Crime Essays


Juvenile Delinquency Essay

Introduction In the past, there was no such term as “juvenile delinquent” or “juvenile delinquency” within the justice system. As frightening as it is to consider, over a hundred years ago, children who committed crimes were thrown into prisons with adults and some children were even sentenced to corporal punishment or even death (Yale.edu, 2000). Reformers of the justice system were the ones who pushed for a distinct court system for the treatment of juveniles, with the underlying notion being that these young people could potentially be helped and reformed. “Central to the concept of juvenile court was the principle Continue Reading...

Analysis Of Murderers Alex and Derek King

image of why certain adult males continue to perpetrate crime while others quit. Narratives aid in unpacking mechanisms which link important life events over the course of life, particularly situational context and personal choice. Life history helps give voice to offsetting the broad array of statistical information data and the overall social sciences (Doherty, 2005). Whilst initially counterintuitive, Laub and Sampson concluded that the information verified that justification of criminal existence and continual offending are virtually the same thing. With regard to desistance, it was discovered from criminal life histories and narratives that criminals desist due to individual actions… Continue Reading...

Social Bonding Theory

conformity across numerous situations.   Relationship between Social Bonding Theory and the Various Sociological Schools of crime Causation Sociological approaches were exceptional when they first emerged, as they delved into the notion of a potential link between crime and poverty. From here, one can envisage a possible cause-effect relationship between domestic abuse and other influences like societal systems and cultural norms. Social disorganization theory suggests that disorganized ties with the community leave households susceptible. Lastly, gender role socialization forms the gender-role approach's mainstay. This theory claims that females and males behave differently in accordance with the expectations of internal as well… Continue Reading...

How Does Heroin Impact a Caucasian Family

well as social harm resulting from accompanying poverty and crime, exceed those of almost all other drugs used. A majority of Caucasian households are indirectly as well as directly impacted by the aforementioned diseases. Increased pureness and decreased drug costs are potential factors contributing to the trend of decreased age of first-time consumption and increased initiation into habitual consumption in the Caucasian population. As heroin dependence can be successfully cured, primary care providers need to check their patients for this problem. This paper serves two purposes. Firstly, it attempts to study substance abuse's socio-economic effects on Caucasian people. Secondly,… Continue Reading...

Analyzing Critical Criminology

between Sociology and Criminology Theorists, on, social conflict propose that crime, in general, is triggered by conflict in the class system, as well as, laws that have been shaped by individuals and groups in power to safeguard their interests and rights. All acts of crime have political nuances, and Quinney refers to this as crime's social reality. Research attempts to confirm the conflict method; on the contrary, have not generated significant results (Seigel, 2000). Moreover, sociologists ponder over the social patterns that exist among social classes and the complications that arise from conflict between such social classes. They try to… Continue Reading...

Violence Against Women in Macho Paradox

Women and men are two parts of the human race. Men are important to society just as women are. However, because of the social structure of many cultures and society, men appear as the dominant, superior sex. This leads to the belief that men must control women, dominate them in order to be seen as 'real men'. Katz explore in his novel the need to remove such belief systems and create gender equality to end violence against women and create a balanced society. Domestic violence is an issue many people face on a daily basis. However, in Katz book, The… Continue Reading...

Is Globalization a Good Thing

Geopolitics, 12(2), 320-329. doi:10.1080/14650040601169022 Morris, S. (2013). Drug trafficking, corruption, and violence in Mexico: mapping the linkages. Trends in Organized crime, 16(2), 195-220. Mullan, J. E., Kenney, M. F., & Dossani, R. (2008). Mexico and the Globalization of Services: Outflanked Once Again?. Economia Mexicana, 17(2), 171-202. Continue Reading...

Different Types Of Studies Relating to Drugs

abuse and life chances -- a longitudinal study of a Stockholm birth cohort. Journal of Scandinavian Studies In Criminology & crime Prevention, 15(2), 128-142. • This is a blended study over time that uses both qualitative and quantitative data. It looks at what effects and reactions that drug abuse and criminal offending have on people over time. This can be applied towards trying to reform people that are hooked on drugs and that are in danger of dying or leading lives of destitution. Rkieh, N., Cloke, J., Gallagher, N., Winters, B., & Leri, F. (2014). Drugs of abuse as memory… Continue Reading...

The Effect Of Heroin on White America

as victims who need help. Lapp, D. (2016). The war zone in white America. National Review. Retrieved from http://www.nationalreview.com/article/429781/us-heroin- crime-rate-working-class-americans-are-facing-epidemic This article in the National Review shows how white working-class neighborhoods are being impacted by the heroin epidemic and how it is affecting white families. More and more white families are losing members to heroin overdoses, which is in turn raising more awareness and concern about the drug and how to stop its spread. The author highlights the "family revolution" as one reason for the drug's hold on white America, where families are "marked by rises in divorce and single-parent families."… Continue Reading...

Feminism in the Hunting Trip on Parks and Recreation

less likely to receive the same as harsh a sentence for the same crime a man carries out, has roughly the same biological capabilities as a man in terms of aggression and competitiveness, and much of the influences are socially based; all cleverly illustrated by Leslie in "The Hunting Trip." In my opinion, the show clearly portrays the gender perceptions that are commonly found in an entertaining way that can help people to understand these issues. Works Cited Forbes, S. and M. Harris. "Female Sex Offenders: Observed Trends in Wisconsin." Corrections Today (2014): 58-61. Wright, J., S. Tibbetts and… Continue Reading...

Court Process, Judicial Process, and Constitutional Issues

or plaintiff can prove beyond reasonable doubt that the defendant committed the crime. As a result, after a criminal trial has been completed, there are two possible outcomes i.e. an acquittal or a conviction based on the law. Probable Outcomes of a Criminal Trial A jury or judge determine a criminal case after both sides present their evidence and make closing arguments. Once this is carried out, the judge or jury determines applicable legal standards depending on the criminal charges and evidence presented in the criminal trial (Find Law, n.d.). After jurors receive instructions from the judge regarding the… Continue Reading...

Csi Effect

Television and film script writers have gained from crime and courtroom proceedings for many years. The use of the courtroom as a drama channel has significantly changed in the recent years among media options. The use of the courtroom as the basic source of drama action among these media houses has increased and changed focus from sheer creative imagination to real life cases. Indeed, many courtroom dramas today are based on real life cases. There is an increasing thin line between reality and drama. TV shows such as… Continue Reading...

Ending Terrorism in Africa

entities reaffirm their commitment in joining the war against crime and the fight against terrorist groups; which are an obstacle to the success of Africa's economies (Fulgence, 2015). There is a lot of work cut out for sub-Saharan African countries which are grappling with abject poverty. They have plenty of work to do to attain middle income status in their economies. The terms of economic cooperation vision would have been trained on food production to fight hunger among populations that are growing fast, reducing poverty levels through a host of economic interventions aimed at reducing unemployment and boosting production.… Continue Reading...

Captain Preston Guilty or Innocent

and accounts were indeed that disparate and if the scene of the alleged crime was indeed so chaotic and full of confusion, it begs the question why Preston was tried to begin with. The burden of proof was clearly not there and the crowd was not blameless for the situation to put it lightly. Preston might indeed have called for the shots to be fired but there would seem to be no way to know this for sure and thus acquittal was the right way to go. Bibliography Boston Massacre.net,. 2016. "Boston Massacre Historical Society." Bostonmassacre.Net. http://www.bostonmassacre.net/players/preston-biography.htm. Foner, Eric.… Continue Reading...

Criminal Process from Arraignment to Pre Trial

ensure a speedy arraignment in order to avoid falling prey to the crime of infringing on the suspects right to speedy trial according to the 6th Amendment. The defendant is told formally, in advance, of the day of their arrangement and the charges they are to face. The court safeguards the defendant's rights. Some of such rights include the right to remain silent, the right to a jury trial, a right that prevents them from being prosecuted twice (also called right against double jeopardy) for the same one offence, right to counsel. Most defense attorneys advise defendants to plead… Continue Reading...

Second Chance Act Of 2008

In the United States, recidivism has been identified as one of the most critical concepts in criminal justice. The concept refers to an ability of an individual relapsing into criminal behavior. Typically, the recidivism has been measured by a criminal act, which led to reconviction, re-arrest, or return to prison. According to data released by the National Institution of Justice (2015), approximately 67.8%, which is about two-third of the released prisoners are rearrested within three years of their released. Within five years, 76.6%, three- quarter of the released prisoners are rearrested. Moreover, property offenders and those sentenced for drug crimes… Continue Reading...

Exclusionary Rule in Terry Vs Ohio

being searched had committed, was about to commit or was in the act of committing a crime. The Supreme Court stated that the officer's suspicion had to be "specific" and able to be put into words -- that is to say, the officer could not just say he had a "hunch" that the person searched was about to violate the law: the officer would have to be able to point to a specific characteristic that made him suspect the individual in question. However, this Supreme Court case eventually led to the allowance of the detainment of persons -- of… Continue Reading...

Impact Of Federalism on Privacy Rights

agents installed recorders in the accused house and obtain information about his conspiracy to commit a crime. This case is an example of how federalism can contribute to violation of privacy rights as federal agents can easily spy on individuals to achieve their goals and interests even if it involves violation of the right to privacy. Therefore, federalism provides a platform for violation of people's rights to privacy through enabling the central government to use any means to obtain personal information. The Most Significant Impact From the previous analysis, it's evident that the most significant impact of federalism on… Continue Reading...

Modern Corporate Social Responsibility

huge asset to the organization as proven discrimination against the disabled is indeed a crime and the organization has a right to police their people in a way that prevents or stops this from occurring. As noted before, if there are people that cannot or will not abide by the standards of behavior and inclusion that are set forth by the organization, the organization has every right to enforce their ideals (Pless & Maak, 2004) Finally, we come to a question about whether legislation is enough to eliminate discrimination in the workplace. The short answer to that question is… Continue Reading...

Liberal and Conservative Beliefs Of Justices

use of the practice, which can reinforce an unethical notion that if a defendant just cops to a crime, the sentence will be lighter. It saves everyone time and work. Yet, sometimes a plea deal should not be accepted because it would mean that justice is not served (white collar crimes especially take advantage of this). What would happen in a criminal justice system without plea bargaining is that courts would become so backed up that cases would never be heard in the lifetime of the persons involved/charged. Alternatives to the plea bargaining process to enhance justice and efficiency… Continue Reading...

Police Recruitment

officers spans a broad range of activities. It involves working with communities and undertaking activities to detect crime, prevent it and prosecute offenders. A police officer needs to have integrity, be flexible, honest and determined. One also needs to be physically fit in order to deal with the daily challenges of the job. Communication skills and the ability to take initiative to employ practical solutions to the daily challenges is an essential quality too (wiltshire police, 2016). Ranking of police officers takes into account factors such as age, experience and physical fitness and the primary determiners. The Age factor:… Continue Reading...

Court Case Review in Re Winship

Winship was decided by the Burger Court in 1970, Docket number 778. The case involves a twelve-year-old boy, Samuel Winship, who was arrested for stealing $112 from a woman's locker. Section 744(b) of the New York Family Court Act provided that determination of a juvenile's guilt differs from an adult defendant, requiring only a "preponderance of evidence" and not evidence "beyond a reasonable doubt." Based on the "preponderance of evidence" clause, the Family Court initially found Winship guilty, "despite acknowledging that the evidence did not establish his guilt beyond a reasonable doubt," ("In Re Winship"). Winship appealed, and the appeal… Continue Reading...

Impact Of Stop Frisk Policy in New York

the frisk policy, the New York City administrators have been able to reduce the crime rate substantially over the last 20 years. Despite the benefits of the stop and frisk policy, large percentages of people stopped and frisked are African-Americans and Latinos. Moreover, only 5.9% of people frisked in 2011 led to an arrest and 2% led to a weapon recovery. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of NYPD stop-frisk policy and examine the statistical racial impact of the policy. Impact NYPD Stop-Frisk Policy Stop and Frisk is a New York police practice of searching… Continue Reading...

