Crimes Essays


Islamic Terrorism Essay

  Islamic Terrorism: The Radicalization of Religion   Abstract This essay focuses on radical Islamic terrorism, from its roots in the Shia rebellion that led to the Iranian Revolution to the modern day terrorist group Daesh/ISIL/ISIS/IS.  It discusses how 9-11 introduced many Westerners to the idea of radical Islamic terrorism and the self-proclaimed holy warriors who carry out these acts as a form of jihad.  In order to help explain modern terrorism, the paper discusses the roots of the Sunni/Shia split and the lingering impact that split has on the modern geopolitical environment.  The foundation of modern terrorist groups that can Continue Reading...

Social Bonding Theory

A multivariate analysis. College Student Journal, 33: 450-461. Gosselin, D.K. (2005). Heavy Hands: An Introduction to the crimes of Family Violence, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education, Inc. Lumbert, S.P. (2005). Conformity and Group Mentality: Why We Comply, Rochester Institute of Technology. Pasupathi, M. (1999). Age differences in response to conformity pressure for emotional and nonemotional material. Psychology and Aging, 14, 170-174. Stinchcombe, Arthur L. (2005). The Logic of Social Research. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Wolfzorn, M., Heckert, A. & Heckert, D.M. (2006). POSITIVE DEVIANCE AND SOCIAL BOND THEORY. Free Inquiry in Creative Sociology Vol. 34, No.2, 107-122 Continue Reading...

Analyzing Critical Criminology

white collar crime '' was coined by Edwin Sutherland to refer to crimes committed by persons in high places in society. It was meant to highlight mala prohibit crimes that are widely ignored by the investigative authorities and society in general. Sutherland demonstrated that the crimes by the upper class are not any different from those committed by those of the lower class. The only difference is the way they are handled. Sociological Schools of Crime Causation Over the second half of the 18th C, the school of criminology also referred to as the classical theory or the Free… Continue Reading...

Violence Against Women in Macho Paradox

choose to stay with their abusers. However, there is not much examination into why men choose to commit these crimes against women. Why they choose to abuse? If researchers and experts look into why men act out in violent ways, the cause of the problem could be resolved. Men experience abuse in their lives. It can be in childhood or as adults. They may take this experience and then become abusers themselves, refusing to be the victim. Men are also raped sometimes by women during a time they were vulnerable. (Bancroft) This may lead to violent outbursts and predatory… Continue Reading...

Feminism in the Hunting Trip on Parks and Recreation

of testosterone in men and the rates of criminal behavior in prison populations that have committed violent crimes believed to be at least partly fueled by hormone levels (Wright, Tibbetts and Daigle). This perception seems to be evident in the criminal justice system as many assume women are less prone to crimes, such as illustrated clearly in the episode. Yet women have higher levels of estrogen and different biological compositions that fluctuate in healthy females with their menstrual cycles. Other studies have also shown that women are more likely to commit crimes during their premenstrual cycle (PMS) during times… Continue Reading...

Csi Effect

evidence they would expect to be provided at the trials of such crimes and the verdict they would give if certain types of evidence were adduced by both sides. The results of the survey showed high expectation of forensic evidence by all respondents. Viewers of CSI had a higher expectation of more evidence of all types than non CSI viewers. Differences between viewers of CSI and those who don't were marginal and were contrary to the perceived strong prosecutor effect. The fact that respondents expected more forensic evidence did not necessarily translate to giving guilty verdicts. For instance, it… Continue Reading...

Criminal Process from Arraignment to Pre Trial

to be arraigned soon after the charges have been made. As the nature of crimes continues to change, it would be expected that the future of dependent's rights will change, not entirely but for some types of criminal cases. For example, individuals charted with terror related crimes might not have access to some of these rights. Throughout the pre-trial phase of a criminal process in the American law system, the defendant's rights are well protected even as to ensure a just and fair trial. After the defendant has been arrested or summons has been issued, arraignment must be done… Continue Reading...

Second Chance Act Of 2008

prisoners are rearrested. Moreover, property offenders and those sentenced for drug crimes are in the top lists of the released prisoners likely to be rearrested. The SCA (Second Chance Act) is the federal government program designed in reducing recidivism as well as improving outcomes of individual returning from jails. The report carries out the evaluability assessment of the Second Chance Act to determine whether the program will be able to meet its target objective.   Evaluability Assessment of the Second Chance Act The study uses the Roca's Intervention Model as the evaluability assessment. The Second Act Program is very… Continue Reading...

