Rather than reinvent the wheel, Luther insisted that the path of the Catholic church was not a good one and that there needed to be a reversion to what was ostensibly taught in the Bible. To wit, that is where Luther's Catechism had its birth. At the same time, Luther was not a huge fan of the Jews during his day and there are many that assert that his level of disdain for the Jews rose to the… Continue Reading...

Soren Aabye Kierkegaard

Regine Olsen) as well as two battles (one with the church and the other with the print media, particularly Corsaren (The Corsair)). His health started failing and Soren died on 11th November, 1855, at the age of 42 (Obinyan, 2014). An analysis of the philosopher's life is incomplete without a mention of his father who had a great and lasting impact on Soren's life. Michael Kierkegaard was of a poor household, residing on Jutland's western side. However, at eleven years of age, his uncle, a merchant, invited Michael to the Danish capital to work as his apprentice. He was… Continue Reading...

Living Abroad in the United Kingdom

....operative word of the study abroad experience at Anglia Ruskin University is versatility. The student life of this university is characterized by a wide range of settings and environments that is sure to suit the needs of any student -- whatsoever they may be. One of the most important facets of student life at this institution is that it is rooted in an urban experience indicative of the postmodern world of the 21st century. Students have four campuses from which to choose, all of which are in some of the most well-known cities in the England, if not the entire… Continue Reading...

What the Sistine Chapel Ceiling Represents

upright, so too one can study the painted panels of the Sistine ceiling to understand the church and how it came into existence. The historical context in which the Sistine Chapel's ceiling was begun is rooted in the tumultuous times of the church and the geopolitical turmoil happening in Italy. Pope Julius II exercised his power at the head of a military faction that was determined to unite the different provinces of Italy. Julius's successes prompted displays of artistic triumph -- and the Sistine Chapel was one such display. The rebuilding of St. Peter's Basilica was underway (started in… Continue Reading...

Pro Slavery in the Antebellum Period

Proslavery arguments were the justifications proslavery propagators used to justify the institution of slavery. The period that saw the rise of these arguments was the 1830s through to the 1860s as the abolitionist movement gained ground and made their concerns more visible to the nation. This essay examines the theories proslavery propagators used to justify the institution of slavery and also slaves' view of the practice. All factors considered, the South's position on slavery was mainly for self-preservation and to protect their economic interests that were mainly supported by slave labor. Slavery Theories Proslavery theorists were champions of a contemporary,… Continue Reading...

Aboriginal Perspective and the Secret River

Secret River The two part series The Secret River, is based on Kate Grenvilles book of the same name. The series is about the colonisation of Australia through the story of Will and Sal Thornhill, who 'takes up land' on the Hawkesbury River. Will is a convict, his character may be seen as akin to many poor Dickensian characters. Once freed in Australia he has an opportunity to start a new life, which he wants to do on a point of land along the Hawksbury River. It is here the main issue of the book manifests; the cultural differences between… Continue Reading...

Renaissance Painting Leonardos Last Supper

Leonardo ("The Last Supper"). The room depicted in the painting is like a church's sanctuary, the table like the altar rail separating the laity from the sacrament confected here by Christ (his Body and Blood present under the species of Bread and Wine). This sacrament (the transubstantiation) in which Christ Himself declares the bread and wine to be his Body and Blood was known as the Holy Eucharist or Communion in the church. In the painting, this moment of transubstantiation is being depicted by Leonardo as Christ reaches out with his left hand toward a life of bread and… Continue Reading...

Islam Developing Trade Routes in Africa and Asia

Spread of Islam in Africa and Asia Along Trade Routes The Islam religion spread in Asia and Africa mainly due to trade of such goods as spices, gold, as also due to slaves. The advantages of proximity with the greatly profitable and powerful traders of the Islam religion triggered the conversions of merchants and rulers' into Muslims. Islam spread slowly; it took centuries, but in most places where the conversion took place, people still hold on to the religion (Debrouse). This paper explores the reasons of spread of Islam religion along Asian and African trade routes, particularly centering on the… Continue Reading...

Government’s Right to Spy

and jeopardizes democracy in America (Schneirer). After conducting investigation concerning intelligence abuses that were perpetrated in the previous decades, the church committee opined that the democracy of America and its fundamentals were under serious threats because of government surveillance. The opinion is more relevant in the modern society. In the recent decades, NSA has been afforded more resources while the constitutional and statutory limitations have steadily been eroded. Advanced technology has moved surveillance to unprecedented levels. The growth of digital technology has changed the definition of the battlefield and the nature of the war fare. Also, the courts are playing… Continue Reading...

African Slave Trade

had mixed motives: sincerity and efficiency were compatible, in both age-old African religions and the Iberian Catholic church. In the area of sex and business, African kings contributed significantly to forming and strengthening relationships with European colonialists, and were usually led to believe they were enjoying the better part of the bargain. Northrup has concentrated on particular areas like textiles, metals, guns, politics, inland trade, spirits and tobacco in Sierra Leone; slavery only served to form new African identities. (Northrup, 2002). Meanwhile, Ehret, who looks at African civilizations up 1800 AD, has addressed the broad array cultural, economic, social… Continue Reading...

Residential Schools in Canada for the Aborigines

believe was the goal of the Canadian government and church in planning and running residential schools? Why? Schooling is considered one of the key aspects that bring about change in any society. Even before the establishment of the residential schools, schooling was something that was taking place in the country of Canada. As the only process that can change the structure and capacity of the human intellect and exposure, schooling is vital in Canada. Initially, the indigenous Canada was facing myriad challenges in accessing education. Schooling became a weapon that was also used by the Christian movement in a… Continue Reading...

Book Review Of Bethany Moreton’s “to Serve God and Walmart

product zone for literalist Protestant Christians (Assemblies of God, Southern Baptist, and church of Christ followers). The novel capacity of Christian buyers to perceive their purchasing behaviour as the procurement of good, healthy merchandise for the entire family (instead of a waste of funds on unneeded, sensual personal fashion and entertainment) instantly matched the wider focus on religion-defined familial values well; this, to some extent, meant anti-abortion, anti-pornography, anti-sensual, anti-gay, and anti-violence entertainment, etc. The author feels it is no simple coincidence that the entertainment-focused mega-churches that made light of strict codes to support servant-guided ministerial models and relationships… Continue Reading...

Exegesis Of Revelation 3: 14-22

For comprehensively understanding the meaning of Jesus's message to this specific church, it is necessary to first know and comprehend the church, together with its culture. This book's writer is a messenger from the divine who has taken it upon himself to convey a serious message from Christ. Although the book is directly targeted at the First Century Laodicean church, the advices therein may be applied to Christians in all eras[footnoteRef:1]. The work's literary examination reveals that this church's moral nature apparently reflects its socioeconomic context. That all distinguishing aspects of the city contradict the church symbolizes failure,… Continue Reading...

Biblical Prophetic Literature and Hosea

eternal. This is true not only on an individual level but of the Western church itself. Instead of preaching a gospel of wealth and attempting to attract believers by making Christian values seem similar to contemporary values which emphasize monetary gain, the church must remember the original moral principles that won believers salvation (i.e. the true Promised Land of faith). Bibliography "Hosea." Introduction from the NIV Study Bible. http://www.biblica.com/bible/online-bible/scholar-notes/niv-study-bible/intro-to-hosea/ (accessed December 29, 2016) Stuart, Daniel. Hosea-Jonah (WBC). Waco: Word Book, 1987. Continue Reading...

Leadership Styles in My Community

Leadership in My Community In my community, our church had always wanted to do something to give back and provide assistance to people but no one in the parish could decide on an appropriate task. I came up with the idea of having a ravioli dinner to celebrate the community's Italian heritage and having an all-day benefit by selling pots of ravioli (the community could come in with whatever size pot they had and fill it up with ravioli for $10 a pot) and giving the proceeds to the local homeless shelter. I utilized my servant leadership skills… Continue Reading...

Social Shift from Religion to Spirituality

probably have symbols and figures to epitomize diverse styles; for instance, spiritual movements in followers of the Roman Catholic church are as varied as the Catholic Charismatic Renewal and Catholic Worker movement. Lastly, the approach centers on Americans' continued pursuit of spirituality both individually and collectively (Bender 3). Considering the above, the differences between, and limits in, religiousness and spirituality do not, however, become clear in any way. A number of Americans maintain a spiritual but not religious (SBNR) stance, besides not taking part in regular religious organizations. They aren't religious but seem to display a sort of individually-developed… Continue Reading...

Meaning Of a Biblical Passage

authors' thought patterns were influenced by their historical and cultural contexts. [9: Howard Wallace, "Exegesis," Uniting church in Australia, accessed December 9, 2016, http://hwallace.unitingchurch.org.au/Personal%20Resources/General%20Information/Exegeticalmethod.html] The other exegetical methodology that supports an integrated approach towards understanding the meaning of a Biblical passage is redaction criticism, which is used in examining the passage itself. Through this methodology, the editors' redactors (i.e. intentions and theologies) are examined to determine whether they used other source materials when writing Biblical texts. This process also entails textual criticism, which is another exegetical methodology, which involves gathering and comparing ancient citations, versions, and manuscripts to generate… Continue Reading...

Exegesis Of Pauls Letter to Philemon

when Paul was imprisoned because of his Christian faith. The frequent references to the church and to Philemon's house underline the fact that Paul likely intended this to be a public, instructive letter, not simply a private document conveying information (Witherington 54). Philemon is usually studied in conjunction with Philippians, Colossians, and Ephesians (Witherington 1). Although the authorship of Ephesians is in doubt, the majority of Biblical scholars believe that Paul is likely the author of Philemon. Unlike the so-called Pastoral Epistles, Philemon can thus be viewed as relatively likely to be an account of Paul's own views. What… Continue Reading...

How Confucianism Impacted China

ritualistic offerings to the emperor struck some in the Christian church as being a form of idolatry. In China, Confucianism taught that one of its core tenets was the importance of rites -- as Confucius himself learned and taught (it was one of the Six Arts). This was a very old custom and deeply ingrained practice among the Chinese and was part of their culture of showing respect to authority figures in the hierarchy of power. Some in the church, however, did not view it favorably and the Rites Controversy began. The Jesuits in China attempted to argue that… Continue Reading...

The Eucharist and the Laity

Eucharist with his hands. However, following the changes in the church made during the Second Vatican Council in the 1960s, the deportment of the layman was altered and priests encouraged the laity to accept the Body of Christ (the Eucharist) in their hands and place it in their mouths themselves (Felipe). Traditional Catholics still continue the practice of kneeling and taking the Eucharist on the tongue. Traditionally, only the priest consumes the wine (the Blood of Christ), though in the new order of the Mass (post-Vatican II) the wine is offered to the laity as well. What is being… Continue Reading...