Police Vehicle Pursuits

pursuing suspected lawbreakers has, perhaps, existed ever since the very first laws to tackle crime have been written. Right from the era of human traveling on foot to horse-riding to today's motorized transport, it is highly evident that police pursuits may be highly dangerous. The year 2003 witnessed approximately 35,000 pursuits of criminals across America, with 14,000 (i.e. almost 40% of these pursuits) ending in car crashes. No less than 50% of these 14,000 crashes gave rise to injuries. Furthermore, fatalities linked to police pursuits amounted to about 350. The technique and manner of suspect capture, particularly with regard… Continue Reading...

Persuasive Speech

contribution to the economy. c. Main Point 3: Link between immigration and drug trafficking, drug use and crime rate. i. Strong correlation between drug trafficking and immigration for the reason that majority of the illegal drugs entering the United States come from outside the nation. ii. Illegal immigrants coming from various nations operate as couriers, and smuggle narcotics and other proscribed drugs into the United States. iii. Consumption of illegal drugs is extensive internationally and has been deemed as having extended prevalent magnitudes within the United States. iv. Whereas the number of immigrants has increased, the rate of violent crimeContinue Reading...

Ethics and Moral Guidelines Criminal Justice

feeling of relief, but that feeling is not going to undo the crime committed. Capital punishment is issued in cases where DNA evidence has not been supplied, leaving open room for reasonable doubt even when the person has been convicted by a jury. There are simply no logical arguments in favor of capital punishments, only emotional ones. Week 5 -- Discussion 1 War is a tricky subject in the realm of ethics and morality because some wars are unfortunate means to a just end. It is absolutely moral and ethical to fight against injustices. At the same time, all… Continue Reading...

Criminal Justice Bias

of a group of four policemen operating under cover. It is a New York born strategy for combating aggressive crime (Harring & Ray, 1999). There is no doubt that a crime was indeed committed. The Theory of Criminal Behavior Related to the Selected Case crime, its practice and existence is perceived through the social construction of criminality and the factors that make it happen. According to the traditional theories in sociology, crime was caused by lack of norms. This was immersed in a feeling of lacking the desired social connectedness. The term anomie was commonly used to refer to… Continue Reading...

Murder Inc Book Compared to Gangs Today

Inc. by Graham K. Bell   Book Summary Starting from the 1920s, the American crime landscape underwent a complete transformation under an all-star gang of thugs, garrotters, and snipers. Ethnic and religious diversity was evident in its members. A majority of them hailed from New York City itself, chosen from its toughest neighborhoods, including Ocean Hill, Brownsville, and Flushing. The exorbitant amount of crime they perpetrated led the media to name them "Murder, Inc.."This merciless gang, considered the innovation of Meyer Lansky, Bugsy Siegel, and other elderly gangsters, was quick to catch the entire nation's attention, and made headlines across the country… Continue Reading...

Drugs and Gangs Among Detroit Teens

to make a living. Perhaps, this explains the widespread violence and crime making most of the young people to be at home dealing drugs or waiting to be arrested and taken to the juvenile correctional facilities for various crimes all related to drug dealings. The friend and relatives of these two young boys almost have the same stories for their lives and the lives of other close friends and relatives. These relative detail some of the key aspects of the attitudes and contradictions of living in Detroit's inner city. In this city, almost everything has been designed to take… Continue Reading...

Developing, Managing, and Operating a Retail Business

Other important factors to consider include competition, availability of parking, traffic congestion, property costs, zoning restrictions, crime rates, as well as proximity to commercial and social facilities. A location with such attributes is likely to offer maximum sales. Such a location is referred to as a one hundred percent location. Important Financial Dimensions Effective management of a retail business calls for sound financial decisions. Sound financial management determines the extent to which the retailer is profitable. Four financial dimensions that will be crucial in this case include sales, inventory turnover, gross margin, and expenses. It will be important to… Continue Reading...

Racialized Violence and Police Brutality in Usa

the fact that when that same data set was analyzed in terms of crime rates, the rates of police brutalities did not correspond with rates of crime. In other words, "the racial bias observed in police shootings in this data set is not explainable as a response to local-level crime rates," (Makareshi 1). In press releases and public statements by police, the killing of black males in specific has been framed as "justifiable homicide," (Gilbert and Rashan 122). The "justifiable homicide" trope has permeated public discourse, too, rendering it almost impossible to change the narrative and cast doubt upon… Continue Reading...

Killing Consensus About Sao Paolo and Violence

within this culture/subculture, and it forces a total renegotiation of definitions of crime/criminal. People have to take the law into their own hands, resolve conflict in means other than police; the PCC provides that quasi-government structure Chapter 1: "Surviving Sao Paolo" The PCC is "the party," or "the family" The PCC uses a sophisticated system that expressly states it will generate an "ethic of crime" by creating "peace among criminals" via its specific codes (p. 23) The PCC actually does keep the peace, even though they use violent means and methods Chapter 2: "Regulations of Killing" This chapter focuses… Continue Reading...

Prison Psychologists and Biases in Corrections

of diagnosable mental illness. Furthermore, offenders are more likely than non-offenders to be victims of crime, while victims of crime are also more likely than non-victims to be offenders: a pattern that has been noted throughout the literature (Entorf, 2013). Correctional officers lack the training and background in psychology to provide the daily support system for the inmates, which is why psychologists are the most frequently employed mental health professional in the correctional setting (Magaletta, et al., 2016). Yet because of the gaps in providing quality mental health care in prisons, the needs of the diverse inmate population are… Continue Reading...

Self Incrimination and Right to Counsel Approach

need a basis to believe that the suspect committed the crime (Confessions - the Self-incrimination Approach historical background, 2016). To clear matters, the bills of rights of the state applied in the 1770s and 1780s included a privilege that barred self-incrimination. For instance, section 8 of the Declaration of Rights of Virginia stated that in all criminal and capital prosecutions, one cannot be forced to provide evidence against oneself. Some critics argue that such provisions were provided only to guard existing procedures against the retrenchment of the British, not for reform purposes. Consequently, forced incrimination before peace justices was… Continue Reading...

Terry Vs Ohio

the event law enforcement officials notice behavior which gives rise to suspicions regarding potential crime, and abide by the correct procedure, they are entitled to safeguard both themselves and the public by carefully searching the suspects. In Terry's case, frisking scope did not pose any issues with regard to standards. Rationale The chief rationale for the Supreme Court's ruling in this case was offered by Chief Justice Earl Warren. While Amendment IV does safeguard citizens from unwarranted searches and appropriations, it offers no protection to people behaving threateningly or suspiciously upon being interrogated or frisked by law enforcement officials.… Continue Reading...

Investigative Psychology

Psychology Analysis of the crime scene After Jeffrey Dahmer was sentenced, he was taken to the Correctional Institution of Columbia, located in Portage; a town in Wisconsin. During his first incarceration year, Dahmer was confined separately in order to keep him physically safe in case he interacted with other prisoners. With his consent, when the first solitary confinement year was over, Dahmer was taken to a unit that was less secure. Here, he was made to work for two hours each day; he used to… Continue Reading...

Legal Psychology and Victimization

of the offender. The process of profiling is anchored on the premise that if the crime scene is analyzed carefully and accurately, there is a good chance that the type of person involved in the offence will begin to surface. Therefore, it is based on the idea that some types of people manifest certain behavior tendencies and patterns. A jury informed of such patterns, is better equipped to ascertain probale suspects (Ebisike, 2007). Profiling driven by psychological processes has an impact on the strategies and suggestions for evidence presentation by both offenders and victims. In the offender's case, profiling… Continue Reading...

European Union and Crime

Organized crime: A Contested Concept The presence of organized crime in modern society is not as a cut and dry concept as most people would intuitively think. Take for example the existence of prostitution in virtually every society that has existed throughout the course of humanity. Although it is clear that this practice falls outside the realm of what is considered to be acceptable by the majority, many of the practitioners of this trade are actually grateful that they have the opportunity, the clients are… Continue Reading...

Personal Statement for Law School

roles, and the impact these factors had on governance, legal systems, politics, crime and justice. I slowly came to realize that my family had not threatened me because of hate or ill-will, but because of fear and unfamiliarity. This realization was extremely empowering. I realized that my absence and refusal to speak to them was only mirroring their hostility and would only reinforce the fear and prejudice they held. I missed them dearly. I felt guilty because at the time I left, I did not care about what they went through. I eventually reached out to them but I… Continue Reading...

Reporting Of Criminal Justice Issues and News

discretion to publish whatever they desire, while the other has crime victims who are largely private citizens wishing to remain unseen but shoved unwillingly into the press's glare. A hodgepodge of multiple-level court rulings and state and federal legislation illuminate the pendulum's direction over time (Steele, 2002). (1) Strive to find accurate facts and report them in maximum possible detail • Be constantly informed in order to be able to clearly and persuasively inform, involve, and educate society on major subjects. • Maintain honesty, fairness, and courage when collecting, publishing, and inferring accurate facts. • Give the unheard a… Continue Reading...

Education Autobiography on Drugs

get help and remain sober long enough to deal with their addictions. (United Nations Office on Drugs and crime) For the casual user that has not experienced addiction, planning for recovery can be as simple as buying a nicotine path, going to meetings, and adopting a healthy lifestyle. What I have seen from people using these substances is that people use them as a means of escape. When people learn to confront their problems, and understand what it is that bothers them, they can begin to heal and learn to not depend on tobacco, or drugs, or alcohol to… Continue Reading...

Cruelty and Intolerable Acts

Wanton Loss of Life A careful reading of David Livingston Smith's seminal treatise on the science of dehumanization, Less Than Human, reveals there is a fundamental relationship between the phenomena of dehumanization and that of genocide. There are countless examples which underpin this reality. Several genocides were accompanied by both thoughts and actions in which the perpetrators of these crimes against humanity seemed to consider their victims less than human. Livingston largely seizes upon this point in assembling what is his stance on the exact nature of the relationship between these two phenomenons. His central premise regarding that relationship is… Continue Reading...

Better Relationship with Russia a New U.s. Policy

A major foreign policy issue that the United States must face today is the rise of the multi-polar world -- namely the role of Russia and China in world trade. With Russia coming to play a dominant role in the Middle East by aiding Assad's Syrian forces against ISIS and rebels fighters, the U.S. has a choice to make about how to approach the foreign power. If the U.S. pursues a policy antagonistic to Russia, it could find itself on the losing end of a fight in the Middle East, as Russian missile technology is far advanced and capable of… Continue Reading...

Video Cameras and Public Safety

Is having video cameras as part of a way to monitor the public for a crime a good idea or a bad one? The advantages are clear and lean towards public safety. Of the many crimes perpetrated in high traffic areas and public venues, many go unsolved due to lack of evidence. Video cameras serve to not only identify a perpetrator, but also show where someone has been. They can provide proof for alibis and help show where a victim was during a certain time. Furthermore, video cameras in intersections help ward off unsafe driving habits. People may choose… Continue Reading...

The Morality Of Punishment for Actions

achieving a noteworthy purpose, an example of which is crime reduction. Retributivists, on the other hand, argue that punishment is a basic or natural response for doing something wrong. However, abolitionists argue that punishment is morally unacceptable and thus both defenses are not valid. The question now is: how should the society respond to wrongdoings? The Philosophical Theories That Justify Punishment According to Hobbes (2010), the justification for punishment is based on the following theories of philosophy: incapacitation, rehabilitation, retribution, restoration and/or deterrence. Oleson and Mackinnon (2015) believe that retribution punishes someone for committing a crime because doing so… Continue Reading...

Should the Government Ban Assault Rifles

in the United States of America approximated average annual expenses of crime to above $1,300 for every man and child. Since a lot of these costs are due to reducing residential values of property, violence greatly lowers tax revenues. The government should, therefore, address the massive needs of citizens. The straight annual expense of violence crimes at every level of government was approximated to be $325 per resident (Webster, et al., 2012). The researchers summarise that programs laid by law are stronger than "gun laws." They analyse that the most effective plans incorporated punitive and supportive plans to reduce… Continue Reading...