Liberal and Conservative Beliefs Of Justices

plea deal should not be accepted because it would mean that justice is not served (white collar crimes especially take advantage of this). What would happen in a criminal justice system without plea bargaining is that courts would become so backed up that cases would never be heard in the lifetime of the persons involved/charged. Alternatives to the plea bargaining process to enhance justice and efficiency could include diversion programs that remove less serious charges from the process (American Bar Association, 2015). ASHFORD 4: - WEEK 3 - DISCUSSION 1 Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg was born in… Continue Reading...

Court Case Review in Re Winship

The decision particularly applies to acts that would be considered crimes if the defendant were an adult. Although juveniles are the principle recipients of the outcome, In Re Winship generally strengthens the concept of burden of proof, and upholds the inherent values in both the "beyond a reasonable doubt" standard as well as the Fourteenth Amendment guarantees to due process. The decision ultimately centers on the "reasonable doubt standard" as being "indispensible to command the respect and confidence of the community in applications of the criminal law," ("In Re Winship"). The Supreme Court decision underscores the unnecessary nebulous nature… Continue Reading...

Impact Of Stop Frisk Policy in New York

2012. The goal of stop and frisk policy is to reduce the incidence of violent crimes and keep guns off the street to improve the quality of life of New Yorkers. By adopting the frisk policy, the New York City administrators have been able to reduce the crime rate substantially over the last 20 years. Despite the benefits of the stop and frisk policy, large percentages of people stopped and frisked are African-Americans and Latinos. Moreover, only 5.9% of people frisked in 2011 led to an arrest and 2% led to a weapon recovery. The objective of this paper… Continue Reading...

Criminal Justice Bias

times in his apartment house in Bronx. His life was brought to an end by a special crimes unit of a group of four policemen operating under cover. It is a New York born strategy for combating aggressive crime (Harring & Ray, 1999). There is no doubt that a crime was indeed committed. The Theory of Criminal Behavior Related to the Selected Case Crime, its practice and existence is perceived through the social construction of criminality and the factors that make it happen. According to the traditional theories in sociology, crime was caused by lack of norms. This was… Continue Reading...

Murder Inc Book Compared to Gangs Today

it comes to Murder Inc. specifically. Even when faced with serious urban issues, authorities can significantly lower serious crimes' levels. New York's shootings and murders decreased 50% of late since the times of Murder Inc., and there is no recorded shift in concentrated poverty levels in urban areas. Thus, the reason for this decrease is unclear. The chief assumption cited in research works is the implementation of efficient policing techniques. The chief advantage linked to federal financing of local criminality prevention activities is the resultant advanced techniques implemented in New York, Kansas City and Boston, which have witnessed appreciable… Continue Reading...

Drugs and Gangs Among Detroit Teens

and taken to the juvenile correctional facilities for various crimes all related to drug dealings. The friend and relatives of these two young boys almost have the same stories for their lives and the lives of other close friends and relatives. These relative detail some of the key aspects of the attitudes and contradictions of living in Detroit's inner city. In this city, almost everything has been designed to take the course of drug behavior and activities, notably propagated into the lives of the young people. The young people have been made to design ways and means of making… Continue Reading...

Racialized Violence and Police Brutality in Usa

The Martin case, as well as predecessor examples from Rodney King onward, is not just about law enforcement perpetrating crimes against citizens. The entire legal system is at fault by refusing to recognize in any significant way the gross injustices perpetrated by police or citizens against people of color. Police brutality against people of color is not about sporadic cases and examples of "bad cops." On the contrary, the problem is systemic and institutionalized. A code of silence binds offers, preventing them from speaking out against perceived injustices or racial biases. Police brutality is also reflective of a culture… Continue Reading...

Killing Consensus About Sao Paolo and Violence

they have a different means of classifying deaths. They cannot and do not investigate crimes in the same way as in wealthy countries. Violence and homicide are pervasive and common in Sao Paolo; they are even considered "normal" (Willis 6). Police tend to investigate two types of homicides: one with an unknown assailant, and police killing citizens, which is very common, at a rate of more than one per day. These types of homicide are ironically crimes perpetrated by the police, and they are labeled as "resisting arrest" The PCC -- essentially the mafia -- handles everything else. The… Continue Reading...