How Supreme Court Justices Are Appointed

judge, and would vote for judges based on their television commercials, what their church tells them, or what their conservative radio talk show host tells them instead of based on how accomplished the person's career had been until that date. Americans cannot be trusted to pick a president, let alone Justices who serve for longer than the President. The Appointment Clause does more good than harm and Supreme Court Justices should continue to be appointed by the President. References United States Constitution online: http://constitutionus.com/ Zeder, J. (2012). Elected v appointed. Harvard Law Today. July 1, 2012. Retrieved online: http://today.law.harvard.edu/book-review/in-new-book-shugerman-explores-the-history-of-judicial-selection-in-the-u-s/ Continue Reading...

Relationship Of Food and Ritual in India

raise the orphans in her care in the religion of the church and wanted the traditional sacraments to be available to them. Stalin and Bibiana were not orphans, but both attended the school that the priests had set up for the orphans in Tamil. The priests welcomed locals into the school. Stalin was a border with the orphan boys who stayed at the priests' rectory. The girls stayed at the ashram with Aunty. Currently, classes were being held at the ashram and the boys would bus over to the ashram where Aunty and the girls were. The male teachers… Continue Reading...

Hobby Lobby and First Amendment

of sidewalk picketing was under the scrutiny of whether it was outrageous. The WBC church had held a picketing in a funeral and was found guilty of saying outrageous comments in a funeral. However, the Supreme Court of United States in an 8-1 decision argued that the church was constitutionally protected to say whatever they wanted as far as they did not affect the ceremony. It was established that they had avoided the ceremony and had not been involved directly in stopping the ceremony (Zipursky, 473). The Supreme Court of the United States favored Hobby Lobby in its ruling… Continue Reading...

Gothic Literature in 18th Century England

the demons, the ghosts, the mysteries haunting dark corners and rooms, the church, the otherworldly -- all of this was combined and connected in the English gothic literary form. Both "Vathek" and "The Old English Barron" helped to develop these themes in very different ways -- yet each contributed to the overall course of gothic literature in England by emphasizing particular attributes. "Vathek" emphasized the exaggerated forms qualities of character and the dangers of pursuing beyond reason the pleasures of the flesh and probing the dark mysteries of the universe. (Shelley would return to this conceit in Frankenstein --… Continue Reading...

English Protestant Clergy in Literature

Adams, Primrose and Yorick: A Comparison of 18th Century church of England Clergymen One of the clearest features shared by Fielding's Adams in Joseph Andrews, Goldsmith's Primrose in The Vicar of Wakefield, and Sterne's Yorick in A Sentimental Journey through France and Italy is relentlessness that the characters demonstrate, as though by sheer force of will they may manage affairs to a happy conclusion. In spite of their sometimes obtuse qualities, their evident pride in themselves, their naivete, their innocence, their ability to bungle their way into all manner of episodic conundrums,… Continue Reading...

How Democracy Leads to Tyranny

character (which is rooted in his traditional sense of moral order as promoted by the church). Ironically, personal liberty, in both cases, takes a back seat to moral or natural order and the common good. [1: Plato, The Republic, Book V. http://www.iep.utm.edu/republic/#SH1e] The concept of liberty was enshrined in Western society along with fraternity and equality during the Enlightenment -- the French Revolution formally -- but practically speaking in the American Revolution. De Tocqueville, a French Catholic who travelled to America to investigate firsthand the grand democratic experiment, described some of the inherent conflicts of interest posed by liberty… Continue Reading...

Impact Of Immigration on Religious Beliefs

Immigration on Religious Beliefs Religiosity is far higher in the United States than in other highly developed nations. The likelihood of an American professing a religion and regularly attending services is high. Religious participation was a critical component of the process of people becoming Americans as churches were an important pillar in the social structure. Churches support and sustain communities while also facilitating inter-ethnic marriage within the three most significant religious groups: Jews, Catholics and Protestants (Massey and Higgins). Not many immigrants arrive in America expecting to alter the religion they are affiliated to. Their focus is often achieving a… Continue Reading...

Exclusivity and Inclusivity in the Church

Isaiah respectively are indicative of the overall character of the church and the true Christian orientation. Just as Christ has two natures -- a human and a divine -- the Christian has a double-sense of duty, one that is to recognize the exclusive right of worship that belongs to God alone and one that is to exercise charity to others. The commandments that Christ gives to his followers are not ten but two: love God and love your neighbor (Mark 12:30-31) -- the former refers to the exclusivity that is depicted in Ezra and the latter refers to the… Continue Reading...

Systems Perspective and Social Work Practice

family home and an active member in his community and church. Following the accident, Lester is unable to carry out some of the tasks he used to do before the accident such as clothing or cleaning himself. He has become dependent on several support systems including his family, social workers, and rehabilitation centers. This situation is an example of a scenario in which a systems perspective can be applied when working with client with disabilities in social work practice. A systems perspective is significant for social work practice because it helps in gaining a comprehensive understanding of factors that… Continue Reading...

The Outsiders

in the story with care, particularly his friends in the Greaser gang. For instance, during the church fire, Ponyboy dashes to try and save the children. He also treats other characters with empathy. Throughout the story, Ponyboy is able to relate to an extensive assortment of emotions from the different characters. For instance, despite being a Soc, Pony takes times to listen and converse with Cherry, something that he is not expected to do. He relates to the aspect that her issues are just about as real and hurtful as the ones that he is facing. What examples does… Continue Reading...

Issues Facing the Church

steeped in. Does anything in this chapter challenge or disagree with church doctrine as you understand it? Most of what Rausch discusses in relation to the origins of Jesus's teachings in John the Baptist reiterates church doctrine. However, Rausch humanizes Jesus to a greater degree than church doctrine is typically willing to do. For example, Rausch describes Jesus's baptism by John the Baptist as being something that had a "psychological" impact on him, not as if it were something that was divinely ordained (p. 4). Being baptized by John and being in John's circle gave Jesus his foundational teachings, from… Continue Reading...

Teachings Of Jesus and John the Baptist

Does anything in this chapter challenge or disagree with church doctrine as you understand it? Most of what Rausch discusses in relation to the origins of Jesus's teachings in John the Baptist reiterates church doctrine. However, Rausch humanizes Jesus to a greater degree than church doctrine is typically willing to do. For example, Rausch describes Jesus's baptism by John the Baptist as being something that had a "psychological" impact on him, not as if it were something that was divinely ordained (p. 4). Being baptized by John and being in John's circle gave Jesus his foundational teachings, from which… Continue Reading...

Book Strangers in Their Own Land

foot is being suppressed and numbed by familiarity: the church, guns, and a commitment to a constructed social identity that has become more oppositional than constructive. Although Hochschild bases the ethnographic research in Lake Charles, which is half black, race does not feature prominently enough in Strangers in Their Own Land. African-American perspectives and opinions are not being taken into account, which weakens the argument and creates a half-finished ethnography. It is technically impossible to understand Lake Charles by only interviewing its white residents. Granted, the purpose of Strangers in their Own Land is to tell the white conservative… Continue Reading...

Digital and Social Media Effects on Society

the same way that the printing press was frightening for a populace that was dependent on the church for information dissemination. With new media, information is democratized and available to almost all people at all times. New media has the benefit of increasing individual capacity for learning via exposure to new ideas and scientific information from credible sources within the academic community. Before new media, information was less readily available and it took longer amounts of time to locate information. New media liberates individuals from the constraints of geography and time, enhancing the speed of information retrieval. As long… Continue Reading...

Architecture in Columbus Ohio Churches

Street in Columbus, Ohio, the humbly named Broad Street Presbyterian church was built in 1887, but has had several additional architectural elements added since then, including structural and functional spaces beyond the main apse and nave, ranging from a large north side parking area to the multiple annexes and entryways. The Broad Street Presbyterian church occupies a relatively large footprint, spanning about four acres of urban land. On the south side of the street, the Broad Street Presbyterian church receives an ample amount of sunlight throughout the day, which gleams and glows as it… Continue Reading...

Locke Vs Hume on Consent

Political Obligation When it comes to political science and philosophy, there are many subjects and points of analysis that are very intriguing, widely discussed and heavily debated. There are also certain people, both past and present, that have proved themselves as scholars on those political subjects. Such is the case with both John Locke and David Hume. One particular subject that both men weighed in on was the role of consent when it comes to the creation of political obligation. The positions of both men will be covered in this report and the author of the same will come to… Continue Reading...

New Testament and Christianity

the Emperor of Theodosius I, made Christianity as the state church of the Roman Empire with Nicene Christianity becoming the state church of the Roman Empire in 380 CE, with the Edict of Thessalonica. During this time, Emperor Theodosius I made the religion as the sole authorized religion in the empire. Q10 Augustine was a Christian and an early theologian besides a philosopher. He made many theological and philosophical writings that influenced many Christians in the early development of the western Christianity. Augustine viewed the church and the state as two different entities that would never be the same… Continue Reading...

Redskin Illegal or Racist

owner does with their property the vast majority of the time. References Ameigh, S. (2017). Defending (Hateful) Speech: Westboro Baptist church and the First Amendment - TheHumanist.com. TheHumanist.com. Retrieved 25 April 2017, from https://thehumanist.com/commentary/defending-hateful-speech-westboro-baptist-church- and-the-first-amendment Cerullo, M. (2017). N.C. restaurant owner's business improves after he bans young children. nydailynews.com. Retrieved 25 April 2017, from http://www.nydailynews.com/news/national/n-restaurant-owner-bans-young-children-business-improves-article-1.3016705 Cox, J., Clement, S., Vargas, T., Cox, J., Clement, S., & Vargas, T. (2017). New poll finds 9 in 10 Native Americans aren't offended by Redskins name. Washington Post. Retrieved 25 April 2017, from https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/new-poll-finds-9-in-10-native-americans-arent-offended-by-redskins-name/2016/05/18/3ea11cfa-161a-11e6-924d-838753295f9a_story.html?utm_term=.e41eb6401948 Continue Reading...

Byzantium and the Roman Empire

from the local level on up to the imperial level. This is where the Catholic church adopted its diocesan rule from. By subdividing provinces, Diocletian was able to exercise more control over the barbarian armies Diocletian also undertook other reforms to help bring stability to the empire. This included economic reform, such as the payment in kind system that Diocletian adopted to help offset the debasement of the currency and the rise of inflation. He also undertook social reform by making compulsory services part of the social system. To unify the empire along religious grounds, he attempted to force… Continue Reading...