Exegesis Of Pauls Letter to Philemon

slavery ties in to Paul's request that Philemon accept his runaway slave Onesimus, who apparently committed a crime against his master. According to the text, Onesimus was converted to Christianity by Paul during his imprisonment. The man who was once a useless slave and servant is now useful. "Formerly he was useless to you, but now he is indeed useful both to you and to me" (1:11). Now that Onesimus is redeemed, he is useful not only presumably as a moral man and servant but also useful in the cosmological and theological sense that he is now justified before… Continue Reading...

Pornography Child Abuse and Coersion

one of the most harmful types of child abuse because of the multifaceted nature of the crime. The nationwide prevalence of abuse in the United States is over 700,000 children, with prevalence of death at 2.13 deaths per 100,000 children (CDC, 2016). Child abuse is not just an ethical issue; there are proven consequences of child abuse that have been substantiated by empirical evidence in the scientific literature. Only a few of the harmful effects of child abuse include abnormal brain development, impaired cognitive skills development, learning disabilities, poor social or emotional skills adaptation, reduced language development, anxiety and… Continue Reading...

Moral Issues with Internet Privacy

It is seldom possible to draw a sharp line of distinction between what's wrong and what's right. Everybody has their own distinctive view with regard to the major moral challenges linked to internet privacy, right from social media privacy to governmental surveillance. However, all stories have two sides, and this necessitates a closer examination of a few existing moral issues associated with internet privacy. Firstly, one needs to examine the chief element of guidance provided by the law on the matter of internet privacy. Possibly the most straightforward moral problem under the 'internet privacy breach' umbrella is malicious software (e.g.,… Continue Reading...

Research and Theory in Criminal Justice

explains the causes and processes of complex social phenomena such as a crime. While the methods for carrying out these activities may change, a generalized theory remains relevant based on how it promotes a general understanding of the issue. References Ellis, L., Hartley, R.D. & Walsh, A. (2010). Research methods in criminal justice and criminology: an interdisciplinary approach. New York, NY: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. Jacques, S. (2014, January 20). The Quantitative-Qualitative Divide in Criminology: A Theory of Ideas' Importance, Attractiveness, and Publication. Theoretical Criminology, 18(3), 317-334. Jones, J.A. (2012). Ethical Considerations in Criminal Justice Research: Informed Consent… Continue Reading...

False Confession Phenomena

conviction -- than they are with ascertaining the truth about a particular crime. Organization This paper is organized by explaining the concept that false conceptions are deliberately extracted by far too many interrogators for the purposes of a conviction -- regardless if doing so is truthful or not. The author of this document explores this tenet from a variety of differing viewpoints which support it. However, there is a counterpoint to this thesis which is then elucidated. This counterpoint reveals that there are certain circumstances in which law enforcement have taken active measures to determine the truth without the… Continue Reading...

Ethics in Corrections

a procedural approach. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press. Braswell, M., McCarthy, B., & McCarthy, B. (2008). Justice, crime, and ethics. 6th ed. New York: Routledge. Carlson, P., & Garrett, J. (2008). Prison and jail administration. 2nd ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Joyce, P. (2013). Criminal justice: an introduction. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge. Kleinig, J. (2008). Ethics and criminal justice: an introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pollock, J. (2014). Ethical dilemmas and decisions in criminal justice. 8th ed. Boston: Cengage Learning. Souryal, S. (2011). Ethics in criminal justice: in search of the truth. 5th ed. Burlington: Els evier. Continue Reading...

Annotated Bibliography on False Confessions

interviewers plant ideas in the minds of the subjects, the confessions contain rich and detailed information about the crime, making the confessions seem real. Unfortunately, there are no safeguards against the predatory interrogation techniques used by law enforcement. This article is helpful for my research both in providing background information and also for providing possible solutions. Gudjonssen, G.H. & Pearse, J. (2011). Suspect interviews and false confessions. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20, 33-37. This article compares the Reid technique, which is a common interrogation method used by law enforcement in the United States, with the PEACE model, which… Continue Reading...

Mixed Methods Designs

2013). Researchers must select the methods that offer the highest practical efficacy. For instance, as shown by quantitative research, crime can be explained by individual, group, and structural-level factors. Applied research has, however, shown that processes and outcomes in criminal justice can generate different impacts on individual perceptions. This means that in reality, "different levels of stimuli do not exert an independent influence on patterns of crime" (Trahan & Stewart, 2013, p. 60-61). With mixed methods, therefore, criminal justice researchers can gain a better understanding of crime. On the whole, as research problems become more complex, single-method designs may… Continue Reading...

Juvenile Offenders in St Louis

consideration of whether his sentence was fair and suitable for the nature of his crime. The jury considered Nathan's state of mind when he committed the crime and his background. Three hours into deliberation, they could not reach a unanimous decision. This meant the initial first-degree murder conviction had to be vacated and replaced with a second-degree murder conviction. Although his initial conviction was replaced with a lesser one, he still faced 75 years in prison for charges unaffected by the Miller v. Alabama ruling. Meaning the new conviction proved fruitless in reducing his overall time spent in prison.… Continue Reading...

Communicating Qualitative Research Analysis

justice field is geared towards providing assessment and analysis of crime and offer strategies for reducing crime (Garrison, 2009). Therefore, during the evaluation and interpretation of criminal justice data and research findings, it's important to consider several important aspects, especially in qualitative research writing. The salient aspects that distinguish qualitative research writing relate to evaluation and interpretation of criminal data and research findings. First, the researcher's role in the study and how it may shape interpretations is crucial when evaluating and interpreting criminal justice data and research findings because it influences the conclusions obtained from the research. Since criminal… Continue Reading...

Expulsion Of Students

damages school property, is involved and convicted of a crime, and possesses or uses illegal drugs in the school environment. While expulsion would be appropriate in the previously described situations, there are alternatives to this form of punishment.  One of the most suitable and effective alternatives to expulsion is positive behavioral interventions.  These interventions help in addressing a student’s undesirable and challenging behaviors in a manner that is beneficial to the student and the school.  The use of these interventions requires conducting a functional behavioral assessment to determine the causes of the student’s behaviors.  The information derived from the… Continue Reading...

The Prevalence Of False Confessions

the defendant agreed to reveal his or her implication in the crime. Compared to the other studies that were more recent, the information presented here only paints one part of a picture, however, still provides a reasonable introduction to the issue of false confessions, making it relevant to the recommendation by raising awareness of the topic. Because it does not contain primary information, nor uses detailed cases, nor provides enough background information on false confessions, it can be discounted from recommendation. The article is also almost 10 years old and therefore has a gap in information in relation to… Continue Reading...

Terry V Ohio Court Case

Reasonable suspicion isn’t simply a gut feeling that an individual has perpetrated crime; however, it demands for fairly less evidence as compared to probable cause. If an individual, for instance, had on his person articles (say, a wire hanger) which can help perpetrate an offense and was peeking in at parked cars at midnight, law enforcers have fair suspicions to ask him to stop (Reasonable Suspicion v. Probable Cause | The Zoo). Hence, a simple definition of probable cause would be a reasonable idea, grounded in actual facts rather than guesswork, that a given person has offended or will… Continue Reading...

The Victim Of Prejudice by Mary Hays

because it allows women to be systematically victimized. Rape is not even considered a crime in this context, which creates a conundrum for Mary. She knows that men abuse their power and use their power to continue to subjugate women like her, who are bereft of a voice. Yet Mary persists in retaining her dignity, and that is why the novel is a tragedy: it is a tragedy because it teaches the reader how a hero remains strong and true to their principles in spite of major obstacles. Works Cited Hays, Mary. The Victim of Prejudice. Broadview Press, 1998. Continue Reading...

Supreme Court Second Amendment Case

basis for rights Americans can claim when faced with accusations of involvement in crime. President Trump is likely to expand stop-and-frisk police activity throughout the country, which would have an impact on the Second Amendment right to bear and keep firearms by increasing police powers. The president is likely to expand the provisions of the Fourth Amendment in attempts to deal with gun violence and counter illegal immigration. Additionally, President Trump's calls for a complete Muslim ban is likely to contribute to violation of the Fifth Amendment's right to due process while his recent attack on the Sixth Amendment… Continue Reading...

Supreme Court

originalism philosophies ensured he supported rules which frequently facilitated crime (Slattery, et.al, 2016). For instance, consider the subject of how a search is defined. Any object plainly visible to law enforcement officers already legitimately present at the site can be seized without warrants. While a number of justices were ready to expand this principle to cover and authorize a minor added police intrusion, Scalia wasn't. With regard to the Arizona v. Hicks case (Slattery, et.al, 2016), Scalia maintained that law enforcement is not entitled to even shift any stereo turntable by some inches in order to see and note… Continue Reading...

Restorative Justice

that restorative justice programs made offenders feel responsible for the crime, portray a sense of remorse towards victims, and show willingness to build relationships with victims and the community as well as participate in reparative activities. Though the study did not directly address recidivism, it demonstrates that a sense of accountability for the offense committed and remorsefulness towards the victim may reduce the tendency of repeat offending. In spite of the large sample used, a major limitation of the study is that the sampling process was not random in nature. This may have introduced some bias. Additionally, generalising the… Continue Reading...

Aurora Colorado Theater Shooting After Action Report

from Colorado: how mass shootings have changed police response and what citizens can learn. Retrieved from http://www.annarbor.com/news/ crime/lessons-from-colorado/ Osher, C., Illescas, C., & Brown, J. (2014, October 8). Aurora theatre shooting report: breakdown between police and fire caused chaos. The Denver Post. Retrieved from http://www.denverpost.com/news/ci_26686299/aurora-theater-shooting-report-gives- 80-recommendations TriData Division. (2014). Aurora Century 16 Theatre Shooting: After Action Report for the City of Aurora. Retrieved from https://www.courts.state.co.us/Media/Opinion_Docs/14CV31595%20After%20Actio n%20Review%20Report%20Redacted.pdf Continue Reading...

The Effect Of a Public Policy on an Individual

Individual is a 23-year-old African-American male. Although this individual is from a middle class background and was raised in a suburban area that included a majority white population, his story reveals the ways public policy can be discriminatorily applied. This individual is defined as at risk based on several factors including race, class, and gender. His race puts the individual at a systematic disadvantage vis-a-vis his white neighbors because of several factors. One is that law enforcement officials in his and surrounding communities are more likely to stop and interrogate him versus his white peers. As second issue is that… Continue Reading...

Norway, England, Wales, and the United States

criminals and criminal activity by investigating, catching, and thwarting crime. Although some countries have similar methods of punishing criminals and preventing crime, many countries have different methods and strategies. Norway has its own way of handling criminals and criminal investigations that often involves a decentralized police and investigative force. The United States operates via tiered system: federal, state, and local (Cole, Smith, & DeJong, 2013). England offers a tiered system as well, with most investigative efforts occurring in London. This essay will highlight the differences and similarities of the criminal justice system in England/Wales, the United States, and Norway.… Continue Reading...

Camden New Jersey and Corruption Exploitation

package was spent addressing the most pressing concerns of the city -- crime, schools, job training, and municipal service," (93). As a result, Camden is like a war zone, its citizens turning against each other, powerless to fight for their constitutional rights because every element of the city's legislative and justice systems are in the Norcross/Christie pocketbooks. The result is a systematically and deliberately segregated urban geography. Within the segregated urban space of South Jersey, Camden is the zone of the poor, primarily African-American but also home to the rejects from other parts of the state -- the drug… Continue Reading...

The New Mobile Commerce Revolution

Home Goods M-Commerce During the earlier parts of the internet and technological revolution that began in the 1990's with the emergence of the World Wide Web was what eventually came to be known as E-Commerce. Indeed, there was the shift whereby what was done in brick and mortar stores was increasingly done online. Thus, regular commerce became electronic commerce, or e-commerce for short. Nowadays, there has been yet another shift to a subset of electronic commerce, that being on mobile devices like cellular phones, tablets and personal data assistants, or PDA's. Mobile commerce has become prominent enough that it should… Continue Reading...

Key Characteristics Of a Whistleblower

Whistleblowing In definition, a whistleblower can be an employee or a former employee of a corporation who provides proof and evidence that substantiates the fraudulence and ethical behavior within the entity or activities that are not in the best interests of the general public or stakeholders. Customarily, whistleblowers reveal classified data and information concerning their workplace, which is in violation of the laws and regulations in place, and also that can be disparaging to the well-being of the employees. Whistleblowers have various characteristics. One of the key individualities of whistleblowers is credibility. A whistleblower has to have the character of… Continue Reading...