Investigative Psychology

Editors, 2016). Psychological profile Dahmer's traits qualified him as a mixed type of serial killer. He was intelligent, he organized his crimes, he was sexually and socially inept, he used to live alone and he attacked strangers. Paraphilia-A problem whose symptoms include strange sexual desires, usually involving dangerous or extreme activities. Cannibalism- Paraphilic cannibalism is the sexual pleasure that the paraphile gets from the intake of human flesh. Colleagues claimed that Dahmer's lunch used to be meat which had "my special gravy'."He would never allow them to taste it. In Dahmer's freezer, there was chopped human meat, which he shaped in… Continue Reading...

Legal Psychology and Victimization

that a strategy may work with one offender but fail with another; even when they have committed similar crimes. It is known, for instance, that serial killers do it for different reasons. Similarly, those caught for violent offences react differently to interrogation (Ebisike, 2007). Applying psychological evaluation of the accused can help investigators establish whether the accused is likely to have engaged in behaviors that could have led to the offence in focus. The process is a critical one in the assessing the evidence presented by the victim against the suspected offender. The element of regularity is common. There… Continue Reading...

European Union and Crime

applied to many subjectively determined acts of criminality. Prostitution Prostitution is one of the crimes that is often referred to when anyone talks about the occurrence, or potential, of a "victim-less" crime. Of course, such a debate does not focus on the individuals that engage in such actions because they are forced to for some reason that is beyond their own will, yet others draw no such distinction. An example of this is clearly the realization that human trafficking for prostitution is a real occurrence that harms many vulnerable women around the globe. In fact, some argue that there is actually… Continue Reading...

Cruelty and Intolerable Acts

reality. Several genocides were accompanied by both thoughts and actions in which the perpetrators of these crimes against humanity seemed to consider their victims less than human. Livingston largely seizes upon this point in assembling what is his stance on the exact nature of the relationship between these two phenomenons. His central premise regarding that relationship is that on a basic level, dehumanization is almost a prerequisite for genocide -- and certainly is a causal agent in the carrying out of attempts to completely eradicate a certain group of people. Livingston argues dehumanization is a pivotal part of most… Continue Reading...

Video Cameras and Public Safety

of traffic violations. Furthermore, video cameras may be used to potentially spot other kinds of crimes that can lead to breakthroughs in major criminal cases. Therefore, countries like England have added video cameras to airports, public areas, and intersections to promote safety in these areas through constant surveillance (The Telegraph, 2016). Still, video cameras can be costly to implement, maintain, and monitor. Citizens may also feel their privacy invaded without their consent. Is having video cameras as part of a way to monitor the public for a crime a good idea or a bad one? The advantages are clear… Continue Reading...

Should the Government Ban Assault Rifles

massive needs of citizens. The straight annual expense of violence crimes at every level of government was approximated to be $325 per resident (Webster, et al., 2012). The researchers summarise that programs laid by law are stronger than "gun laws." They analyse that the most effective plans incorporated punitive and supportive plans to reduce the violence. It's important to note that research findings are more than theoretical. Supreme Court Justice, Stephen Brever, and America Court of Appeals Judge, Richard Posner, are leading jurists in the country, who recently made a review of relevant academic work and combined it into… Continue Reading...

Moral Issues with Internet Privacy

It is seldom possible to draw a sharp line of distinction between what's wrong and what's right. Everybody has their own distinctive view with regard to the major moral challenges linked to internet privacy, right from social media privacy to governmental surveillance. However, all stories have two sides, and this necessitates a closer examination of a few existing moral issues associated with internet privacy. Firstly, one needs to examine the chief element of guidance provided by the law on the matter of internet privacy. Possibly the most straightforward moral problem under the 'internet privacy breach' umbrella is malicious software (e.g.,… Continue Reading...

Annotated Bibliography on False Confessions

beyond the obvious fact that they lead to innocent people being convicted for crimes they did not commit, because they can influence witnesses and even corrupt evidence by forensics teams and other professionals. This article relies on an extensive body of evidence to show how false confessions can lead to gross miscarriages of justice. The authors urge law enforcement to completely change the approach to criminal investigations, by not only changing interrogation techniques but also changing the procedures of forensics evidence gathering too. It will be useful in my research to offer suggestions for policy change. Leo, R.A. &… Continue Reading...