African American Culture

2015). People within this segment of the population often value church and family with many being Baptist and other denominations of Christian. They experience extended kinship bonds with cousins, aunts, uncles, and most importantly, grandparents. Although most Blacks are Protestant Christian or Baptist, a growing, small number of African-Americans practice Santeria and Voodoo (Tameika, 2015). It is important to understand what common beliefs are upheld within the African-American population. Understanding their religious beliefs can lead to an overall better delivery of care. A 2016 article on Dementia family care givers, shows not only that African-Americans are affected by dementia… Continue Reading...

Film Culture and Its Impact on Civil and Social Rights

also revealed how five African-American girls were killed in the church bombing. After the bombing, the King met President Lyndon Johnson and demanded the right to vote for the African-Americans. The voting right was justified because more than 50% of the residents of Selma were African-Americans, however, the white supremacy was embodied by Sheriff Jim Clark of Selma. The Boycott is another American film produced in 2001 revealing how African-Americans have propelled the social and civil rights. The film illustrates the story of how African-Americans boycotted the Montgomery Bus between 1955 and 1956, and the film has won a… Continue Reading...

Impact Of the Rise and Spread Of Christianity

power. [2: Gonzalez, Justo L. The Story of Christianity: Volume 1: The Early church to the Dawn of the Reformation. Vol. 1. Zondervan, 2010.] [3: Merkel, Helmut. "The Opposition between Jesus and Judaism." Jesus and the Politics of His Day. Ed. Ernst Bammel and C. F. D. Moule. New York, NY: Cambridge UP, 1984. p. 129] [4: McGrath, Alister E. An Introduction to Christianity. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1997. p. XV] The words neither "male nor female" concentrate one's attention to a possibility seldom considered by ancient communities: equality of opportunities for females. A few researchers claim that the… Continue Reading...

Relationship Between Church and State

the information on Constantine can still be objectively analyzed and used to tell the expansion trend of the early church and the relationship that there is between Christianity and the state. Constantine rule and the influence on the church expansion Historically, Diocletian, who was the last great prosecutor of the church managed to reform the administration of the Roman Empire and appointed three leaders who would act as co-rulers. After his retirement, there was a struggle for the leadership and power, one of the protagonists was called Constantine, he was a general in the Roman Empire and son to… Continue Reading...

Filipinos and the Catholic Church

about life are every -- in politics, in schools, in entertainment, and even in the way the church itself conducts its parishes, since the Second Vatican Council promoted its own aggiornamento around the world (Coomaraswamy, 2006, p. 400). In the Philippines, the Catholic culture is still very woven into the fabric of Filipino society, but the fabric itself has changed over the past one hundred years -- mainly because of U.S. imperialism and the incorporation of new, modern ideas about life. References Coomaraswamy, R. (2006). The Destruction of the Christian Tradition. IN: World Wisdom. Philippines in Figures. (2014). National… Continue Reading...

Philosophical Influences on the American Constitution

The US constitution is a supreme law guiding the conducts of government, people, and organizations in the United States. The U.S. constitution comprises of seven articles that delineates the form of government. However, before the constitution came into force in 1789, there were philosophical thinking that influenced the compilation of the American constitution. The objective of this essay is to discuss the philosophical influences on the U.S. Constitution. John Locke was an English Philosopher and his thinking had the great impact on the American constitution. John Locke believed that all people has alienated rights and they are created equal. John… Continue Reading...

Overall Health in Fargo North Dakota

Care of Vulnerable Populations COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT, ANALYSIS, and NURSING INTERVENTION • Week 1: Windshield Survey and Key Informant Interviews. Complete the First Section of the course template and submit. (Keep this section attached to Weeks 2 and 3 assignments.) • Week 2: Statistical Analysis of Community Health Problem. Complete the Second Section of the course template and submit. (Keep this section attached to Weeks 1 and 3 assignments.) • Week 3: Community Health Nursing Intervention. Complete the Third Section of the course template and submit. By now, you should have Sections 1-3 as one whole document. • Each section of… Continue Reading...

Why the Sacraments Are Mysterious

of individual Christians as they united themselves to their church and through that institution to their God, Our Lord Jesus Christ, Who instituted the sacraments. Christ's institution of the sacraments was a way for Him to continuously come to His faithful followers throughout the centuries and throughout their lives. The mysterious nature of this arrangement, of this institution was a feature of their confection. In fact, the mysterious nature of the sacraments is reflective of Christ's own mysterious nature, as depicted by Rausch (2017). Both are similar in that each requires an act of faith on the part of… Continue Reading...

Cultural Interaction and American Revolution

Christian religious belief. From a young age, my parents insisted that I join them to the local church. Moreover, the bedtime prayers were a daily routine as part of the Christian beliefs. During the initial stage of inculcating this value, I greatly rebelled since I could not understand the importance of such religious values as part of our culture. The Christian religion was an important part of our culture, and every child had to be initiated into the religion (Best, 2001). I always tried to avoid going to church every Sunday. I found several excuses not to attend the… Continue Reading...

Morality then and Now

a good example. The Christians of the Crusades or Christians of the church of England are far from being the Christians of today. Similarly, the Muslims of the Crusades or the Muslims that have fought for 1,400 years (and counting) over the successor of Muhammad have in many ways shifted since the day of the prophet, even if many others are still fighting (Hall). One might suggest that this is a natural evolution and that there has been a development of the moral standard over time. However, there is more than one idea to suggest that this could not… Continue Reading...

The Meaning Of the Christian Sacraments

admit. He is like one of us and He unites Himself to us through this manner. The church is a sacrament because Jesus is both human and divine -- and that is the point of the mystery of our Redemption and His Sacrifice: it could not have been achieved any other way. God could have simply forgiven mankind without sacrifice, but that would have negated the entire narrative, the entire construct of God's creation -- the meaning of love, of free will, of devotion, truth, justice and mercy. All of it is bound up in the mystery of creation and… Continue Reading...

Holistic Victim Restitution Plan

The further reasons were manufacturing transformation, urbanization and the intensification of the influence of the Roman Catholic church. Starting from when families started leaving their farms and moving into towns, the localities had become objectified. The ancient ethnic schemes which are centered on culture and relatedness were no longer applicable. During the 1950s and 1960s, the reemergence of the victim surfaced when a fraction of the populace started to identify that those who were victims of illicit deeds were not always concerned in the course. Not satisfied that the victims' privilege and desires had been sidelined, they struggled to… Continue Reading...

Eugenics Movement

Organized Psychology’s Involvement in the Eugenics Movement The eugenics movement that began in the United States during the 1920s reached a brutal extreme with the Nazis’ experimentation with improving the racial stock of human beings through controlled breeding, and this movement would have significant implications well into the 21st century (Sutton, 2015). Many practitioners today, though, may be unaware of organized psychology’s role in contributing to the eugenics movement during the 20th century (Newhouse, 2016). To gain some new insights into this issue, this paper reviews the relevant primary and secondary literature concerning organized psychology’s long involvement in the eugenics… Continue Reading...

Intelligence Simulation Essay

processing speed. Given that Moore’s law has largely held true since its formulation in 1965 and church’s theory suggests that it is possible (Churchland & Churchland, 1990), it is certainly conceivable that within a few years artificial intelligence will have advanced to the point where human reasoning can be successfully simulated, and that these applications can “learn” over time and become even more proficient at this type of simulation. There has been some progress made in this area already, with artificial intelligence applications demonstrating “phenomenological equivalence” (Ray, 2011, p. 203). Therefore, the answer to this question does not depend… Continue Reading...

Who Is Responsible for Initiating the Cold War

Stalin and the Grand Alliance The Grand Alliance had all but begun to crack by the end of WWII, though it remained intact if only in name up to the end of the 1940s. To some degree, the crumbling of the Alliance by 1949 was due in part by Stalin and his paranoia over what the West was plotting. On the other hand, the Alliance could be said to have been nothing more than a ploy by the Western powers to lure Stalin along, getting Russia to take on Germany directly and decisively, while conspiring amongst themselves on how to… Continue Reading...

Religious Revolution

in the early 4th century allowed Christianity to flourish. The Roman Catholic church became deeply influential some 400 years later with Charlemagne, who was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the Pope in 800. Religious revolution broke out in Europe with the Protestants, led by Luther, Zwingli, Knox, Calvin and Henry VIII. Their actions led to a revolution in the West that changed the nature of society. Today’s society has very much been impacted the Protestant Revolution, as strains of Puritanism are still seen in American society, for example, as authors like Hawthorne and Melville have shown. What I hope… Continue Reading...

Gospel Of John Vs Synoptic Gospels

on the mystical nature of Christ and the importance of the church. Even the Synoptic Gospels offer differing details of the life and teachings of Christ, and in many instances, John agrees or is more in line with Mark, while Mark differs from Matthew and Luke. Still, Barrett (1974) affirms that “John’s aim was not literal accuracy, and he therefore cannot be expected to show detailed respect for the wording of any source” (p. 228). John’s aim, rather, was to illustrate the divine nature of Christ in a way that showed how the Son of God was infinitely unique… Continue Reading...

Christian Worldview

would be non-existent (Hiles & Smith, n.d.). The events of Jesus on earth formed the foundation of the church, an instrumental element in the life of Christians. In John 14: 6, Jesus is described as the way, the truth, and life. This means that for Christians to gain the eternal life God promises in the Bible, Jesus must be the channel. They must accept Jesus as their only saviour. Restoration Jesus died on the cross to restore man’s relationship with God. God intended Jesus’ death to bring back humans to the will of God. Based on this premise, the… Continue Reading...

The Universal and Inclusive Message Of Christianity

the Lutheran translation of Luke 17:21 suggests that the church is universal, timeless, and independent of geographic or temporal considerations. God embraces all under the rubric of the church. Practically speaking, though, Jesus understood that the disciples created the first real, tangible Christian community. That community blossomed rapidly, albeit not without problems, dissent, and conflict. Luke frames the formation of the church more dramatically, as an “act of God,” (Boring, 2012, p. 1). Disciples are more than followers of Christ, they are enacting God’s will. The early church built itself upon solid theological foundations of universality, inclusivity, and omnipresence.… Continue Reading...

Political Systems in Ireland and Britain

political cultures and institutions of the United Kingdom and Ireland, especially with regards to the relatively power of the church. Ireland’s political structures, institutions, and cultures have been inevitably influenced by the British system, but the Catholic church has also penetrated the political sphere in Ireland to a great degree. As a result, the Irish political system exhibits some marked peculiarities that differentiate it from its British counterpart and its counterparts in Europe too. The Irish and British systems are generally similar in terms of being modern democracies, but their procedural politics are totally different, their respective political institutions… Continue Reading...