Juvenile Justice

overcrowding issues. Overcrowding and a large number of imprisonment sentences do not necessarily mean growing crime. A key reason behind this issue is the overemployment of the feature of pretrial detention. A few high-crime nations display high incarceration rates but there are many that exhibit low incarceration rates and do not suffer from overcrowding issues. The above inter-country differences may be explained by the fact that the prison systems of diverse nations show diverse reactions to crime trends. A few systems might typically react to crime trend changes by modifying prison policies, whilst others might not be as reactive… Continue Reading...

Police Organization and Administration

that not having marked cars, or a police "presence", in an area did not actually affect the level of crime that was present. Having a police presence has been one of the main strategies for deterring crime in the past. This evidence points to the fact that more holistic and evidence-based strategies should be used to deter crime. 20. Critical Incident Stress Debriefing. After any critical incident there may be people that are too stressed to put the events in context of what really happened. To help individuals in such a situation, debriefing is a standard tool that can… Continue Reading...

Enron Ethics and Leadership Failures

Ethics and Leadership Failures: The Enron Case Gibney's 2005 documentary film Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room reveals some of the main ethical weaknesses in an unbridled neoliberal capitalist market system. Barely addressing environmental and social justice issues, the filmmakers instead choose to focus on organizational culture, leadership, and ethical decision making within the corporation. The film illustrates the core concepts of business ethics and shows how executives shape company values and behaviors. Disturbingly, the Enron case also shows how unethical corporate behavior is linked with unethical behavior in government. Summarize in one paragraph how you would explain Enron's… Continue Reading...

The Impact Of Legislation on Violence

for Future Research 41 Appendices 43 References 45 List of Figures and Tables Table 1. Firearm-related crime reports in England and Wales. Table 2. The rise and fall of firearm-related homicide rates in England. Figure 1. Literature review search process for articles 2013 and later. Figure 2. Literature review search process for articles 2000 and later. Table of Legislation and Cases Pistols Act of 1903 1920 Firearms Act 1937 Firearms Act Firearms Ammendment Act 1988 1997 Firearms Amendment Acts Violent crime Reduction Act 2006 European Firearms Directive 91/477/EC Amended Directive 2008/51/EC List of Abbreviations ASEO = academic search engine optimization CPRC = crimeContinue Reading...

Personal Thought on Three Articles

the individual would be returning to. They seem to only focus on the crime committed. Basing a parole hearing on the crime denies the individual the opportunity to rejoin society early. Research has shown that parolees are less likely to be repeat offenders when compared to individuals who serve their full sentence. This should be a good pointer to encourage parole instead of focusing on sentence completion. In the first-place parole is supposed to be an incentive to encourage good behavior for inmates when in jail. State parole boards should also consist of individuals who are not political appointees… Continue Reading...

Pop and Ilp Policing

...London, England have employed different models of policing to help combat crime. London is a great place to see compare two different models of policing and see how they have performed. Those two models are problem-oriented policing and intelligence-led policing. This essay will compare and contrast the two models and see if they are compatible with each other or if one model outperforms the other. Problem-oriented policing (POP) is vastly different from intelligence-led policing (ILP). Problem-oriented policing for example has roots in the United States whereas intelligence-led policing has British roots. POP has been used by American police… Continue Reading...

Andrea Yates Case

and notoriety perception towards John Hinckley. The villain was arrested at the scene of crime. He later claimed that he acted out of love for the then American president. According to the New York Times he stated that he was in love with Forster like Romeo and Juliet. He was later tried. He was acquitted because he was found to be insane. He was sent to a psychiatry facility for help (Biography.com Editors, 2017). The McNaughton Rule was adopted in the US and UK and was applied to judge the standard of right and wrong for many years. In… Continue Reading...

Biological Theories Of Crime

there is a connection between delusion, brutality, loneliness and spontaneity and crime. Several studies apply their own developed methods and parameters, a trend which complicates the drawing of inferences from their work. Due to the societal origins of crime, the identified links of biological make up with crime were derived from studies on the biological causes of actions and characteristics which are common to criminals such as delusion, brutality, spontaneity and others. As the number of studies covering this area is quite enormous, this paper only considered a selected group and put emphasis on the intriguing discoveries, theories and… Continue Reading...

Children Going to Jail

Medina, J. (2013). U.S. Charges 18 Sheriff's Officers in Inquiry Into Misconduct at Los Angeles Jails. Nytimes.com. Retrieved 24 May 2017, from http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/10/us/18-charged-in-inquiry-into-los-angeles-sheriffs-office.html Per a single 2013 story, nearly twenty people were charged with offenses relating to misconduct and direct abuse of prisoners. I do agree with the general sentiment that jail should "feel" like punishment when it comes to restriction of freedom, activities and so forth. At the same time, prisoners should not be mistreated and assaulted just by virtue of being there. If they initiate a fight or otherwise engage in violence, they should indeed be subdued. On… Continue Reading...

The American Prohibition Era

In addition, national prohibition was largely unenforceable. Bootlegging, organized crime, and smuggling supplied alcohol to those who wanted it. (Engs 263) Because states and local counties were the ones that had to enforce prohibition, some states had stricter consequences for alcohol consumption and selling than others. For example, Arkansas at present day has 'dry' counties (35 of 75) where alcohol sales and consumption are illegal and has a statewide ban on alcohol sales on Sundays. However, places like NYC had active alcohol consumption and sales because of the power of the street gangs and the increase in organized crime.… Continue Reading...

Overall Health in Fargo North Dakota

of a film called "Fargo" by the Coen Brothers, which is now a TV show. It is a crime show but the actual town is far less surreal. The boundaries consist of: Red River, which divides North Dakota from Minnesota and runs North-South on the eastern half of the town. Fargo as a whole sits in North Dakota. I-94 runs East-West through the southern half of the town, and I-29 runs North-South through the western half of the town. Hector International Airport is on the northern half of the town. • Housing and Zoning What is the age of… Continue Reading...

The Bernard Goetz Shootings

a vigilante was able to get justice in a world full of crime. "The idea that a vigilante is on the loose, that a real live 'death wish' killer is abroad, tantalizes both public and media. People read the stories avidly, turn on the television news eagerly." (Rubin 5-6) Regardless of who was believed, the story was a hit with audiences. "The public is mesmerized by this startling turn of events. Imagine! A man who resisted the muggers and got away with it. Nothing else matter; nothing else is noticed- not dumdum bullets, not that two people were shot… Continue Reading...

Criminal Justice System Issues

collaborating with other agencies to deal with such offenses. Week 6 -- Discussion 1 The reduction of crime victimization is an important step towards reducing crime rates and enhancing the effectiveness of law enforcement approaches. A holistic response to crime victimization would entail focusing on prevention and management of victimization, improving the plight of potential crime victims, and establishing an Inter-Professional Collaborative Practice (Scheske, 2015). While the criminal justice has attempted to address victimization through various measures, these efforts fall short because they are largely reactive than proactive in preventing victimization before it occurs. In this case, a holistic plan for… Continue Reading...

Reflection on Holistic Victim Restitution Plan

field to examine situations and vulnerabilities that make it more likely for people to become victims of crime. Additionally, this discipline also focuses on examining and understanding the harm people suffer due to being victims of crime or illegal activities. One of the core components of victimology is understanding who and/or what are crime victims in light of situations that increases vulnerabilities to crime. The rise of victimology today's society is attributable to the increased vulnerabilities that certain individuals and/or groups face, which increases their likelihood of being targeted by criminals. Victim surveys have shown that some individuals and… Continue Reading...

Statute Of Limitations on Rape

unreasonable to expect a rape victim to report a crime against them in a timely manner, using a window of 90 days is entirely too short and truncated. It should be more like six months to a year. It is fairly established fact that many rape victims, for whatever reason, do not report crimes against them right away, assuming they report them at all. Rita's case is proof of why it is important to give rape victims a more elongated window. In the case of Rita, she knows she was a victim but she was so concerned about what… Continue Reading...

Muslims As an Ethnicity in the United States

Muslims in America The status of Muslims in America changed radically in the wake of 9/11 (Sheridan, 2006). A small population by percentage (American-Muslims are only 1% of the U.S. population) (Besheer, 2016), Muslims nonetheless received the vast bulk of negative attention and backlash following the attacks on the World Trade Center in 2001. As an ethnic group, Muslims were well-connected both domestically and internationally -- and many Muslims reached out to the U.S. government post-9/11 in an effort to work with federal agencies to help address the issues arising from the climate of terror (Mantri, 2011). Haddad (2001) writing… Continue Reading...

Victimology Annotated Bibliography

contemporary challenges society faces. Superior Council of Magistracy of Romania (2014). 'Strengthening Judicial Cooperation to Protect Victims of crime'. http://www.inm-lex.ro/fisiere/d_926/Project%20Handbook_final.pdf This is a report of a council that was financed by the European Union and put together and implement by the Superior Council of Magistracy of Romania. Being a council, it had the far reaching mandate and scope in ensuring the field of victims of crime was effectively covered and also divergent approaches, ideas and theories used from the various and numerous members of the council. The council used case studies, literature review and focus groups as the main sources… Continue Reading...

Protection Of the Victims Of Crime

one demeaning and devaluing act of putting the victim of a crime as being responsible, in part or in full for a crime or harm that actually affects them. It portrays the victim as being responsible for their own harm caused by another person. The blame emanates in the form of unexpected or negative social responses from the mental health, legal, medical professionals. This negative response can also be from the media or the immediate family as well as other friends and people he relates to. The responses towards victims of crime are often founded on the misunderstood positions… Continue Reading...

Police and Public Relations

of a group that has at least somewhat good intentions when it comes to the crime rates involved. Is this the answer in these tough fiscal times? It can be given that having more and more police on hand costs money and this is not the easiest thing to do when budgets are stretched thin due to recession, over-use of resources and so forth. Is this a good idea? Yes? or No? Explain why. Only if it is properly limited and controlled. It can be good in that the volunteers can be extra sets of eyes and ears and… Continue Reading...

Questions About Police Community Relations

issues (e.g. Ferguson) would be more of a police/community issue. The lower- crime areas and areas with less police or racial strife would not be dealt with at the same time as Ferguson or areas like it due to the much different dynamics involved. What is the major purpose of police-community relations activity? In a nutshell, the relations activity would be about keeping lines of communication open. If there is a situation where a person is shot or a dead body is found, the police (if they are wise) would immediately communicate what they know happened, what they are unsure… Continue Reading...

Political Ideologies: Social Liberalism

left unpunished simply because the society and not individuals is to blame for them. The dangerously high crime rate is a huge problem already as there are reports of drugs among preparatory school students. Do you anticipate that the percentage of adults/ registered voters aligned with the same political ideology as you are likely to increase or decrease in the near future? Following the current political happenings in America, most especially the election of President Donald Trump as well as the sustained agitation in favour of the 2nd amendment, there is a widespread expectation that the population of people… Continue Reading...

Counter Terrorism Community Policing and Changes

September 11, local law enforcement like Javier's department became more responsible for participating in and ensuring homeland security. While the role of police in homeland security might seem natural or obvious, diverting the attention and resources of police towards the federal concerns of homeland security can have some detrimental outcomes. One of the most important changes Javier noticed was the breakdown in the community policing model that the department had worked so hard to establish. Focusing more on counterterrorism efforts than on building relationships with community members damages the relationships between police and members of the community in serious ways.… Continue Reading...

Annotated Bibliography on Corruption

Reporting Project. Through the use of a negative binomial regression analysis, they saw that the violent crime rate presents as the singular environmental variable influence corruption in the form of police misconduct. The study provides a synthesis of information that can lead to a discovery of what specifically fuels corruption in law enforcement: police officers. Elbahnasawy, N. G. (2014). E-Government, Internet Adoption, and Corruption: An Empirical Investigation. World Development, 57, 114-126. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2013.12.005 An empirical study investigating the influence of internet adoption as well as e-government on diminishing corruption through the utilization of a big panel dataset. The researchers revealed… Continue Reading...