Juvenile Offenders in St Louis

not represent such information as an excuse, it sheds light on why some juvenile offenders may commit crimes. The rest of the closing arguments involved the firefighter citing substance abuse problems after the incident and the off-duty police officer losing her job. The case seemed emotional and heated because it involved several layers of suffering from both sides. Ultimately, Nathan will remain in prison for the rest of his life. This just one of several cases in St. Louis, Missouri where juveniles commit the crime of murder and are then certified as adults. They face at times long sentences… Continue Reading...

The Prevalence Of False Confessions

the commonsense belief that people do not confess to crimes. However, the hypothesis suggests it happens more than believed and demonstrates through findings that offer a 20 to 25% false confession rate among those with DNA exonerations. The article is highly relevant because it offers quantifiable information through real world statistics that show not only the high occurrence of false confessions, but where these false confessions are discovered (through DNA exonerations). The findings point to police choosing innocent people based on erroneous judgments and employ interrogation techniques that coerce and manipulate a confession as detailed in the previous article.… Continue Reading...

Terry V Ohio Court Case

As a result of his claim, the case turned into a search-and-seizure. Heather MacDonald claims that murders and other grave crimes have dropped nearly eight and seventy-five percent, respectively, between the 1990's and 2013 because of "proactive policing," involving stopping-and-frisking practices. She claims that in the year 2011, stops produced almost 800 guns and more 5,000 knives and other weapons. That is, the disproportionate stopping of black citizens is in line with or perhaps underrepresented by disproportionate suspicions of them being violent criminals (Bandler). While critics of this practiced enounce the number of African-Americans stopped, they fail to explain what,… Continue Reading...

The Effect Of a Public Policy on an Individual

likely to be arrested, tried, and convicted of drug-related crimes. African-Americans are also more likely to serve harsh sentences for drug-related crimes as opposed to alternative sentences like probation, which could keep an individual like this 23-year-old male in the community with access to viable work and social capital. When a 23-year-old African-American male is apprehended for a non-violent minor possession of cannabis, the state prosecutor's office will press charges. The 23-year-old African-American male has no prior offenses but his bail money is set high because the judge perceives him to be a high risk. Now, the young African-American… Continue Reading...

Norway, England, Wales, and the United States

of imprisoning them for long periods of time. Although, in recent times and thanks to highly publicized crimes, the Norwegian criminal justice system has changed how they wish to rehabilitate their criminals. "Rehabilitation is still a central goal of the correctional system, though, but it is now inscribed in what we may in Foucauldian terms call an apparatus of governmentality, where prisoners are supposed to learn to govern themselves to become law-abiding citizens" (Ugelvik & Dullum, 2012, p. 209). Criminals in England, similarly to the United States are punished and sent to jail more than any of its western… Continue Reading...

The New Mobile Commerce Revolution

do not wish to use the mobile revolution, it makes it easier to be scammed or worse (e.g. Craigslist-related crimes) and the use of online operations and transactions does contribute a bit to the depersonalization and demarcation of society, at least according to some. The last of those is perhaps a cornerstone for concerns about family values. Mobile commerce is good in that it makes the world smaller and makes life easier. However, there is also the concern that people need to remain open and linked to the community around them. A good example would be a person using… Continue Reading...

Key Characteristics Of a Whistleblower

a former employee of JP Morgan Chase and was a whistleblower against the company in providing proof about white-collar crimes committed by the financial institution. Fleischmann was the key witness of one of the major cases in the history of the United States, revealing secrets that the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of JPMorgan, Jamie Dimon, ended up paying $9 billion to preclude the general public from hearing. The financial institution took part in a huge criminal securities fraud within the mortgage operations department of JPMorgan. Fleischmann was employed by the company to ensure that its operations did not include… Continue Reading...

Juvenile Justice

punishment, a very small though significant quantity of individuals are accorded death sentences for committing particularly grave crimes. A few nations in our contemporary world deem prison facilities to be an enduring and unavoidable facet of social life. Some communities consider jails as rehabilitation centers that can aid convicts in modifying their behavior and convince them to begin leading constructive lives in society. Other communities, on the other hand, view jails as cells that isolate dangerous individuals from the society to ensure the latter's safety. With the many prison system reforms witnessed over time, prisons are becoming centers to… Continue Reading...