The Gospel Of Matthew and Anti Semitism

custom, and tradition as irrelevant and even sacrilegious. Christ’s church superseded the Jewish religion. Therefore, denying Christ is effectively denying God, from Matthew’s point of view. In this sense, Matthew is more evangelical and radical than he is specifically anti-Semitic. Yet Matthew does direct his wrath towards the Jewish religion and the social and political structures that defined it in his time. Matthew’s audience would have responded in different ways, depending on their backgrounds. For those who followed Christ, they would have found political solace in the anti-establishment views. The parable of the vineyard is clearly political, even more… Continue Reading...

Healthcare Transcultural and the Amish Community

Leverland, 1986, p. 58). While the rates of immunizations are relatively low among the Amish, the Amish church does not forbid immunization (Adams & Leverland, 1986). The Amish also have a keen interest in disease prevention, health education, and lifestyle choices that prevent health problems (Talpos, 2016). Although Amish attitudes towards health, wellness, and the healthcare system may be at odds with those outside their communities, there are important points of convergence that nurses can incorporate into a transcultural model of care. One of the hallmarks of Amish healthcare is the community’s internal insurance program. The Amish have been… Continue Reading...

How European Views Of the Ottomans Changed

Europe. The West had up till that point been largely influenced and guided by the Roman Catholic church. While nations and kings still fought and intrigued among one another, the church was a pole star. When the Reformation unleashed a tidal wave of defiance among leaders throughout Europe against the church and the Pope, dissension, civil war, revolution, and a new order all followed. One of the outcomes of the rise of Protestantism was a lessening of the influence of the church in civil and economic affairs. As Lisa Jardine notes, when Elizabeth I of England was excommunicated from… Continue Reading...

Law Enforcement Abuses in Investigations

the informer (prostitute and heroin addict) identified them. However, the church-going woman who said her car was untouched all night and said the hair band was hers was not allowed to submit her testimony. This is a very problematic issue and law enforcement officers should not be the ones deciding what evidence gets to stay and what gets thrown out. They want an open and shut case in instances like this and they want to be able to show that they have solved a case, but instead of one life being ruined, they ruin multiple others by placing innocent… Continue Reading...

Europe and the Modern Era

the Transcendental values aligned with living a Catholic life in grace, in Christ, for Christ, and for the church. As trade with other countries began to allow nations to prosper and princes became rich, things began to change. Humanism entered into Europe through the High Renaissance. Usury, once condemned by the church, began to become more and more common. Europe finally broke into civil war with the rise of Protestantism. The division of the Greek Orthodox from the Roman Catholic church in 1000 AD had been impactful—but not as nearly impactful as the Protestant Reformation, which turned European against… Continue Reading...

Trade from the End Of the Axial Age to 1500 C.e.

other parts of the world, as Christian missionaries and the early church Fathers went about to preach the gospel of the New Testament. When Constantine came to power in Rome in the 4th century CE, he facilitated the strengthening of Christianity as a major religion and walked back the spread of the pagan Roman belief system. Christianity continued to flourish after the fall of the Roman Empire, as Christian missionaries, monks and priests continued to preach the gospel, Christina communities developed, and new converts were won like the King of the Franks—Clovis, who converted after marrying a Christian woman… Continue Reading...

Oral History Project

go out exploring. There was this large pond. It's a church now, but when I was little it was a pond, and my brother Martin and I would go down there to catch tadpoles. He showed me how to catch them, and once I got the hang of it, I think I must have spent an entire summer at that pond catching tadpoles. My younger brother still lives in that house, and when I go out there now I'm amazed at how far you have to drive to get to the farms. The built this highway when I was… Continue Reading...

Michelangelo and the Sistine Chapel

working in the Sistine Chapel: Martin Luther would nail his 95 Theses to the church in Wittenberg in 1517 and Zwingli would join the call for reform in Switzerland shortly thereafter. John Wycliffe had already been active in calling for reform in the century prior in England, essentially setting the stage for rebellion, and in France John Calvin would launch his attacks on the church in the 1530s, about the same time that Henry VIII was fighting with the Pope over the attainment of an annulment—the prelude to his own break with the church and England’s abrupt leap into… Continue Reading...

The Book Of Luke Acts and the Early Church

the book of Acts: the Holy Spirit, the life of the church, the discernment of god’s activity, and universality. The same four themes are present in the life and ministry of Jesus in Luke’s Gospel. Moreover, these are the four main themes that would become the bedrock of the early church itself. According to Johnson (1992), being able to recognize these themes not only enrich the reader’s understanding of the gospel, but also reveals the “consistent religious preoccupations that might not be obvious on the surface of his storytelling,” (p. 14). These consistent religious preoccupations remain the cornerstones of… Continue Reading...

Growth Vs Fixed Mindset

People have their unique perspectives and beliefs they use to get them through life and life’s obstacles. Some have a fixed mindset, while others have a growth mindset. A fixed mindset is when someone believes they have fixed traits, things like talent or intelligence. For them, there is no need to develop, but rather, document. A growth mindset on the other hand helps someone generate productivity and motivation in the areas of sports, education, and business. It is the growth mindset that allows people to innovate and develop their skills and traits to reach their potential. Not everyone is suitable… Continue Reading...

A Historical Comparison Of Christianity and Buddhism

divide emerged later in Christianity when Martin Luther nailed his theses to the door of the church, demanding a reformation of corrupt church power. As with Buddhism, the Christian religion became the official state religion hundreds of years after it was first established as a separate sect. The Caucasus region was the first to officially embrace Christianity, but the most powerful conversion was of Charlemagne, who initiated the Holy Roman Empire. Thus, Buddhism and Christianity both merged politics and religion in ways that had been done many times before in human history. The Code of Hammurabi, which predates both… Continue Reading...

Religion in Plato Euthyphro

Euthyphro, both Socrates and Euthyphro exemplify the need for a universal moral order, one that transcends either church or state. At one point in Euthyphro, Socrates cryptically questions, “is it that where there is piety, there is also justice, but piety is not everywhere justice is, since piety is a part of justice?” (d). Socrates here illustrates the need to differentiate between religious piety on the one hand, and universal ethics or justice, on the other. If piety is a “part of justice,” then clearly justice supersedes piety; piety is subordinate to justice. Neither Socrates nor Euthyphro place much… Continue Reading...

Does the Truth Matter?

on 6th April 2003, he claimed to be reporting a Cleveland story. Blair provided details on a church mass and attendee Reverend Tandy Sloan, a man who had just heard news of the death of his missing son, employed in the armed forces in the role of supply clerk, in the war on Iraq. One cannot find any proof of Blair being present on that occasion. Blair had roped in freelance photographer, Haraz Ghanbari, with whom he was supposed to meet, prior to the service, outside the aforementioned church on that date. Ghanbari was frustrated to be unable to… Continue Reading...

Universal Religions and the History Of the World

a universal religion also enabled the consolidation of power within the Holy Roman Empire and later, the Roman Catholic church, as well as the Byzantine Empire and the Eastern Orthodox church. Local kings and vassal states would use religion to enforce local customs and laws. The individual followers of religions like Buddhism and Christianity, as well as Islam, believed that their religion could—or even should--be embraced by anyone and everyone. For this reason, these religions occasionally embarked on sometimes aggressive proselytizing campaigns like the crusades. Islam also had a crusading period, and established itself quickly as a universal religion.… Continue Reading...

Les Miserables Light and Darkness Victor Hugo

or to God, and certainly not necessarily the institution of the church. Rather, the light of the Bishop is a universal moral light, a light of truth in human kindness and compassion. Light also represents the truth, which is an important theme in Les Miserables. For example, Jean states, “You light your candles for me. Yet I have not concealed from you whence I come and that I am an unfortunate man,” (Chapter 3). Ignorance is commonly linked with proverbial darkness. When the light of truth shines, the consequences can be dire; people see the world for what it… Continue Reading...

The Religion Of Passion

Whether the faithful are gathered in a synagogue, mosque, or church, in most instance worship will include passionate reading about some part of the particular religion. What is important about this fact is how the stories pertain to family. Jewish people, for example, believe in the Old Testament. During the Sabbath I have seen them read about how important it was for God to give Abraham a son, which illustrates the importance of family (King). Reading such stories during worship supports family values. Passion for reading about religion reinforces family values by providing a means for people to stop… Continue Reading...

Religion the Theology and Teachings Of Paul

books. Paul’s theology is “one of the cornerstones upon which the Christian church is built,” (Zetterholm, 2009, p. 1). What also makes Pauline texts different is that unlike the synoptic gospels, Pauline letters reflect the author’s own theology. Reading and re-reading Pauline theology offers insight into how early Christian theology evolved and was influenced inevitably by historical, cultural, and contextual variables. Moreover, the Pauline letters show how later Christian theologians would revise and reinterpret the teachings of Jesus and his disciples. Most likely, Paul viewed himself as a theologian, one who felt an intense personal responsibility to travel, preach,… Continue Reading...

Biblical Worldview

to the true meaning of life, as taught by God Himself through the Bible and His church, is the most important element of education. For my field of service as a content teacher, the implications are clear: I will be able to orient the students to the subject material by way of the Christian anchor. Content will be interpreted from a Christian standpoint and all events and ideas can be seen from the light of Christ. As Brown (2016) shows, equipping minds for a Christian education is a process that requires an understanding of where students are so that… Continue Reading...

General Mills Business Strategy

is required to maintain the sustainability of the business ( church, 2015). The economic environment is generally favorable at present, with unemployment at low levels and economic growth at high, steady levels. The social environment, however, is perhaps less favorable to the types of processed foods that General Mills makes, which are less popular today than they were thirty or forty years ago. Overall, this means that the company has moderately favorable conditions – enough to be profitable but not enough for robust growth. General Mills has some strength in management, where it has experienced people who know the business,… Continue Reading...

Philosophy in Education Being and Inclusiveness

and organizational psychology) (Assimilation of Individuals with Special needs in local church) Identify the forum topic you selected, and summarize the contents of the existing forum posts for that topic. Why do you believe this forum may be helpful to you? How might interaction in the in forums be a meaningful activity during your dissertation process? Explain. My main field of interest is industrial and organizational psychology, or how individuals interact in groups. I am particularly interested in the need for organizations such as churches to accommodate individuals with special needs. Quite often people with autism, developmental disabilities, or… Continue Reading...

Secular Humanism

incorporates the Enlightenment principle of individualism, which celebrates emancipating the individual from traditional controls by family, church, and state, increasingly empowering each of us to set the terms of his or her own life.”[footnoteRef:10] While this characterization serves to highlight the source of secular humanism’s moral authority, these observations also underscore its weaknesses as discussed further below. [10: ‘What is secular humanism?,’ p. 5.] III. Evaluation of the secular humanist worldview As discussed further below, the secular humanist worldview fails to provide a rational, livable, comprehensive system for several reasons, including most especially its reliance on highly fallible human… Continue Reading...