Law Enforcement and Corrections

for total eradication of political impact over the police. Moreover, combating of crime and the prevailing community policing model have been prevalent abuses by politicians (Law Library, 2017). Needless and pointless political wrangling over criminal justice aspects and issues that can take place when winning political skirmishes comes to be more significant to public officials than taking control of crime and attaining justice, can damage the justice process. Moreover, severe issues for the general public together with the criminal justice system can emanate from involving politics in criminal justice, a process in which political leaders seize prospects to employ… Continue Reading...

Evaluation Of Crime Incidents

Strategic, Tactical and Administrative crime Analysis crime analysis is one of the most important processes in the fight against crime and efforts towards enhancing the effectiveness of the criminal justice system in dealing with crime. In the past few years, crime analysis has continued to expand in law enforcement agencies across the globe. This expansion has contributed to the development and use of different methods of crime analysis including strategic, tactical, and administrative strategic analysis. These techniques of crime analysis are utilized when examining different… Continue Reading...

Leadership and Employees

Baltimore City Police Department Proposed changes In order to keep the officers motivated and reduce crime rate, these proposed policies will aim at aiding their understanding of how valuable and important they are and the indispensable function they perform in order for the department's objectives to be achieved. The strategies will employ Herzberg Hygiene theory, which debates that two major factors exist that people consider when highly motivated; the factors associated with job satisfaction and those related to job discontent as well as the Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory; "Motivational needs vary from the essential biological needs such as food, air… Continue Reading...

Civil Rights and Civil Liberties

Civil rights can be delineated as the very basic and fundamental rights to be free from unequal treatment, on the basis of particular attributes that are considered important, for instance gender, race, and also disability. The Bill of Rights protects all citizens of the nation against the infringement of their rights and liberties by any entity and even the state, as it is assured in the Constitution. One of the key civil rights discussed and debated in the United States in the present day encompasses the rights of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer or questioning community (LGBTQ) (Newton, 2014).… Continue Reading...

Modern Police Tactics and Tricks

for effective police-community relations? Feedback from the people, whether it be tips about crime or advice on how to be relatable to the community, is necessary because police cannot be everywhere and warrants and such are needed to detect or prove many crimes (RAND). Describe briefly the evolution of police-community relations programs in the United States. Even if some areas are lagging, there is a general shift towards this model in many cities and this is a movement away from the impersonal and harsher methods of the past. There are cities where distrust remains high, although that can occur for… Continue Reading...

Community Policing and Justice

convicts within prisons, jails, or within society when on parole or probation (National Center for Victims of crime 4). Common law allows active judge participation when it comes to formulating rules while civil law is grounded in established policies and decrees. The distinction between civil and common legal systems is inherent in the chief law source. While common law widely utilizes statutes, court cases are considered the most salient law source, according judges a major, dynamic role with regard to formulating regulations (Brighton 4). America's Police Hierarchy is different for different sheriff, local, state and federal level police forces.… Continue Reading...

Managing Reforming Drug Addicts and Ex Convicts

integrate into the society. These measures are aimed at ensuring that the inmates do not engage in crime and hence find themselves back in prison once they are released. I find several arguments in this article quite interesting. For instance, the article sights the incompetence of the halfway house in reforming the inmates. What is interesting is the fact that the halfway houses are set up for the very purpose of reforming inmates and ensuring that they can be integrated into the society. These houses were established to create the link between prison and society by giving inmates an… Continue Reading...

Crimes Against Property

The common characteristics of all property crimes Property crime can encompass aspects of burglary, theft, or motor vehicle theft and this also includes attempted as well as completed crimes. In accordance to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (2010), property crime comprises of the wrongdoings of motor vehicle theft, larceny-theft, burglary, as well as, arson. In particular, the object of the theft-kind transgressions encompasses the taking of money or property, however with the lack of force or threat of force against the victims. Imperatively, the property crime classification takes into account… Continue Reading...

Anti-bullying Bill in Texas

of a minor via SMS messaging and social networks a crime. The law would necessitate incorporation of e-bullying in school district policy and alerting parents whose kids prove to be bullies, or the bullied. Another provision is civil liability, where bullied kids’ families can sue the families of perpetrators, facilitating summons power to identify the bully. This would necessitate school district formulation of a system for anonymous bullying-related reporting and greater leeway to expel pupils or place them in alternative punitive academic programs if they are found committing severe bullying such as urging a fellow student to take his/her… Continue Reading...

Gun Fu and Hong Kong Cinema

Bonding Over Bullets: Gun Fu is the Way to a Better Tomorrow John Woo redefined the action film genre with his 1986 Hong Kong film A Better Tomorrow. Staring the Asian TV star Chow Yun Fat and movie star Ti Lung, the film transcended the action genre already well-established in the West by using the various tropes of the genre (gangsters, the conflicted family, brother-against-brother, friend-in-peril, reformed hood, betrayal, and so on), mixing in elements of melodrama and morality (both Buddhism and Christianity appear in the film), and layering it with stylized gun violence -- gunplay like swordplay -- in… Continue Reading...

Alcohol Use and Sex Crimes

a factor in being a victim of a sex crime?" involves identifying quantifiable aspects of the question for quantitative research while the lived experiences of victims of sex crimes would be more appropriate for a qualitative study. These types of research questions are important today because of the well documented relationship between alcohol and sex crimes. For instance, Kelley and Lewis (2009) report that, "Alcohol use has been found to have a strong relationship with sexual offenses, including rape and pedophilia. Approximately 40% to 50% of sex offenders have reported that they were drinking at the time they committed… Continue Reading...

Home Invasion and Crime Spree

Present in the Case The capital punishment is intended for people who commit the worst crime. To determine whether the defendants deserve a death sentence, the jury must weigh all the evidence given the reasons for sparing the criminals. However, Cheshire's murders were considered aggravating because of the following reasons: • The defendants raped and killed the innocents people without defense. • They turned the life of Dr. William Petit into sorrowful making him consider committing suicide. Moreover, both Komisarjevsky and Hayes had once been convicted of offenses that include sexual assault, capital felony, murder, arson and kidnapping. Thus, such… Continue Reading...

Laws on Rape, Murder, Aggravated Assault, and Robbery

sentenced to 10 and 20 years imprisonment and or fines. Murder is another form of crime against persons that is common in the US. It is defined as the process where an individual with sound discretion and mind takes the life of another by killing and in the process destabilizes the state of the peace in the family, community, and the state as a whole. Murder can be classified into types that include first-degree murder, second-degree murder, and manslaughter. A first-degree murder occurred when taking of life was done willing fully. A second-degree murder occurs when a person takes another's… Continue Reading...

Social Issues in the Military and Law Enforcement

and mental deterioration at the time when she committed the alleged crime. As such, the court ought to have considered that fact by the time it made the ruling. This application of the law that did not consider Miss Manning's special case has contributed to her frustrations and hence the attempted suicide. Moreover, the length of imprisonment in the sentence she received must have contributed in making Miss Manning desperate to the point of attempted suicide. In my opinion, the court has had a great influence on Miss Manning's frustrations and consequent suicide attempts. I think Miss Manning does… Continue Reading...

The Trouble with Innocence Article Analysis

is perceptible from the article that investigation of the scene of the crime at Edwards' apartment was substantially inadequate and lacking to the extent that the detectives failed to discover one of the key weapons or tools used during the murder, a 10-inch knife that all along was placed by the murderer in the closet, a few steps from her body. This was later discovered by the roommate's father. Taking these aspects into consideration, it can be learnt that the investigative work into the crime was sloppily done. Subsequent investigations and poking of holes into the case has revealed… Continue Reading...

Criminology in America

the reason for his success. Is this an accurate statement? How does education impact directly or indirectly crime in America? Next, choose a district in an inner city and one in a non-urban area. Discuss the educational programs in each and then discuss the crime statistics within each area. What conclusions can you draw regarding education and its effect on crime in the area? Several explanations of this have been thoroughly elaborated and they are based on the traditions popular in poverty-stricken regions, the unequal distribution of educational infrastructure, the standard of education in the less developed regions, the… Continue Reading...

Punitive and Correctional System in the United States

Punitive, and correctional system in the United states of America in contrast with the German, Norwegian and Netherlands systems. • Introduction to US criminal justice system • A general outlook of the German, Norway, and Netherlands criminal justice system • A thesis statement Similarities Opening statement Classification of prisons • security levels • Prisons differentiated based on age, and sex. Operations within incarceration facilities • Compulsory work duties and vacations • Compensation for work Access to amenities • Leisure activities • Education and skill improvement opportunities Differences Opening statement Basic and foundational principle of the criminal justice system, • Rates… Continue Reading...

Applying Criminology Theory in Iceman

sold it to individuals having links with the notorious Gambino crime Family, from a film laboratory (Kuklinski, Richard). Criminology Theory that applies on Richard Kuklinski’s interview with Dr. Rietz indicates the following two criminology theories applicable in his case: 1. Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) This constitutes a classification of people who are constantly not complying with societal norms and are exhibiting disruptive or felonious conduct. Antisocial conduct during the childhood phase is of particular concern as it may offer an explanation for developmental pathways resulting in long-run antisocial conduct. While youth brain imaging was earlier restricted on account of… Continue Reading...

Contemporary Ethical Issues in Corrections

lived the life he did before prison. References Weiner, J. (2014). Of crime and punishment, redemption, and aerobics. The New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/02/nyregion/of-crime-punishment-and-aerobics.html?ref=nyregion&_r=0 Reading Three Women in prison often face additional threats than do their male counterparts. As well as the threat of sexual and other forms of physical violence from their fellow prisoners, women often face demands for sexual favors from prison guards. In Alabama, the problem is particularly rife. One of the reasons for this may be the very punitive attitude taken towards corrections in general in the state. Prisoners are viewed as getting their just desserts… Continue Reading...

Norway and Germany Compared to Us in Incarceration

additionally, "Germany and the Netherlands generally measure re-conviction, not just re-incarceration (which might not be for a new crime); and the follow-up time in Europe is variable, ranging from one to eight years" (Subramanian, Shames, 2013, p. 6). This shows that the two countries take a more humanistic approach to measure recidivism: they are not simply gauging whether a person has been put in prison again but whether a person has actually been convicted. Likewise, they are looking at the crime committed -- whether it was for something new or for the same thing as before. They are looking… Continue Reading...

Ethical and Legal Considerations Intellectual Property and Product Safety

name. Such a move was also in complete violation of ethical and legal considerations. It overlooked the crime aspects associated with the marketing of such drugs and even went on to bribe doctors to create fictitious patients for the new entity. Al these made what the company did entirely unethical. It follows, therefore, that PharmaCARE engaged in violation of such marketing ethics and fairness in the treatment of the consumer. They were also blatantly dishonest. Moreover, it appears that the marketing efforts made by the company were only aimed at increasing profits at the expense of consumer health and… Continue Reading...

Holistic Victim Restitution Plan

had been sidelined but deserved attention (Turvey, 2013) Some people are more susceptible to being victims of crime when compared with others, this is what Victimology tries to fathom. Four main theories exist in Victimology. The First being Victim Precipitation states that the conflict that actually resulted in the wound or demise of the victim may actually be started by the victim. Lifestyle theory is the second theory. The basis of this theory is that contact with law breakers is significantly caused by the way of living of the law-breaking victim. The third is the Deviant place Theory which is… Continue Reading...

American Corrections and Sentencing Trends

decreasing the nation's detention scale. Experts and policymakers have been suggesting "smart on crime" public safety strategies which support alternatives to imprisonment and decrease re-offense chances[footnoteRef:1]. Despite simultaneous fruitful bipartite dialogues on the subject of decreasing jail populations and bringing improvements to crime justice policies, the nation still struggles with disturbing racial frictions. The latest concern concentrates on frequent reports of law enforcement violence inflicted on non-Whites, some cases ending in fatalities of African-American males at the hands of law enforcers, with scant to no evident provocation. In this paper, the many fields in which racist values and traditions… Continue Reading...