Enron Ethics and Leadership Failures

has more to do with human resources and labor issues than about the white collar crimes committed by Enron executives. Both of these issues combined to create an ethical meltdown. 2. How would you characterize Enron's culture and what role, and in what way, do you think culture played in the ethical issues at Enron? Enron's culture problems began the top of the company, where pumping up the earnings was the only thing that mattered -- it was the de facto way to boost earnings. If the earnings were not reflective of reality in terms of how much revenue… Continue Reading...

The Impact Of Legislation on Violence

groups like Anonymous and GOP have shown the willingness and the ability to commit "virtual" crimes. Croall (2011) locates the discussion of understanding crime within the context of how society "defines" crime (p. 5). As society changes so too does its perspective and therefore its definitions of things such as crime. What used to be considered criminal or immoral by a previous generation is not quite viewed the same way by a later generation -- and vice versa. There is a fluctuation of perception and this can have an effect on the way that crimes are reported, how they… Continue Reading...

Pop and Ilp Policing

stop it. Effective analysis can determine the ways criminals behave and can help for more complex crimes that involved organizations and criminals with experience. This level of crime often requires a deeper knowledge and insight of pre-existing patterns and common locations where crime may occur. crimes like human trafficking for example, could benefit from effective analysis to keep criminals from generating enough unknown activity through careful examination of data. In conclusion, policing models are changing and have changed in the last few decades. POP and ILP are just two of several models that have helped countries like the United States… Continue Reading...

Children Going to Jail

common example. However, creating new monsters and criminals and not focusing on rehabbing people that commit crimes that are redeemable such as car theft and shoplifting is just contributory to the problem. This does not mean that they should not be punished. However, more hospitable jails that keep violent offenders separated from non-violent offenders and that treats the latter with grace and kindness so long as they behave is a better idea. The idea is to help address their mental health, drug use and other issues rather than just ignore them and make them worse. Some will disregard that… Continue Reading...

Overall Health in Fargo North Dakota

(city), state, and national data. Remember to cite sources as appropriate. 6. Other data as needed (air, water quality, crimes rates). Remember compare objective data for your community with local (city), state, and national data. Remember to cite sources as appropriate. Analysis of Data 1. Based on your subjective and objective review of your findings, what conclusions have you arrived at? Remember to cite sources as appropriate. • What impressions from your subjective observations were unfounded/invalid? • Given the objective data, what impressions were validated/substantiated? • What cause-and-effect relationships did you discover/identify? 2. Problem Analysis for Community/Zip Code: Problem: List… Continue Reading...

Criminal Justice System Issues

child and elder abuse cases and ensuring perpetrators pay for their crimes. Week 4 -- Discussion 2 Some of the characteristics of these victims that contribute to their victimization include immaturity, dependence on caregivers, innocence, and inability to carry out daily responsibilities by themselves (Finkelhor, 2011). The criminal justice system responds to the victimization through law enforcement, arresting and prosecuting perpetrators, and encouraging reporting of such crimes. However, a holistic plan for offering restitution to child and elder abuse victims would help enhance effectiveness of the criminal justice system in dealing with the problem. A proposed restitution plan is… Continue Reading...

Reflection on Holistic Victim Restitution Plan

reduce crime victimization. This process has involved ensuring that criminals are punished for their crimes based on the law. While these approaches have helped in dealing with victimization, they are inadequate to resolve the increased vulnerabilities of individuals and groups to crime victimization. These approaches seemingly focus on protecting victims after the occurrence of a crime rather than before the crime is conducted. Therefore, a holistic approach for reducing victimization is required in the criminal justice system. In this case, the criminal justice system should work in collaboration with other relevant bodies to meet the needs of potential crime… Continue Reading...

Statute Of Limitations on Rape

is fairly established fact that many rape victims, for whatever reason, do not report crimes against them right away, assuming they report them at all. Rita's case is proof of why it is important to give rape victims a more elongated window. In the case of Rita, she knows she was a victim but she was so concerned about what her family would think about the event happening. Even though she was simply catching a ride home and even though she made no sexual advances or engaged in voluntary sexual behavior with the man, she felt shame. That is… Continue Reading...