Death Penalty As a Deterrent for Murder

today. In the hierarchical settings, the death penalty was used, too—even in the church of the Old World where confirmed heretics were condemned to death in cases where they refused to retract their views and insisted on spreading beliefs and ideas that the church found to be mortally dangerous to the souls of the faithful. In the case of Joan of Arc, churchmen in the church’s hierarchy in Rouen, France, even went so far as to burn at the stake a woman whom many of the faithful of the church believed at the time (and whom the church Herself… Continue Reading...

Religion Bible and Paul and Story Of a Rabbi

tolerance and respect for diversity. The newly initiated member of the church learns to be part of a community, part of something bigger than themselves: “For none of us lives for ourselves alone, and none of us dies for ourselves alone,” (Romans 14:7). 2. Teenagers will have variable responses to lessons on freedom, respect, and tolerance. Some will perceive their newfound responsibilities as budding adults as being burdensome or requiring sacrifice in some way. This is true, for being part of a community does mean occasionally sacrificing one’s own time or energy for the greater good. When we realize “For… Continue Reading...

Capitalism Industrial Revolution and Social Change

and socialism. Prior to the Enlightenment, European social, economic and political institutions were dependent on church authority (Burke, n.d.). The French Revolution was a harbinger of the new social and political institutions like liberalism and socialism. Monarchic rule was a thing of the past; once the seeds of democracy were planted, it was impossible to prevent the reaping of social, economic, and political revolution. Thus, monarchs were perceived as “inexorable and cruel tyrants,” rather than as inevitable and necessary constraints on human life (Burke, n.d., p. 137). Centralization of wealth and power in church and kingdom had prevailed for centuries.… Continue Reading...

Missionaries

Historical Context The Reformed church in America is a contemporary missionary organization that does not offer a clear organizational history. However, the RCA Global Mission page on the organization’s website claims 233 years of missionary work (“RCA Global Mission,” 2018). The RCA and its missionary work can also be viewed within the overall historical context of colonialism and the evolution of post-colonial missionary work. One of the letters refers to the Beebout’s visit to a former slave trade port in Benin, as the authors reflect on the inhumanity of slavery without… Continue Reading...

Theology Of Communion for the Contemporary Catholic Parish

for the Contemporary Catholic Parish Introduction The study of ecclesiology is the study of how the Christian church, the ever-expanding body of believers, has evolved over time to respond to new political and social realities. Ecclesiology also takes into account the way organizational structures, hierarchies, and roles within the church have changed and reflect the nuances of a cultural milieu or historical epoch. In addition to all that, the study of ecclesiology also comprises the church’s relationship with surrounding community organizations. How the church forms strategic alliances with secular political, social, and economic institutions is also part of the complex array… Continue Reading...

Katherine Graham and the Washington Post

as Katherine “Kay” Meyer, she was baptized in the Lutheran church and raised as an Episcopalian. Her life was unlike those who made up the majority of American life—Main Street America, as it is called. Her family owned several homes. Graham’s father had succeeded very well for himself in America as a financier and a familiar face on Wall Street. He purchased The Washington Post in 1933 when Graham was just 16 years old. He had no intention at the time of handing it off to her when she grew up, nor did she ever think it to happen… Continue Reading...

Christ-hymn

the universe together at its head,” (MacDonald, n.d., p. 65). Christ also holds together the church: positioning Christ clearly as the symbolic head and the church as the body of Christ (MacDonald, n.d., p. 66). As MacDonald (n.d.) also points out, the cultural and historical context of the Christological Canticle informed some of its more mystical and symbolic dimensions. Extended to the global Christian community, the Christological Canticle from Colossians offers clear focus for how to worship, and particularly, how to worship within a Christian community. The hymn clearly underscores the ongoing sociological and psychological importance of communal worship,… Continue Reading...

Bible Patriarchy Paul and Ephesians Metaphor

one of Paul’s main objectives in outlining the household codes of Ephesians. Christ is the head of the church, to which all Christians belong. However, Paul quickly shifts focus to the patriarchal marriage union to model Christian social norms: “Now as the church submits to Christ, so also wives should submit to their husbands in everything,” (Ephesians 5:24). Paul therefore uses the household code partly as an opportunity to provide a “theological justification and motivation for the subordination of wives, children and slaves to the head of the household,” (MacDonald, n.d., p. 341). Yet somewhat mysteriously, Paul switches back again… Continue Reading...

Abortion Pros and Cons Essay

were experienced did they believe there to be human life (Reagan, 1998). Even the Catholic church upheld this viewpoint. One might argue that 18th century beliefs were in many ways more feminist as the common law was founded in the experience of the female in her own physical body (Reagan, 1998). Many of the changes in how perspectives shifted were in connection with the actions of the American Medical Association and their desire to not compete for work from homeopaths and midwives (Ravitz, 2016). Understanding how the present-day controversy towards abortion actually developed can be useful in shedding light… Continue Reading...

Letter from a Birmingham Jail Analysis Essay

makes this remark in order to summarize why he was wrong about expecting more white church and white citizens to be their allies. He suggests that whites have benefited from being the oppressors and in doing so, blacks (including him) should not have expected them to lend a helping hand. “I have no fear about the outcome of our struggle in Birmingham, even if our motives are presently misunderstood. We will reach the goal of freedom in Birmingham and all over the nation, because the goal of America is freedom. Abused and scorned though we may be, our destiny… Continue Reading...

To Kill a Mockingbird Essay

that little settlement beyond the town dump. He’s a member of Calpurnia’s church, and Cal knows his family well. She says they’re clean-living folks” (77). From this excerpt the reader is able to glean several things. That the black people of the town are physically banished, segregated to the outskirts in a manner that underscores the literal separation they experience from full societal integration. Their cook, Calpurnia, vouches for them, so one can be certain that they are good people. However, Lee gives Tom another characteristic that furthers his alienation in Maycomb. During the trial, Scout tells us how… Continue Reading...

Early Medieval and Contemporary Education

Assignment 1 According to Gutek (1995), the church in the medieval period exercised a virtual dominance of formal education through direct or indirect means. During this period, formal education was supervised by clerics though it was not a pre-requisite for practicing religious life or leadership. Since the church has a virtual monopoly over formal education, there were different kinds of educational institutions associated with chivalry, the guilds and the church during the medieval period. Even though access to education was limited during this period, these educational institutions, which were mostly church-related,… Continue Reading...

The Godfather Trilogy Analysis

Michael makes his first confession in 30 years and in this sense returns to the church. The film could be seen from this perspective as a reminder to the viewer that materialistic pursuits are not the end all be all of life. Regardless of how one views the meaning of the trilogy, the films themselves have become iconic in Americana and the music, actors, characters, sets, shots, scenes, and stories are as easily recognized by people today as almost any other film in movie history. The Godfather truly represents one of the greatest epic sagas ever to come out… Continue Reading...

Good and Bad Experiences with Leadership Essay

under in any formal organization. Some examples might include: former teachers, college professors, coaches, bosses, pastors, and church elders. If you served in the military, superior officers would be good choices as well. Try to think of specific leaders that you either loved or hated, and then try to identify specific incidents that illustrate why you feel that way. You may also include specific organizations when their policies, structure, or culture helped or hindered your success. Assignment: Your task is to explain what you liked and didn’t like about leaders in your past using the concepts and theories from the… Continue Reading...

Literary Analysis Of Speech "we're on Our Way" Essay

Essay Prompt A literary critical analysis is not merely a summary of a literary work. Instead, it is an argument that expresses an interpretation, judgment, or critical evaluation of the work. This is accomplished by examining specific literary devices (symbols, themes, metaphors, tone, point of view, diction, structure, etc.), within the work. The purpose of a critical analysis is to demonstrate how these elements convey meaning. In your analysis, you will most likely discuss how certain literary techniques are used to convey specific ideas. You will discuss what a literary piece means and how it achieves its effect. To write… Continue Reading...

Artificial Intelligence and Eternal Life Essay

been recorded by Plato. They served as the foundation of Western thought. The Christian ethos was erected and its church's doctrines in conjunction with the philosophy of the Greeks, as St. Thomas Aquinas shows in the Summa Theologica. These questions are just as relevant today as they were in the Middle Ages or in classical antiquity. This indicates that human nature has not changed. Humans have not evolved. They have always passed through ages (the Bronze Age, the Steel Age, the Age of Enlightenment, the Digital Age -- and so on). Humans have built on the achievements and knowledge… Continue Reading...

Leadership Essay (free Example)

techniques, ideas, and qualities.  These programs are often spearheaded by organizations, after-school program administrators, church groups, organizational development teams, clubs, and other activities-related enterprises.  Students can participate in these programs beginning at a very early age:  Boy Scouts of America, for instance, teaches leadership skills to children and educates and trains them well into adolescence.  Students can also grow their leadership skills in school by taking part in student government and other extra-curricular activities, such as athletics, drama, music, debate, etc.  The research indicates that students are open to new experiences because they are defining their own identity and… Continue Reading...

The Palace Of the Emperor Titus

of the Esquiline Hill near the Coliseum to one of its summits at the church of SS. Martino e Silvestro, and to another at S. Pietro in Vincoli.”[footnoteRef:3] It is believed that the Palace was built rather quickly by converting an existing structure into the Baths.[footnoteRef:4] The Palace used the house of Mecenas and the Golden House of Nero which had come across from Palatine Hill as part of the construction that existed to make the Palace. There were “nine long corridors, converging together like the radii of the segment of a circle, divided from each other by dead… Continue Reading...

Super Highway 8 Rogerian

city, including Patrick Henry's ‘Give me liberty or give me death’ speech delivered in 1775 at St. John's church, in Richmond. The Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, written by Thomas Jefferson, was also passed in Virginia” (Mandel). While this was one of the more uplifting historical facts about Virginia—as Virginia played a center role in America securing their autonomy as a young nation, Virginia also has much to be ashamed of. Richmond was the capital of the Confederate States of America during the Civil War and more than half of these battles took place in Virginia—including the surrender of… Continue Reading...

Renaissance Italy

Ptolemaic model of a geocentric universe and correlated well with the religious tradition of the church that the Earth was where God Himself became Man and walked among His children. Thus, the Earth had a special significance and should be thought of as being the center of the Universe in order to support the notion that people were important to God. Aside from this theological tradition were the scientific or observational facts that Ptolemy had used to describe the geocentric model of the universe, accounting for the movements of the stars, sun and moon. However, as Copernicus pointed out,… Continue Reading...