Affordable Care Act and Marijuana

marijuana from 2010 to 2014 in comparison to those who didn’t showed that crime rate wasn’t affected by this action. Even though a number of studies shows that there is a higher rate of crime in states which haven’t reformed their laws, this disparity is really negligible. If states which have allowed marijuana consumption as well as those which has allowed the use of its medical form are compared to other states which have not, it is clear that there is a lower quantity of crime in the first set of states even though this is not very visible.… Continue Reading...

Restitution for Victims Of Crime

have in place a comprehensive and holistic victim restitution plan order to ensure that the victims of crime are adequately compensated and restored as much as possible to their previous nature and status. The intimate partner crime victimization is common within the society hence the need to fully understand the meaning of intimate partner abuse and the possible restitution plan that can help in compensation of such victims within the required period of time. The main paper will hence look at the following major areas in order to fully understand intimate partner crime and victimization of the victims of… Continue Reading...

Edward Snowden Essay

that while embarrassing or shaming the U.S. government is not a crime (McCarthy, 2013), this computer professional violated the terms of his employment agreement as well as stealing classified documents from the National Security Agency. In fact, Snowden himself admitted that his actions were illegal (Morrison, 2014). In sum, even though Snowden may have been trying to actually make the world a better place, his approach was inappropriate and the government’s response did not violate this contractor’s constitutional rights. In this regard, Yoo (2014) reports that “Despite the claims of critics, these programs do not violate the Foreign Intelligence… Continue Reading...

Media Theory Essay

and identities. Moreover, actor-network theory touches upon a central issue in criminology and the sociology of crime: the issue of power. According to the premises of actor-network theory, all entities within any given network acquire power in several core but relatively stable ways: particularly through the “number, extensiveness, and stability of the connections routed through them, and through nothing else,” (Couldry, 2004, p. 1). Actor-network theory does not become boggled down by semiotics, and can offer instead pragmatic and practical solutions to problems like cybercrime. For instance, many of the most serious cybercrimes occur trans-nationally, and actor-network theory aids… Continue Reading...

Human Trafficking Essay

benefits Other types of exploitation Source: United Nations Office on Drugs and crime at http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/human-trafficking/what-is-human-trafficking.html One school of thought holds that prostitution is a normal part of the human condition that allows otherwise unskilled workers to earn a living. This view is congruent with the definition provided by Black’s Law Dictionary which states that prostitution is “engaging in, or agreeing or offering to engage in sexual contact with another person under a free arrangement with that person or any other person.” In this context, the term prostitute applies to both males and females. This view is also congruent with the position… Continue Reading...

Torture and Interrogation Essay

compared to the other. For example, according to Welch, “With the spread of scientific forms of crime detection as well as new training and education requirements, American police soon came to see the third degree as not only unprofessional and illegal, but also less effective at eliciting confessions than modern interrogation techniques, and thus dispensable.”66 Despite domestic and international laws to the contrary, the global war on terrorism launched by the Bush administration has routinely depended on brutal physical methods and torture to exact information from reluctant detainees despite the availability of other techniques with proven efficacy.67 These other… Continue Reading...

Hawthorne Vs Poe Story Comparison

of self-distrust, that even the mildest censure would lead him to consider an indifferent action as a crime” (Hawthorne para10). The author’s profound character analysis and development ends up making one feel as though one is very well-acquainted with the character and understands his/her innermost thoughts. On the other hand, consider Poe’s work titled “The Oval Portrait” where the author extravagantly describes the setting in the following words: “The chateau into which (we entered) was one of those piles of commingled gloom and grandeur which…had been temporarily and very lately abandoned.” (Poe 69). The author’s characterization allows readers to… Continue Reading...

The Benefits Of Crowdsourcing Medicine

asking for fine dining tips in Tokyo or even asking the general public for clues to solving a crime. With crowdsourced medicine using the CrowdMed model, doctors, nurses, and other healthcare workers essentially compete for whoever offers the most accurate diagnosis, and receive financial compensation for accurate hits. Compensation is higher for difficult to diagnose problems. The HumanDx platform is different, available only to physicians at the moment and uses AI instead of human input. Regardless of the model being used, crowdsourcing medicine presents a host of ethical and legal problems. When these legal and ethical kinks are ironed… Continue Reading...

Christian Worldview

seek to please God in everything they do. For instance, a Christian will avoid hatred, revenge, malice, lying, and crime because such acts violate the will of God. A Christian will act with respect, care, love, compassion, and empathy towards other people because that is what God desires. Such values evidently indicate that the Christian worldview is a positive worldview. It advocates for love, kindness, selflessness, and harmonious coexistence. There is really no loss in subscribing to Christianity. However, the Christian worldview can sometimes be confusing. For many people, for instance, understanding why evil happens yet God is all-loving… Continue Reading...

Prosecution Of Andrew Fastow

fraud is a deliberate misrepresentation of information wired within or between states. It is a crime because wiring information is a valuable means of communication, particularly in financial circles in which securities are involved. Fastow was frequently involved in the wire fraud with Enron whenever there was wire communication about the company’s financial information, which was in and of itself fraudulent. Thus, whenever that financial information was transacted via elements of the wire fraud law, that law was deliberately infringed. Wire fraud involves using federal communication devices for purposeful misrepresentations, including media such as telephones and email. The offender’s… Continue Reading...

Gold Smuggling and the Gold Black Market

virtual currencies reign, gold occupies a more unique position than it has ever before. In Wages of crime, Naylor reveals the dark underbelly of the world’s most popular precious metal. The chapter “The Underworld of Gold” addresses everything from how gold is mined nefariously in both black and grey market ways, and similarly traded in ways that resemble other types of organized crime. National laws often tax either the import or export of precious metals, driving gold markets to the grey and black zones of the global economy. In a world in which international banking leaves a potentially dangerous… Continue Reading...

The Role Of Sarbanes Oxley Act in Curbing Corporate Fraud

of corporate robbery, the police department should be contacted and the case treated as the crime and serve as a reminder to the rest of the team that there is zero tolerance to such incidences (Smith, 2016). Senior managers, CFOs, CEOs, and business owners should exercise integrity and honesty to set an excellent example for the rest of the team since the environment set would recognize theft as criminal activity. Moreover, the company should separate duties and not give one person the responsibility to conduct all financial functions (Young, 2013). For instance, one employee should not record and process… Continue Reading...

Texas Law Cases on Theft

the dwelling of another person with an aim to commit a crime inside the building is offense. Moreover, any person who breaks the dwelling of another individual with the intention to indulge in either theft, or any other form of crime is considered an offense (Samaha). It can further be depicted that any kind of entry into the dwelling of a person in the wrong way is similar to committing a crime. Therefore, Jewell admitted to a good friend that he had broken into Bridget’s house and had committed as the police had accused him of the same. He… Continue Reading...

Why Parents Should Be Liable for Their Children\'s Bullying

According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, between one-quarter and one-third of all American school children report being bullied in some fashion, with the highest prevalence of bullying occurring during the middle school years (Facts about bullying 2). It is inappropriate to classify every type of aggressive encounter between youths as bullying because young people are undergoing a profoundly transformative period in their lives when experimentation, peer pressure and the search for individual identity assume truly enormous significance. When some types of unwanted aggressive behaviors persist, however, they conform to the definition of bullying provided by the… Continue Reading...

Naylor Against World Wide Trading Of Weapons in Wages Of Crime

legal transaction matrix, aspiring to achieve long-term commercial existence. Indeed, one alternative approach to traditional imagery indicates most traditionally-defined crime constitutes small-time offenders’ domain; the actual danger comes from the apparently legal businesses experimenting with the extent to which rules may be bent prior to paying policymakers to affect reforms (Finckenauer, 2006). References Finckenauer, J. O. (2006). Black markets, illegal finance, and the underworld economy, R.T. naylor, cornell university press, 2005. crime, Law and Social Change, 45(3), 227-230. Naylor, R. T. (2004). Wages of crime: Black markets, illegal finance, and the underworld economy. Cornell University Press. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=mr6q4zNufC0C&pg=PA88&lpg=PA88&dq=chapter+3+%22Gun+Smoke+and+Mirrors%22+in+Wages+of+crime&source=bl&ots=VzBj1Wo5BG&sig=JaEtS-KXvzQt0ov66Gn0wF2Ls7k&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjBkoKozazXAhWJuhoKHWUaD7MQ6AEIJjAA#v=onepage&q=chapter%203%20%22Gun%20Smoke%20and%20Mirrors%22%20in%20Wages%20of%20Crime&f=false on 7 November… Continue Reading...

Strategic Management and Its Influence on Stakeholders

objectives must be informed by both internal and external factors, such as available financial resources and personnel, crime rates, and socio-cultural setup. During strategic planning, the department must, for example, consider whether it has the resources and personnel needed to respond to crime, prevent crime, and to enhance public safety. An important aspect of strategic management relates to stakeholder involvement. As an organization, the police department is surrounded by a multiplicity of internal and external stakeholders. Internal stakeholders mainly include police officers and police leaders. The department works with or is affected by several external stakeholders, including the state… Continue Reading...

Criminal Justice Organizational Issues

Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vji1nrcFRU8 Ridgeway, G. & MacDonald, J.M. (2014). A Method for Internal Benchmarking of Criminal Justice System Performance. crime & Delinquency, 60(1), 145-162. Vliet, V.V. (2014, June 23). Five Functions of Management (Fayol). Retrieved November 9, 2017, from https://www.toolshero.com/management/five-functions-of-management/   Continue Reading...

Race and Gender Representation in Advertisements

Oaks: SAGE, pp. 297-317. Burt, C., Simons, R., & Gibbons, F. (2012). Racial discrimination, ethnic-racial socialization, and crime: A micro-sociological model of risk and resilience. American Sociological Review, 77(4), 648-677. Meyers, M. (2004). African American women and violence: Gender, race, and class in news. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 21(2), 95-118. Continue Reading...

Public Funding and the Police

law that allows police to confiscate the property of anyone accused of a crime if they believe the property is in some way connected to crime. Profits from forfeiture can be used to fund the general law enforcement department or go to a fund for promoting some sort of public safety program in the city or state (Sullivan, 2014). The basic process through which budgetary decisions were made in my previous place of employment was based on following the process for the city: the City members met in February and followed the Revenues Manual guidelines to predict what the… Continue Reading...

National Security Impact Of Immigration Policy

to terrorism, the cross- border movement and resettlement of people has been associated with growing crime rates as well, reinforcing the idea that migration jeopardizes public security. Whether migration does, indeed, increase crime rates or not may be regarded as a matter of reality against perception. Despite increasing public concerns with regard to elevated crime rates exacerbated by the migration phenomenon and migrants’ potential threats to societal order, the above concerns have no sound empirical basis. Against popular opinion, numerous researches on several states reveal no sound linkage between criminal behavior and migration. One may not overlook the fact… Continue Reading...

Annotated Bibliography for Criminal Psychology

am considering for my annotated bibliography is criminal psychology. Criminal psychology addresses the psychological motivations for committing crime, including personality theories and theories that take into account biological, social, and environmental risk factors. Because I do not yet know what specific area to research, I will start with three general sources about criminal psychology. The following is my preliminary annotated bibliography on criminal psychology. Annotated Bibliography Andrews, D.A. & Bonta, J. (2010). The Psychology of Criminal Conduct. New Providence: Matthew Bender. This is a textbook on criminal psychology, focusing on various psychological theories explaining criminal conduct. More in-depth than… Continue Reading...

Sexual Assault and Legal Standards

Commonwealth v. Berkowitz (1992) Q1. Explain how the court came to the conclusion that the Pennsylvania rape statute required extrinsic force. According to Pennsylvania law, rape may occur either by “forcible compulsion” or the threat of forcible compulsion which “would prevent resistance by a person of reasonable resolution” (“Commonwealth v. Berkowitz”). The Pennsylvania court interpreted this wording as meaning that direct, extrinsic force or the threat of such force was required for an act to constitute sexual assault. Q2. LIST all the facts relevant to deciding whether Roberts Berkowitz’s actions satisfy the extrinsic force requirement. Berkowitz pushed the victim down… Continue Reading...

Reforms Needed for Three Strikes Law

are even some non-violent offenses that could be classified in that manner, such as repeat DUI offenders. Indeed, that crime is not violent but the risk to the public is clear and people do not really “age out” of drinking, although therapy is always possible with cooperation (Moore, Harrison, Young & Ochshorn, 2008). However, there are plenty of other situations where the three strikes law is an abuse of power, is a waste of taxpayer dollars and might even be discriminatory towards minorities. Due to the clear weaknesses in the law and due to the common lack of built-in… Continue Reading...

Improving Public Relations Between the Police Department and the Citizens

duties. It is important to note that to some extent, the Violent crime Control and Law Enforcement Act (1994) has also prompted a number agencies to implement action plans aimed at ending the use of excessive force against citizens. In essence, this particular act permits the AG to institute legal proceedings against local as well as state governments found to be in constant and perennial violation of appropriate policing standards in a manner that could be considered to be contemptuous to the U.S. Constitution or any other applicable law. Failure to address the numerous public complaints that have been… Continue Reading...

Confidentiality Breaches & Informed Consent when Testing New Drugs

and peoples well-being and happiness. People cannot have quality living when there is a high crime rate or the air, house, and the environment is polluted. Therefore, the indicators of health and well-being are quite diverse including physical health, chronic diseases, disabilities, activities of daily living, family and social support, emotional and psychological conditions, living conditions, physical environment, and working conditions. However, it indicates that medicine should work beyond the biomedical model of health and illness that is only concerned with alleviating pain and suffering. There is the social model covers illnesses and sickness which indicates that a person… Continue Reading...

Leadership Dynamics at Johnson County Sheriff Department

continues, he is likely to limit the information give to the FBI, which might make the crime perpetrator to escape. It is sad because such behavior will cause ethical problems within Sheriff Jones’ department (Fairholm, 2015). The moral issue here is that the other officers within the department will develop feelings of mistrust towards him. Obviously, these fact-based emotions will be directed towards their very own leader. When the leader manages his subordinates according to the race rather than merit, employee morale is compromised because the line-staff will feel as though they are not making any significant contributions to… Continue Reading...

Impact Of Darryl Hunt\'s Case

Winston-Salem (Stern & Sundberg, 2006). Darryl Hunt, a 19-year-old black man was charged with this crime despite the absence of any physical evidence linking him to the crime. Hunt’s charges were largely based on an eyewitness’ identification that was made by a former member of Klu Klux Klan. He was later convicted of the crime and sentenced to life imprisonment by a jury of 11 whites and one black. However, in 1994, DNA testing showed that Hunt did not rape the victim, which generated significant doubts on his involvement in the murder of Deborah Sykes. Despite these findings, Hunt… Continue Reading...

Unreasonable Searches and Seizures Article Reviews

the offending officer never arrested anyone who had not committed a crime after he had conducted further investigation and found incriminating evidence. Still, the officer’s actions call into question the constitutional protections accorded to suspects and the fact that the officer was able to get away with his actions for so long demonstrates the difficulty of contesting the word of an officer in a court of law. Greenhouse, L. (2014). The Supreme Court Justices have cellphones, too. The New York Times. Retrieved from: https://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/26/opinion/linda-greenhouse- the-supreme-court-justices-have-cellphones-too.html This article suggests that while the US Supreme Court justices are sworn to uphold… Continue Reading...

Societal Perceptions Of Pornography

Pornography has received considerable attention in the modern society largely because of the rapid technological advancements that have made it easy for people to access pornographic material. The increased proliferation of pornography is today’s society has also been fueled by the changing opinions on sex. While pornography is a practice that dates back to the beginning of time, it has obtained significant attention and increased proliferation in the 21st Century. The changes in people’s opinions on sex and increased consumption of pornographic materials have made pornography to become a multibillion dollar industry. As this industry continues to grow due to… Continue Reading...

Criminal Law Cases Examinations

to the court, why can participants in a sporting event consent to conduct that would otherwise be a crime? In the case State v. Shelley, participants in a sporting event can consent to conduct that would otherwise be considered a crime if the conduct could be reasonably foreseeable, flowing directly from the rules of the game. For example, it’s reasonable to assume that agreeing to a boxing match might result in getting punched in the face, or other comparable injuries. 2. Why should they be allowed to consent to such conduct when in other situations (such as those enumerated… Continue Reading...

Mainstream Media and Science

science in a positive light as the characters use different scientific theories and aspects to solve crime and problems that arise. The key characters in the shows use aspects such as DNA, genes, bone structure and forensics to solve crime. This shows how science can be used to improve the lives of people and the world at large. On the other hand, shows also portray the negative aspects of science and the manner in which it can be devastating. For instance, in Frankenstein, science is shown to give rise to forces that cannot be controlled with very serious repercussions… Continue Reading...

Antwone Fisher

to get thrown out. He then moved for a short while to a male shelter, got embroiled in a crime which killed his childhood best-friend (another abandonment, in his opinion), and finally got a job with the Navy. In the course of his sessions, he found love in Cheryl Smolley, a fellow sailor around whom he experienced shyness. This caused him to seek dating tips from his therapist. Antwone also struggled with his ‘virgin’ status despite his age (Seal, 2002). Substance Abuse, Use and History: Davenport encourages Antwone to find closure by seeking out his biological relatives in Cleveland,… Continue Reading...

When Senators and Police Go Bad

Bloomberg would try to make himself and his city look better by underreporting on crime is a very disingenuous type of leadership: it indicates that people should lie and falsify claims in order to make the situation look better than it is. This is not how communities are transformed for the better, however. The police have a duty to serve and protect, and if the community feels it is not being served by them or is being underserved (because their issues are not being reported—such as shootings, assaults, attempted rapes and so on) then why is the community going… Continue Reading...

Criminal Law Cases Analysis

actus reus. This is to indicate that the defendant has some ulterior motive in mind. A specific intent crime is one where in theory the mens rea goes beyond the actus reus, in the sense that the defendant has some ulterior purpose in mind. In the case at hand, the actus reus is to infect the three women with the virus with the intention of causing them some suffering and harm. The defendant must not only be shown to have mens rea for causing infection but also a more specific mens rea in the form of causing suffering and… Continue Reading...

Law Enforcement Abuses in Investigations

officers disregarding evidence because it does not fit their narrative of what happened at a crime scene. The defense lawyers clearly have a good case on their side (which is no doubt why the first trial ended in a mistrial). The prosecution’s side is weak and does not explain motive or the evidence that the defense says was left at the home—such as the missing hair, the bent fireplace tools, and the gashes in the wall. The defense also has offered a motive that seems plausible whereas the prosecution attests that the defendant attacked the victim for no reason.… Continue Reading...

Self Defense Laws and Castle Doctrine

The right to use force in self-defense an important civil liberty and right, ensconced in the Second Amendment of the Constitution. Because of Second Amendment assurances, all Americans technically have the right to bear arms in self-defense. Some states have attempted to restrict Second Amendment rights, but the vast majority of states have implemented “some statutory version” of the Castle Doctrine (“What is the Castle Doctrine,” n.d.). In fact, some states like Florida have taken the Castle Doctrine a step further to invoke what are commonly called “stand your ground laws.” Whereas the Castle Doctrine only applies to a person’s… Continue Reading...

Inpatient Admission Of the Poor for Healthcare in the United States

perfectly healthy and still require emergency room treatment from issues pertaining to drugs, crime, and other social ills pertaining to economics. Another example which supports the notion that there would only be a slight decline in inpatient admission if the poor were as healthy as those who are not poor is found in the Patient and Affordable Care Act. Due to governmental subsidies (as well as revenues from penalties associated with this act in which everyone was mandated to have health insurance) (Fernandez, 2014), healthcare was suddenly accessible to all—including those who were poor. However, in the wake of… Continue Reading...

Political Science

Politics There are several patterns and outcomes that are fairly common in the realm of political science. Similarly, there are some subjects and points of study that are more common than others. Just a few that come to mind include the ethics of congressional staff, whether third party candidates could or should be a viable option and the demarcation that could or should exist between federal and state authority. For each of these three major examples, there will be an example given of such a thing and an analysis of the overall paradigm and question. While there are some ideas… Continue Reading...

Bin Laden Al Qaeda Financing Crime

some might say even rogue, interpretation of bin Laden and al Qaeda. While Naylor spends the entire Wages of crime focusing on the flows of black market and blood money, he does so within a morally relativist framework. Chapter Seven of Wages of crime is an addendum, new to the most recent edition of the book that was originally published prior to September 11. Responding to the pressing push to apply the economist’s approach to terrorist financing, Naylor understandably adds this chapter as part of his ongoing narrative on the wages of crime. Given the tenor and themes contained… Continue Reading...

Michigan Community Child Watch Programs

a chance to minimize the risk of children becoming victims of crime. Administered as a joint effort by school districts and local law enforcement agencies, the Community Child Watch Program owes its long-running success to volunteers that are trained to recognize, observe, report, and record any suspicious persons and activities. Every trained volunteer gains a handbook for reference and a poster to display on their door or window to show he or she has completed the program and is informed on what steps are needed to prevent crime regarding minors. Window posters have acted to deter would-be criminals like… Continue Reading...

Enron Fraud

to shred documents sought by the SEC in an attempt to cover up the crime. Ethical Issues It must first be understood what constitutes an ethical issue. The decision of whether to commit a crime or not does not constitute an ethical dilemma, at least not in the instance of securities fraud. An ethical dilemma is a decision where there must be negative consequences, yes, but choosing between a legal action and an illegal one is not an ethical dilemma in any meaningful sense (McConnell, 2014). Thus, the decision to commit the fraud itself is no ethical dilemma by… Continue Reading...

The Trump Travel Ban

problems have generated an uneasy atmosphere that has shown a perceived increase in crime, terrorist propaganda and massacres. However, this perception is flawed. There has been a decrease in terrorist attacks, with an increase only in severity (Foley) If the United States under President Trump wishes to protect itself and its people by limiting who can come into the country, this may not be the best route. The thing that is important to understand is that the banning of these countries is nothing new. Going back more than a century, the Chinese Exclusion Act kept Chinese immigrants from moving… Continue Reading...

School Crime Prevention Programs

The author of this report has been asked to detail three different programs that are geared towards crime prevention and control with students. For each program, there will be a description. There will also be a listing of the pros and cons for the program. The difference in the methods as well as a general compare and contrast will be completed. The overall level of success for each program will also be included. While anti-crime programs have varying levels of success with the students of the United States, keeping students out of trouble is something that is deemed… Continue Reading...

The Ethical Issues Of Criminal Justice

Criminal Justice system: Impact caused by a lengthy criminal justice system on crime suspects 2. Border Control Program: Significance of enhanced boarder control in preventing crime, drug trafficking and counterfeit goods 3. Innocence Program-Suspect Conviction processes: Consequences of wrongful conviction of inmates and measure needed to alleviate wrongful convictions Impact of relevant political and ethical issues associated with the program evaluation The criminal justice system has many good but also negative consequences. To the extent that there still are wrongful convictions and the policy makers may have to reevaluate the program with an objective of rethinking the loopholes. Zalman… Continue Reading...

The History Of Security Measures

was important because it denoted the role of a police to mitigate the effects of crime, in which there were now public sector security forces created to enforce security for the public sector. France was a good example of the advent of police forces and national armies as security. There were several instances during the end of the 17th and the 18th centuries in which French forces were needed to defend the country against Napoleon. Some of those attempts were failures as the usurper was able to control France and other parts of Europe. However, others were successful as… Continue Reading...

Police Brutality and Behaviorism

law enforcement in turn undermines the authority and legitimacy of the police and prevents cooperative measures of stopping crime like community policing models. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics (2015), 44 million people on average each year in the United States have some kind of face-to-face contact with police and of those 44 million, just under two percent experience use of threatening or nonfatal force. While this number may seem small, on the ground the high rate of police brutality does hurt the objectives of the criminal justice system. Moreover, the Bureau of Justice Statistics (2015) shows that… Continue Reading...