Dolci and the Counter Reformation

mission to use art to reinforce the principles and doctrines of the church at a time when Protestantism was undermining the church’s teaching authority (Vidmar). Salome appears as though disinterested in the disembodied head, offering it up to the public as though it were a piece of overripe fruit that one may or may not like to partake of. Dolci’s use of light reinforces the idea that Salome is by no means to be taken as a conflicted woman—instead, her appearance follows in the church’s traditional teaching of Salome as a femme fatale, a symbol of female seduction whose… Continue Reading...

The Great Depression and White Evangelicalism

overview but with a description of May Jordan, a congregant at the Buck Hill Baptist church, the daughter of a faith doctor. Jordan left a series of journal articles specifically making sense of her conception of the origins of suffering, which she saw as only relieved by trusting in Christ as one’s savior. Flynt details the trials and tribulations experienced by Jordan, one of eight children, as a way of challenging the academic view of white, Southern evangelicalism as one of “politicized emotionalism, anti-intellectualism, exclusivity and intolerance” (Flynt 5). Jordan’s Baptist faith in particular is often subsumed under such… Continue Reading...

The Declaration Of Independence and Freedom

commonwealth as a citizen.” Freedom for Kant was something to be determined by the state, since the church, which associated freedom with the choice of the will to obey or disobey God’s law, had been thrown off by the state. Freedom was, by Kant’s time, something for the State to decide. Continue Reading...

Why Columbus Day Should Not Be Celebrated Essay

as a means of furthering the visibility of the Catholic church and the Italian community. Columbus was merely a misguided choice in accomplishing this goal.  [ text from this essay is missing, view full version to see entire paper. ] When one abandons a rose-colored Eurocentric perspective of Columbus and simply examines the mere facts that shaped his actions, it becomes apparent that the man engaged in repeated, monstrous behavior. “Two days after he ‘discovered’ America, Columbus wrote in his journal that with 50 men he could force ‘the entire population be taken to Castile, or held captive.’ On… Continue Reading...

How Do Endowments Differ from Trusts

Endowments 1 An endowment is a monetary gift to a non-profit organization. Typically, the principal is used to earn interest, dividends or a return on investment. Oftentimes, the entire principal that a non-profit like a university, for example, has is referred to as its endowment. The principal is preserved while the return is used for a variety of functions, from charity to expansion and so on. There are four different types of endowments that exist. These are: term, unrestricted, restricted and quasi. Term endowments set a term on the donation—i.e., the money can only be spent after the term has… Continue Reading...

Cultural Identity Essay

neighborhoods find themselves rejecting the teachings of the Catholic church as they find those teachings in opposition to certain rights they’d like to exercise, such as the right to use birth control (Dombeck). Similarly, other Catholics have found themselves putting distance between themselves and the church, diluting it from their cultural identity because of the Catholic church child abuse scandals of the last few decades (Dombeck).  This is a phenomenon that has manifested with people of Latin American heritages as well. Women in Mexico have condemned the misogynistic culture of the nation for decades (France24.com). When individuals of a… Continue Reading...

Tax Law and Status for Nonprofits

are likewise exempt from filing requirements, although they must have legal status as a legitimate church or church-affiliated entity to avoid doing so (“Filing Requirements,” 2018). Q4. What is the purpose of the following federal forms? 8833; 990; 940 & 941 Form 8833 grants treaty-based tax returns to foreign entities (“About Form 8833,” 2018). Form 990 effectively functions as a statement of income for the IRS specifically for legally exempt nonprofits (“Filing Requirements,” 2018). Most nonprofits are exempt from filing Form 940, given that nonprofits are also exempt from the requirements of the federal unemployment tax (FUTA), which 940… Continue Reading...

The Art Of Michelangelo

era in which it was created. While Luther did not nail his 95 Theses to the church doors until 1517, some dozen years after Michelangelo finished David, reform had been a major topic in the church and especially in Italy, where the Dominican Savonarola had conducted a “bonfire of the vanities” in which many people had tossed “vain” items into a fire in 1497 to help purify themselves from an encroaching worldliness that was distracting from them from the things of God. Michelangelo, an admirer of Savonarola, according to Vasari (1998), understood the urgency of the need for reform—and that… Continue Reading...

Psychology Questionnaire

Part I 1. It seems like the more a person goes to church, the more they accept the idea of torture (Thistlethwaite, 2009).When looking at the Savior, Jesus, this is a religious figure demonstrating the virtue of forgiveness. Jesus did not condone violence even when Peter was arrested. Yet, how does the church allow such violence in approving of torture? Remmel’s “Personality and Politics” describes personality as involving “the investigation of individual differences, both differences across individuals and the manifestation of those differences within individuals. Certainly, such an approach holds a great deal of interest for political… Continue Reading...

Abortion and Public Perspectives Domestic and Global Perspectives

woman was, the more likely she was to support the right to abortion. “Women with increasing education and those attending church services less frequently were more likely to support the legalisation of abortion (b ¼ 0.27; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.43), while those affiliated to a religion other than Catholicism (b ¼ 20.32; 95% CI: 20.48, 20.16) were less likely to do so” (Palermo et al., 2015). This suggests strongly that part of the resistance to abortion in Chile and no doubt in other parts of the world, is partly entangled with people’s religious beliefs. This was a finding that was… Continue Reading...

The Impact Of Resource Management on Student Performance

Abstract This paper provides an overview of the need for the Butler School to reduce its annual budget by $1,000,000 in order to meet the mandate of the community that the school should “live within its means.” The recommended reductions are based on eliminating extraneous programs, staff positions, administrative services, and supply funds. Areas that are not reduced include programs that support the humanities, athletics, science and technology, as these areas are deemed too important to the formation and development of students’ characters and skills, which are needed to ensure success in their ensuing years. Letters to a state legislator… Continue Reading...

Earthquakes

companies. The nation ought to consider adopting such a strategy as well, envisioning a future where all school- and church- tops will have solar panels, all college campuses will hold wind turbines, and initiatives will be implemented for biogas energy system delivery (Locklear). Scientific circles are contributing to measures adopted for practical implementation of this goal through bringing about improvements in solar photovoltaic cell technology, for decreasing its price and ensuring its competitiveness with traditional sources of energy; solar dish and trough manufacture; consideration of low-speed wind turbines and biomass technology; and considering hydrogen technology to achieve a future… Continue Reading...

Biblical Issues Related to Community and Justice

factions in our parishes today both similar and different to the challenges the Corinthian church faced? Factions create disunity and impede our ability to help one another and create the world God intended. The same challenges are evident in Paul’s writings, as he contended with an audience as diverse as we do today. The Corinthian church was characterized as a body with many parts; this metaphor can be useful when applied to the diverse religious landscape of today. Yet there are also important lessons to be learned in trying to achieve an artificially united front. There can be greater… Continue Reading...

Evangelization Is the Mission Of the Church

Evangelization is the mission of the church. How is this expressed in your current parish/church community? Evangelizing is the primary goal of the church: “Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit,” (Matthew 28:19). “God’s salvific will is universal,” but it is also expressed through the church (Galvin). The church is the necessary human vehicle that transports and transmits the Word of God. My current community is diverse but faithful. While there are differing opinions… Continue Reading...

Why Elon Musk Must Go

the company to success. I believe that Christ represented this idea when He appointed Apostles to head His church. He washed their feet, and sent them out into the world to grow the church. I would like to serve my company in the same way, by serving my workers. I feel that Tesla should do the same. Conclusion Tesla has the potential to succeed—it just needs to redefine itself. Instead of marketing the company as a technological revolution in terms of production, Tesla’s CEO should be supporting practical production techniques in order to meet production goals. For this reason,… Continue Reading...

The Palace Of the Emperor Titus

from the “based of the Esquiline Hill near the Coliseum to one of its summits at the church of SS. Martino e Silvestro, and to another at S. Pietro in Vincoli.”[footnoteRef:3] It is believed that the Palace was built rather quickly by converting an existing structure into the Baths.[footnoteRef:4] The Palace used the house of Mecenas and the Golden House of Nero which had come across from Palatine Hill as part of the construction that existed to make the Palace. There were “nine long corridors, converging together like the radii of the segment of a circle, divided from each… Continue Reading...

Becoming Gospel

God. Gorman (2015) describes Paul’s message as being cruciform: comprised of the horizontal scope of the church in offering the key to salvation and also to the vertical dimension of recognizing God’s love and grace. My parish endeavors to become both the horizontal and the vertical components of God’s mission. As a faith community, the parish is comprised of individuals who are devoted to God. We provide a safe haven, we perform outreach and charity work, and we offer sustenance and solace to those in need. Through collective worship, we strengthen our faith individually and as a community. Also a… Continue Reading...

The Russian Revolution and the Rise Of Fascism

it as such. Hitler’s “swastika” was a hooked cross—a Christian symbol and the NSDAP and the church got along well to a certain extent throughout much of the time period (though not always). All the same, the Communist threat was real, as the “red menace” of the Russian Revolution appeared knocking on the doors of another European state (Paxton, 2005). Hitler and Mussolini had enough resolve and force of personality to stare down the barrel of the “menace,” come what may. The relationship between the two was, thus, causal: had there been no Marx nor Manifesto, their would have… Continue Reading...

How Scientific Research Works

before him. The difference was that he articulated a new interpretation of the facts. Some, especially within the church, challenged his interpretation. Others (also in the church) welcomed them. The deciding point, or rather tipping point, did not come suddenly like an avalanche but rather grew over time. As society changed in the following years, so too did the perception on the heavens and the position of the earth. The field or inquiry of science adjusted itself accordingly: researchers began adjusting their viewpoints to fit the paradigm that emerged as society shifted away from a theologically-based paradigm to a… Continue Reading...

Syncretism in Art and Public Art in Tucson

and Kent) Figure 4. Haitian Voodoo Deities (Adopted from Johnson) Figure 5. Catholic church deities (adopted from St. Joseph Catholic church) Works cited abercrombie and kent. West Africa: kingdoms, slaves & voodoo - an a&k hosted journey (2018). N.D. Web. Arts Foundation for Tucson and southern Arizona, La Puerta. N.D. web. Johnson, Tim. The often-misunderstood religion is playing a key role as the Caribbean country recovers from the earthquake that devastated it just five years ago. BBC, 2015. Web. Olmos, Margarite Fernández, and Lizabeth Paravisini-Gebert. Creole religions of the Caribbean: An introduction from Vodou and Santería to Obeah and Espiritismo. NYU Press,… Continue Reading...

Film the Mission

Thoughtful reflection on the film The Mission This film portrays a society in the 1750s South American society as the Jesuit Missionaries were undertaking their mission ventures in this region. As they entered the land, they found the native Guarani Indians who had not been inhabited and their last contact was with slave traders that they resisted. Father Gabriel and Captain Mendoza who was a former slave trader but converted were instrumental in bringing Christianity to this region. They however met resistance and it was through long durations of endearment to the locals through their actions, music, philanthropy, communal work… Continue Reading...

Two Natures in Christ

In other words, they were trying to rationalize the God-Man so that it made sense, but the church wanted them to accept the mystery of God Christ as both deity and man at one and the same time. The main issue at the Council of Nicaea was the Arian heresy. Arius had raised questions about the nature of Christ—was he wholly god or wholly man? What was his nature? Arius held an essentially anti-Trinitarian view of God and believed the Christ was begotten by the Father but not pre-existing like the Father from all time. Thus, Arius maintained Christ… Continue Reading...

Physical Education in Maricopa

weight, and the study by Swift, Johannsen, Lavie, Earnest and church (2014) who have shown that a steady regimen of physical activity can lead to weight loss and effective health maintenance. The intervention accommodates strengths of the community because there are many venues where adults can go for physical activity: there are numerous parks with walking trails, lots of bike paths for people who want to ride bikes, several courts for adults who want to play tennis or volleyball or basketball; gyms, swimming pools and many other options. This intervention also accommodates the limitation of the community, which is… Continue Reading...

Parkinson's Disease

is able to participate in the community, go to events, take part in social functions, such as clubs, church activities, tourism or family outings. Health Policies and Advocacy Regulating Control and Prevention of the Disease One of the more famous celebrities to suffer from Parkinson’s is Michael J. Fox. He established the Michael J. Fox Foundation (2018), which “advocates for government policies that accelerate the development of Parkinson's therapies and increase quality of life for patients, families and care partners.” As the Foundation notes, a bill was in Congress that would have expanded Medicare to include telemedicine care, but… Continue Reading...

American Poetry Robert Hayden Those Winter

one that denotes pride and hope. Whether the shoes are being polished for school or for church, the father wants his son to always look and feel his best. It is the imagery of hope and love that leaves the reader feeling a sense of hope for the future, just as winter does give way to spring. Works Cited Gallagher, Ann M. “Hayden’s Those Winter Sundays.” The Explicator, Vol. 51, No. 4, 1993, pp. 245-247. Hayden, Robert. “Those Winter Sundays.” https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems/46461/those-winter-Sundays “Those Winter Sundays.” Poetry in America. http://www.poetryinamerica.org/episode/those-winter-sundays/ Zandy, Janet. Foreword to Those Winter Sundays. University Press of America,… Continue Reading...

Goya Rodin and Modern Art

response, and the Spanish Inquisition was trying to root out crypto Jews to protect the country and the church from (Elliot; Roth). In short, there was chaos, suspicion, carnage, and revolution everywhere. Goya was reflecting that reality with Saturn symbolizing Europe eating its own children in a crazed effort to save its own life. The image is disturbingly haunting and rightly so. The times in which Goya lived were not easy for anyone. 2. (Ch. 27)) How does the work of Goya relate to artistic movements of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries? Use examples to support your writing. The… Continue Reading...

Vaccinations and the State Of Florida Identifying and Associating with Professional Coalition

Such an exemption is usually justified based upon the Establishment Clause, or separation between church and state, which mandates that citizens be allowed to practice their faith freely (“Vaccination Exemptions,” 2018). Pro-vaccination advocates, however, point out the serious material impact that unvaccinated children can have in society, including the ability to infect other children who cannot be vaccinated, or individuals for whom the vaccine was not effective. Eighteen states permit parents to be exempt simply due to parental philosophical or personal belief, even if that belief is not philosophical in nature (“Vaccination Exemptions,” 2018). The procedure usually requires parents… Continue Reading...

American Literature Identity What It Means to Be

a man must be a nonconformist.” Emerson is more severe in his approach to non-conformity, decrying church and even belittling ordinary human relationships but Angelou also deals with the despair she feels when confronted with those in the African American community who do not accept her for who she is and who she wishes to be. Her self-expression is as radically self-reliant as that of Emerson; the main difference being that as a white male Emerson would not have met with as many barriers or obstacles as Angelou did in her life. Emerson’s “Self-Reliance” and Angelou’s I Know Why… Continue Reading...

Capras Negro Soldier

preaching of the film’s narrator, Moss—an African American minister, who speaks eloquently in his church before his congregation of the need for the African American community to stand up for American values against those who oppose them. The film shows sequences of African American heroism to reinforce the preaching of Moss, who quotes Mein Kampf to stir up feelings of righteous indignation, and who describes how blacks throughout time and even now have stood up to oppose tyranny—from Crispus Attucks to boxer Joe Louis. The film concludes with the congregation rising to sing its support for the soldiers. Socially… Continue Reading...

Understanding the Christian Faith

in the mind to accept the doctrines of the Christian church, which primarily teach that Jesus Christ is God and that the salvation comes by way of Christ and His church. Next, the Faith is based upon the trust that the individual has in God according to the doctrines he has received: believing what he believes, he trusts God to save him. This is what is meant by “Now faith is the SUBSTANCE of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen” (Hebrews 11:1). Faith has a very real relational aspect to it because it does involve leaping… Continue Reading...

Mass Repression Order No. 00447

ensued, in which groups of otherwise disparate people, including the “repressed church activists,” (Ezhov 1) and the “White army officers” (Getty 222) could theoretically bond together under a common united front against the Soviets. Minorov had expressed initial concerns about the conspiracies and started policy discussions, which culminated in the issuing of Order 447 (Getty 223). The intended audience of Order 447 included the regional troikas, those who would actually be in charge of carrying out the purges as indicated by Ezhov. Establishing the troika system was critical for the success of the NKVD operation; otherwise it would have… Continue Reading...

What Did Goya Paint

1500-1800. Yale University Press, 2009. Holsti, Kalevi. Peace and Conflict: Armed Conflicts and International Order 1648-1989. NY: Cambridge University Press, 1991. Laux, John. church History. New York: Benziger Brothers, 1943. Licht, Fred. Goya: The Origins of the Modern Temper in Art. Icon, 1983.  Redon, Odilon and Alfred Werner. The Graphic Works of Odilon Redon, Dover, 1969 Redon, Odilon, and Raphaël Bouvier. Odilon Redon, 2014. Roth, Norman. Conversos, Inquisition, and the Expulsion of the Jews from Spain. Univ of Wisconsin Press, 2002.   Continue Reading...

Gospel Of John Prologue Three Interpretations

Boring notes that early church hymns were constructed around a core of theological content, and were largely instructional in nature. According to Boring, the Prologue was one such hymn, and was used in catechism. Boring also points out the historical and sociological function of the Prologue, which would have been to “bridge the minds of the Semitic and Hellenistic worlds,” through the central and unifying concept of logos. Both the Semitic and the Hellenistic worlds shared an appreciation for the power of the Word. Moloney… Continue Reading...

How Religion Works Today

are used in the U.S. today. There are several rites practiced within the Christian church, such as those pertaining to the seven sacraments, which require strict mechanisms of behavior. Typically these forms of behavior include solemnity, a dearth of speech until spoken to or asked to speak, and minimal touching permitted. These rites—and the behavior they implicitly involve—“are a manner of acting which takes rise in the midst of assembled groups” (Durkheim, 1915). This manner of acting is widely practiced in other parts of the public sphere in America today. Whenever people assemble in a movie theater, a coffee… Continue Reading...

John's Gospel and Today's World

nest and branching out on his own. This was the growth the church required and at the center of it was the idea of Christ as the God of all. 2 The Gospel could be considered anti-Semitic because it does paint the Jews in a negative light. It lays the crucifixion of Christ at their feet. However, this does not really make the Gospel anti-Semitic. A better or more accurate description would be to say that the Gospel is a historical-religious document that defines the origins of a new community, who defined those who did not join their community… Continue Reading...

The Relationship Of Reason to Faith

the application of one’s reason to the revelations and teachings of the Christian church in a process of discernment to see whether the claims of church are credible or not. This is why the scholastics say that faith is based on reason.[footnoteRef:6] Faith is trust in God—and it is independent of all else.[footnoteRef:7] Faith does not need reason. It simply rests on reason. Of course, it can rest on other things as well, as Avery Dulles shows in his 7 models of faith, which shall be described later in this essay.[footnoteRef:8] [6: Ratzinger, Joseph. "Relativism: Central Problem for Faith… Continue Reading...

Catholic Social Teaching Peace Building

and implementation, many reveal the fissures deep within a society that prevent the efficacy of intervention. The church has always been oriented towards social justice. Therefore, peace building must be one of the cornerstones of church action. Peace building functions effectively as a “soft power,” as Sullivan and Pagnucco (2014) point out (p. 115). A soft power allows the church to conduct specific peace building activities without being directly involved with power brokering or formal politics. The church could, however, serve as mediator or advocate to help garner resources, coordinate support, and provide the means by which peace infrastructure can… Continue Reading...

Paul and the Timothy Letters

away the false teachers and bring in a new and peaceful era. References Binnyuy, L. (2017). False Teachers in the church of God. Liliane Binnyuy. International Bible Society. (2010). The Holy Bible: New International Version. Colorado Springs: Biblica. Stedman, R. C. (2011). The fight of faith: Studies in the Pastoral letters of Paul: I and II Timothy and Titus. Discovery House.   Continue Reading...

The Problem Of the European Parliament

powers of the EU in the way the Lisbon Treaty did. church and Phinnemore point out that the Treaty of Nice represented more of a “drift towards intergovernmenatalism.”[footnoteRef:12] The Treaty of Lisbon was a consolidation of power for the EP, but also for the technocrats heading the EU—and more so for them than for the EP. The sources of the actual powers of the EP include approving the EU’s budget (i.e., the EP has right of approval), but at the same time the EP lacks the right of legislative initiative (i.e., the right to bring in their own proposal’s… Continue Reading...

The Christian Culture Christianitas and Barbarian Cultures Germanitas

heavily influenced during that time, redefining the theology of Christians, including the early church structure. The outcome of persecution involved defenses and explanation of Christianity. According to Suetonius: “Next to the immortal Gods he honoured the memory of the leaders who had raised the estate of the Roman people from obscurity to greatness. . . . “He always shrank from the title of Lord as reproachful and insulting. When the words ‘O just and gracious Lord!’ were uttered in a farce at which he was a spectator and all the people sprang to their feet and applauded as if… Continue Reading...

Faith Reason and Worship

Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/topic/first-cause] St. Thomas Aquinas, for example, used extraordinary reason during the scholastic period of the church’s history. Aquinas showed how much of theology could be explained by using reason. Reason is the foundation of the spiritual life—not feeling or emotions or vague intuitions. Reason is the fuel of the mind. A mind that is operating without reason will end up driving the person into all sorts of problems in life. Reason is the bedrock of worship. 1 Peter 3:15 tells us to always be mindful of the reasons that we have such hope—such faith. We are not to forget… Continue Reading...