Serial Killers and the Media

been portrayed in Hollywood films, given the motiveless nature of the crime, it can be extremely useful (Winerman 2004). Profiling is not a replacement for effective investigation but it can enhance it. Serial killers will likely continue to attract the public’s attention in the future. But media coverage must err on the side of being responsible and informative, versus focusing on sensational details that could potentially inspire copycat actions. The media must also be mindful of any ongoing investigation and while it is not a tool of the police force, it should not release evidence which could hamper the… Continue Reading...

The Oj Simpson Case Analysis

7 billion cases would the alleles be identical in the accused and in the sample found on the crime scene. A sound counterattack was put forward by the defense. Firstly, it claimed the prosecution’s statement pertaining to Simpson's motive, conduct, frame of mind, and appearance was wrong. Their client was neither furious with the victim nor intended any harm (Brewer, 2004; University, 2018). According to a homemade video of the recital, Simpson appeared to be congenial and smiling when interacting briefly with another performer’s parent. Secondly, the defense team criticized the physical proof’s integrity and interpretation; defense lawyer Cochran… Continue Reading...

Crime and Punishment in the American Colonies

What crime existed in the colonies? How was this different or the same as in the lands from where colonists came? Although the early colonists clearly brought with them vestiges of their previous culture and country, living in the New World produced new social and economic factors that gave rise to new worldviews and also new forms of crime. But initially, there was relatively little crime. For many early colonists, religious cohesion, the lack of diversity within their society, and above all a desire for… Continue Reading...

Private Security Vs National Security

kind of service background, along with training and experience in operating crime scenes, investigating bomb threats, and securing buildings, maritime operations, and airport facilities in the face of terroristic risk, place private security at a top-tier level right alongside national security forces in terms of offering adequate and effective security operations, no matter the client. In some cases, the client is the government itself, and in other cases, the client consists of other private businesses and/or operations that face threats in this age of terror. Private security is the latest trend in an increasingly militarized world. Works Cited Elsea,… Continue Reading...

Death Penalty As a Deterrent for Murder

after than it was before: the rise of organized crime was ushered into existence thanks to the Era of Prohibition, and it has not gone away to this day (Bursik, 1988). In order for the death penalty to serve as a deterrent for murder, it must therefore be applied in a system of law that is moral, consistent, equitable and fair. If that system is pervaded by other unjust laws, is inconsistently applied with regard to fairness and equitability, or is riddled with corruption (“the law’s delay” and the “insolence of office” as Shakespeare put it in Hamlet), the… Continue Reading...

Domestic Violence and the Effect on Children

feeling. This can lead them to a life of crime and eventually to time served in prison. Understanding these issues and learning ways to help children who are victims of domestic violence is one way to make a positive difference in their lives and help communities to overcome their struggles. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Coalition Against Domestic Violence (NCADV, 2017), there is a domestic violence situation occurring every twenty minutes in the U.S. In many cases, domestic violence situations focus on the individual who is attacked. However, when children are part… Continue Reading...

The World Population and Urbanization

to provide enough social and economic opportunities to some of its members, thus encouraging them to become involved in crime or other antisocial activities” (p. 10). This antisocial trend is a risk that societies should be keen on averting so that these urban areas can “effectively manage their natural resources and reduce their greenhouse gas emissions while improving quality of life” (Dasgupta, 2018). The more social the inhabitants of these areas are, the more likely they are to take into thoughtful consideration the greening of their urban environment for the sake of mental and environmental health (Grahn & Stigsdotter,… Continue Reading...

The Morality Of Dropping Atomic Bomb on Japan

death sentence is given as a form of punishment for a crime committed. The person executed is found guilty of an offense worthy of capital punishment. In the case of the latter, those exterminated on not judged to have been guilty of any offense. Their “crime” is merely that they live in a country that is at war with another country. Instead of the countries fighting it out on the battle field as is the custom of war, one country embarks on a decision to engage in total war, which is the destruction of everything dear to the enemy—including… Continue Reading...

The New Nation Jackson and Beyond

time of the revolt it was seen as treason or the greatest crime possible against a legitimate government. Beginning a new government in an era where the divine right of kings and heredity was the primary source of legitimacy for most monarchs was an undeniable challenge for the colonists. This was particularly the case in the colonies given the fact that the American Revolution had focused upon separating the new nation from what they called a tyrannical sovereign in the Declaration of Independence. On one hand, the new nation was supposed to be founded upon independence and freedom, as… Continue Reading...

Social Construction Theories on Serial Killers

Criminology researchers usually draw on multiple sociological theories for understanding crime and offenders. Certain elements of serial-killing research continue to be a subject of speculation and exploration, on account of the numerous preconceptions and myths surrounding the crime. The significance of establishing a theoretic basis to explain sociological factors proves crucial to distinguishing between fact and fiction (Hickey, 2013). Social Structure Theory This class of theories concentrates on the socioeconomic status of a person and suggests that the poor perpetrate more offenses owing to their struggle to achieve social or monetary success. They are,… Continue Reading...

Confronting the Problem Of Truancy

Attendance is a critical factor in school performance. But while poor attendance and truancy have been problems for schools virtually ever since anti-truancy laws were passed, as noted by Tomal, Schilling, & Trybus (2013), finding reliable data can be a challenge to accurately evaluate the extent of the problem, the specific groups most severely impacted by the issue of truancy, and thus solving the problem has been vexing for many educators. This paper will offer a literature review of different previous researchers’ perceptions of the issue in different contexts, the data they used, and the solutions they derived as a… Continue Reading...

Narrative Design

made use of across a broad span in the social sciences field. They are used in education, crime, health among others. They are also the main resource when conducting ethnographic-based research in all fields. Narrative data has been used for long to decipher the needs of users in HCI research fraternity (Golsteijn & Wright, 2013). 1. Describe 2 problems or challenges you might encounter when using this design. There is an impending limitation with regard to narrative research approach. Not all people can express their experiences and lives in words. Some people/subjects may still be of use but if… Continue Reading...

Police Culture

Stress,” n.d.). Values and Interests Police culture is characterized by values like social order and interests in preventing and stopping crime. Police value teamwork above all, and “as members of the team, they feel a good deal of pressure to live up to the expectations of other team members and to support the practice of secrecy,” (“The Police Culture and Work Stress,” n.d., p. 181). Police will often violate the rules of the department and expect their colleagues to remain quiet: the “blue wall of silence.” A hierarchical organization enables separation between officers and their superiors, who may also be viewed… Continue Reading...

Alfred Hitchcock Film Psycho Analysis

scene of the film, there is no room for moral righteousness; we have also participated tacitly in Norman’s crime. Works Cited Hitchcock, Alfred. Psycho. [Feature Film]. “Psycho - How Alfred Hitchcock Manipulates An Audience.” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xm-9E275D9c Continue Reading...

Crime and Security

In the Facebook v. Power Ventures case, the former brought a lawsuit against the latter, alleging violations of several Acts – specifically the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA) as appertains to this discussion. Of concern was the move by Power Ventures to facilitate the aggregation of the social media accounts of a user such that the user could use just a single website to view activities (including messages and posts by friends) in the said social media accounts. In essence, users of the Power Ventures website, Power.com, had an option of accessing their profile on Facebook via the said… Continue Reading...

India Government and Economics

Government Type India is a parliamentary republic, the largest democracy in the world with over a billion people and counting. Head of State The head of state is a ceremonial position occupied by the President. The current President is Ram Nath Kovind, and vice president is M. Venkaiah Naidu, positions held since July-August of 2017 (CIA World Factbook, 2018). The president is elected by an electoral college, which is comprised of appointed members of both houses of parliament as well as members of state legislatures (CIA World Factbook, 2018).The President serves for a five year term, and there are no… Continue Reading...

Things Fall Apart Novel Analysis

his character is his genuine commitment to what he believes to be the higher truth: that “it was a crime against the earth goddess to kill a clansman, and a man who committed it must flee from the land,” (Achebe, 1958, p. 110). Okonkwo might not ascribe to universal ethical precepts such as refraining from killing children or from beating women senselessly, but he does nevertheless submit to his own moral code. That is the moral code he also clings to fiercely in the face of encroachment by the missionaries. Okonkwo knows that once the missionaries arrive, his entire… Continue Reading...

 innocence Of Bruno Hauptmann

the most likely scenario is that Hauptmann was involved in the crime but did not murder baby Charles Lindbergh. The crime occurred in Hopewell, New Jersey in March of 1932. Baby Lindbergh was missing from his room, and a window was open. A ransom note was left in the room. It was written in “broken” English, and the writer demanded $50,000 (Cornwell 1). The Lindberghs could afford to pay, and they did, hiring an intermediary named John Condon to transfer the money to the kidnappers. The money was handed over in marked gold certificates. Yet the baby was never… Continue Reading...

Is America in Moral Decline?

and then offers statistics including a lower rate of crime and reduced rates of drug and alcohol abuse. For example, the younger generations are also taking marriage and childrearing more seriously, learning from the mistakes made by their parents. Americans are also embracing the evidence showing that indeed, divorce is bad for children, and that good parenting requires moms and dads to actually spend time with their children at home. In fact, Hynmowitz (2004) even goes so far as to claim that some young Gen-X adults “resemble their Silent Generation grandparents more than their boomer parents, especially in their… Continue Reading...

Seattle Homelessness Action Plan

Essentially, “people are less inclined to tour an area that seems ‘rundown’ due to fear of an increased crime rate and large drug use population”[footnoteRef:2]. Tourism is a revenue source for our City, effectively meaning that if the issue of homelessness is not addressed in due course, we could lose some proportion of a key revenue stream. [2: Johnson, Christopher, “Socio-economic and Environmental Impact of Homelessness in Olympia,” Washington. Environmental Health and Social Justice (March, 2016): 1-16. ] Lastly, public resources also happen to be consistently drained by the problem of homelessness. This is particularly the case in Settle… Continue Reading...

Fast Food Restaurant Security

where pedestrians and cars enter the property, and an additional two in the parking lot would prevent crime. Improved lighting along the outer perimeter is also necessary for ensuring the quality of the camera footage (Reynolds, 2015). The parking lot cameras are essential for reducing property crime, while the access point cameras would allow guards to detect suspicious behavior and react accordingly. Inside the restaurant, security cameras are strategically placed to improve employee and customer safety. There are several interior cameras, strategically placed to protect employees and customers. However, these are not continually monitored cameras. If the restaurant cannot… Continue Reading...

The History Of Crime in the United States America

did the end of the Cold War impact perceptions of ordinary crime as well as crime spending? The Cold War allowed Americans to focus their attentions on a simple bogeyman: Communism. With communism framed as “public enemy number one,” politicians could easily market themselves to Americans as being the best leader to protect them from the fearful red menace. The Cold War also enabled a relatively bloated defense budget. When the Cold War ended, there was a sort of reverse power vacuum. Now without its primary nemesis, the United States needed a new enemy to engender fear in the… Continue Reading...

The Vice Commission and Chicago in 1911

wife is away; there is the girl who voluntarily enters into the life of crime; and there are many typical cases where the girls simply realize that the “sporting life” pays much better than being a department store clerk. What the source reveals about the past is that it was very different from today, where the “sporting life” is not really viewed as so immoral today by mainstream society. However, there is certainly not much to be earned from the “sporting life” today as it has largely disappeared as most girls appear to be up for a little sport… Continue Reading...

Ancient Roman Civilization and the Gladiator Games

Introduction In ancient Rome, the gladiator games were a popular form of entertainment—but they were also much more than this and served multiple purposes within the Roman civilization. The games were used both by Roman authorities and by the slaves of Rome (the gladiators) as a tool, wielded for a different aim respectively. The Roman religious and the politicians used the games as well for their own ends. While the combats that took place in the arenas dazzled audiences, the violence and spectacle was really but one aspect of the contests, and an examination of the underlying social, political, religious… Continue Reading...

Motivation and Morale Police Administration

to absenteeism and poor watch, adversely affecting the society through increased level of crime. A questionnaire will be designed to achieve the purpose of this research study and will be distributed to selected beat officers working in different police precincts. The number of questionnaires analyzed will be to different police precincts. Data collected will be analyzed through SPSS using both descriptive statistics, correlation and regression data. Problem Statement Organizations endeavor to have more productive personnel, who are deemed the most significant resources and a determining factor for success. Low levels of productivity can be linked to poor employee morale… Continue Reading...