Cult Of the Saints: Its Rise and Function in Latin Christianity

elites of society who had a hand in shaping the perceptions of others. Through them, the church expressed the idea that Heaven and Earth could be joined through the intercession of the saints,[footnoteRef:2] whose bodies were vestiges of grace and holiness, conduits through which Heaven could bridge the fault above the earth and reach out for Christians interested in making it to the other side, in holiness. As Brown notes, “the joining of Heaven and Earth was made plain even by the manner in which contemporaries designed and described the shrines of the saints.”[footnoteRef:3] The saints and their resting… Continue Reading...

Dante’s Inferno

account, this circle of hell has a significant number of popes, cardinals as well as clerics from the Catholic church (Fowlie 142). Souls in this circle are condemned to move enormous loads from one place to another. As Dante further points out, there appears to be a constant brawl between persons from either side – i.e. hoarders against spenders and vice versa (Fowlie 142). They use the great weights as weapons. It is a chaotic scene. As a matter of fact, the two groups are so engrossed with their wrangles and movement of loads that Dante and Vigil do… Continue Reading...

The American Revolution and Enlightenment Thought

the Roman Pontiff (Holsti). Voltaire celebrated the Peace of Westphalia as a move towards secularism and the separation of church and state, which he himself advocated (Elliott)—and which the U.S. would adopt as a political doctrine in the establishment of its Constitution—particularly in the First Amendment, which reads: “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof.” Thus, there was a direct connection between Voltaire’s promotion of religions liberty (the separation of church and state in Europe) and the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. As Cobbs shows, Jefferson was all for… Continue Reading...

Conflict Mapping in South Sudan

resulting in tribal genocide. The increasing involvement of the Nuer white army, deliberate church and hospital massacres demonstrate the evolution if the war. The pervasive cases of sexual assault have been associated with ethnic troops. 2.3. Highly Militarized Nation The competing dominant group of elites in South Sudan referred to as the “gun class” have been a driver of South Sudan chronic civil war. The elite group supports militia groups to escalate political grievances that often explodes in deadly violence with pronounced ethnic undertones. For example, the supporters of Dr. Machar entails a division of army that broke away… Continue Reading...

Political and Religious Action in the World

be dangerous business. As Massaro (2012) points out, the two most obvious perils associated with the improper blending of church and State include sectarianism and theocracy. Sectarianism, denounced by the Vatican, refers to deliberate isolation from the world, in self-sustaining and cohesive communities. As attractive as it may be to form religiously minded societies apart from the world, the real work—the hard work of creating the Kingdom of Heaven on Earth—cannot be done in those types of settings. Sectarianism is akin to apathy for the remainder of the planet, and is an isolationist policy that abnegates personal responsibility. Another… Continue Reading...

How to Manage a Non Profit Health Care Organization

mission of CHI is “to nurture the healing ministry of the church, supported by education and research. Fidelity to the Gospel urges us to emphasize human dignity and social justice as we create healthier communities” (Our Mission, 2019). The mission is rooted in the Christian teachings of the Gospel, which are in and of themselves the essence of servant leadership. Christ is often identified as the original servant leader (Sendjaya & Sarros, 2002). The goal of CHI is also described in the mission statement—to bring greater justice to the community by serving the needs of the members of the… Continue Reading...

Robo Calls Increase in Use

virtually every individual possesses one, robocallers follow individuals everywhere, interrupting activities like church service, important business meets, and dinner, to name a few (Kefford & Power 2014). While automated phone calls are no new menace, of late, the quantity of such calls has risen steeply. YouMail, a robocall blocking company that also analyzes phone calls, claims approximately 3.4 billion such unwanted calls harassed users in April 2017 – a growth of nearly 900 million, monthly, as compared to the previous year (Pal, 2017). This escalation has been noted by federal policymakers, with Senate as well as House members convening… Continue Reading...

Christianity and Paganism in Beowulf

and soon converted King Ethelberht. The king donated land in Canterbury to the church and allowed for the spread of Christianity, though his own son at first resisted the church and even married his own mother-in-law when his father died.[footnoteRef:14] There remained as well some contention between the British (Roman) and the English (Germanic) peoples, and British Christians did little to mix with or convert their English neighbors, which greatly perturbed Bede, another missionary and historian of the English people.[footnoteRef:15] Thus, in the 7th century, there was a good mix of Christian, pagan and everything in between among the… Continue Reading...

A Strong and Clear Boundary Between Church and State

The Proper Boundary Between church And State Certainly, there are boundaries which exist between the state and the church in that they should not interfere with one another’s roles. This is as a result of there being no law giving the state permission to collect tax from the church and also to fund religious programs (Curry, 1987). Despite each being independent, they have a role of helping one another in case of infringement of human rights and freedoms by either of them. An example is in a situation where the state is exploiting the… Continue Reading...

How Socialization Affects a Person

peers at school. Other socialization agents include people at church, people on the TV that the children watch—even if they are cartoon characters, they still represent a socialization agent in a way. Over time these socialization agents will change. The individual will stop relying so much on family and start focusing more on technology or mass media or peers or school or religion for socialization. Family is probably the most important agent of socialization in the younger stages of development, but once the individual begins to have a sense of independence, that socialization process kicks over into a different… Continue Reading...

Deviance and Norms in Society

Deviance: Breaking Social Norms For this exercise, I decided to be deviant at church. At our church, people tend to pick a pew and spread out in it. Usually there are a few families who will stand in the back because all the pews are taken. However, there is always still plenty of space in a pew for multiple families—but in America personal space is considered rather important, so it is rare to find a pew that is jam packed full of people unless they are all related or know one another well. Sharing space with… Continue Reading...

Feudalism in Europe and Japan

very disorganized grouped of people. Consequently, religious leaders and institutions, particularly the Catholic church, were rich and powerful in medieval Europe. Peasants in both Europe and Japan did not own land and were treated with contempt. In Japan, life for a peasant entailed involved acting as inferior people to the warrior-landlord class. These peasants were required to fight, have physical courage, and demonstrate loyalty as a means of survival. Loyalty to the warrior-landlord class constituted honor in the highly militaristic medieval Japanese society. On the contrary, life as a peasant in Europe during this time was characterized by contract… Continue Reading...

Why the Beatles Were Loved

How the Beatles Made History Introduction Everyone knows their names, even if one never cared for their music: Ringo, John, Paul, and George. Just 15, 16 and 17 respectively, George Harrison, Paul McCartney and John Lennon came together in 1958—young but passionate musicians from Liverpool, England, who wanted to play jazz, blues and folk music on improvised instruments. By 1962, they had added Ringo Starr to the group. With Starr on drums, the group’s first single “Love Me Do” hit the airwaves and changed the face of pop music forever. Beatlemania became a thing and the Beatles themselves became “more… Continue Reading...

Emotional Development Of Children

uncles, aunts) and peers (neighbors, teachers, friends at school or church or daycare) and media representations (kids’ shows, cartoons, movies). As Chen, Zhou, Main and Lee (2015 show, socialization agents include people in one’s environment, people in media and people in one’s family. The media can be especially important because even if they are just make-believe cartoon characters, they still represent a socialization agent for the child. Over time these socialization agents will change, of course. The individual child will stop relying so much on family and start focusing more on technology or mass media or peers or school… Continue Reading...

The Mis-education Of the Negro by Carter G. Woodson

it creates the firm foundation upon which lasting change can occur. Community-Based Organizations and the Black church Another point Woodson tries to make in The Mis-Education of the Negro is that the Black church can be a powerful source of community empowerment and enrichment for African Americans. The Black church can also provide the type of social networking opportunities and fundraising that might help to uplift, improve, and empower black communities. As Woodson describes it, the Black church is more about social networking and self-empowerment than it is about religion, theology, or cosmology. Woodson sees that religion, like education, is… Continue Reading...

The Case for the Resurrection Of Jesus by Habermas, Gary. and Michael Licona,

of facts” or the 4+1 facts, which prove the Resurrection.[footnoteRef:2] These facts include evidence from historians, eye witnesses, the church itself, the Bible as an historical artifact, and the fact that no other evidence to the contrary has even been given—only unverifiable claims. The facts are laid out effectively and convincingly. The authors then explore the counter-arguments and these are also examined fairly before they finally move on to a fuller explanation of the Resurrection by examining the Person of Christ and why it makes perfect logical sense to believe in the Resurrection, based on Christ’s works prior to… Continue Reading...

Racism in Birmingham Alabama

incarcerated for breaking the laws of the state regarding segregation. His own home and church were attacked as well. It was clear that something had to be done. For that reason, Shuttlesworth sent word to MLK, who was ready to make a stand for the black community and challenge the racist institutions oppressing black communities (Garrow). MLK’s goals in the Birmingham Campaign were to be pursued through non-violent protest inspired by Henry David Thoreau’s concept of “civil disobedience”—the idea that people had the right and duty to oppose government oppression by engaging in non-violent protest. The type of protest… Continue Reading...

Minor Child Sexual Assault

done. The community might need to ratify the presence of some of the stakeholders, for instance synagogue/mosque/monastery/ church leaders to reinforce their capacity of fulfilling their responsibilities and duties in the protection of children. All works with these stakeholders must make sure that the volunteers are not handling too much jobs and ought to offer training (leadership training included) and systematically establish connections between the official system of government and stakeholders. Strengths Based Approach The helping process focusses on consumer’s abilities, strengths, and interests, and not on their pathologies, weaknesses, and deficits (Coulshed and Orme 2012, 163). Based on this… Continue Reading...

Surrender to Love

A practical book review of Surrender to Love - Expanded Edition (2015) by David G. Benner I. SUMMARY Primary goal The primary goal of counseling comes out through Benner’s definition of conversion and repentance. According to Benner, repentance is shunning the world and giving self to Jesus. On the other hand, the conversion is a life-long journey of change aiming to take the image of God (p. 71-73). The journey of conversion is a summation of the author’s goal in counseling, the transformation in the spiritual being to become Christlike. According to Benner, this journey requires selflessness, unforceful, effortless, and… Continue Reading...

Christianity and Psychology Personal Theory

very different (McCarron, 2004). Compared to theology, psychology is a totally different discipline. If a man moved into a church and claimed that he knows how to handle group dynamics, this would not classify him as a theologian. His results and interpretations maybe a supplement to what a theologian says because a theologian dictates what God has said should be done. In situations when religion takes up a dichotomous reasoning, modifying itself from other sectors exactly the same way that the Greek Philosophy would modify the matter and spirit, it destroys the way God together with the world relate (Jones,… Continue Reading...