Muslims As an Ethnicity in the United States

president shortly after the attacks and in the prosecution of hate crimes. Civil liberties groups, however, complained that those words were not matched by actions. In the criminal justice system, many anti-Muslim actions occurred. Suspects were detained irrespectively of constitutional limits and conditions. Moreover, arrests for other crimes, like visa overstays, drastically increased for those of Arab origin or from Muslim countries in the final months of 2001. The government disregarded the rights of Middle Eastern and Muslim Americans in numerous cases. Thus, just as African-American Muslims were targeted during the unrest of the Civil Rights Era, the post-9/11… Continue Reading...

Victimology Annotated Bibliography

the children as vulnerable victims whose sole chance of escaping crimes is the offender. The research also highlights the dependency continuum and the challenges or the loose ends of each continuum. There are various findings of the research that the writer puts forth, one such significant finding is that there are varying scopes of child victimization, varying typologies of child victimization and that there is a significant role that the gender of the child plays in the victimization process. It also looks at the various theories of victimization that help explain the childhood victimization. At the end, the article… Continue Reading...

Protection Of the Victims Of Crime

leads the victims not being interested in reporting further similar crimes hence increase in such crimes in the society. The victims who are blamed get distressed hence less likely to report such further crimes since they fear getting into secondary victimization through blame on similar crimes. This stand by the victim will also negatively affect the willingness of witnesses to testify, the zeal of the authorities to execute effectively cases and pursuing offenders, will also affect the possible recommendation by the judges and prosecutor in apportioning incarceration, and a jury's decision to convict (Roberts K., 2016). There are instances… Continue Reading...

Questions About Police Community Relations

will almost certainly be an uproar. Similarly, if there are a lot of crimes in a given area of a community, the police will surely respond by beefing up police presence in that area. Describe the difference between police-community relations and police-public relations. They are part of the same paradigm but they are not the same thing. In short, the police vs. public paradigm is more general and high-level while police vs. community is about certain parts and areas of town. The decision to add officers to the force would be something that is announced publicly and to everyone.… Continue Reading...

Political Ideologies: Social Liberalism

movement, most probably, will target its anarchical tendencies which turn a blind eye to a number of heinous crimes. These irregularities are left unpunished simply because the society and not individuals is to blame for them. The dangerously high crime rate is a huge problem already as there are reports of drugs among preparatory school students. Do you anticipate that the percentage of adults/ registered voters aligned with the same political ideology as you are likely to increase or decrease in the near future? Following the current political happenings in America, most especially the election of President Donald Trump… Continue Reading...

Counter Terrorism Community Policing and Changes

with suspicion. Javier and his fellow officers had also been responding more to hate crimes against the Muslim community. Structural changes to the organization included greater centralization and more reliance on technology and big data in policing methods. Officers themselves were ambivalent about the changes because of their mixed implications and results. There has been a lack of role clarity as officers are expected to continue in their traditional role in the community while also seeming to overextend themselves by participating in counterterrorism. As Ernst (2017) points out, police officers are "much more likely" to deal with mundane daily… Continue Reading...

Evaluation Of Crime Incidents

fact that the analysis will focus on determining the series and patterns of these crimes through linking them together (Stenton, 2006). Additionally, the use of tactical analysis in these summaries would focus on identifying probable suspects responsible for the crime series and patterns, and forecasting future crime incidents depending on the identified crime patterns and trends. These incidents can be considered as a crime series, which is described as a crime pattern in which there is reasonable belief that the offenses are being committed by the same offender or offenders (McCoy, n.d.). Based on these incident summaries, there is… Continue Reading...

Civil Rights and Civil Liberties

span, ranging from countrywide marriage equality to LGBT-inclusive hate crimes. Nonetheless, several obstacles continue to prevail and LGBTQ Americans still face discrimination in numerous aspects of their lives (Congressman Polis, 2017). Make note of any aspects of the event that seemed confusing to you and/or any questions that came to mind during the observation There are a number of aspects of the event that seemed confusing to me during the observation. One of the aspects was a great extent of resistance within the LGBTQ community. This takes into account the issue that a number of them felt that pride… Continue Reading...

Modern Police Tactics and Tricks

between catching criminals, focusing on the more severe and significant crimes (e.g. drug dealers more so than jaywalkers, etc.) and not typecasting or profiling certain groups as "automatically" being suspects such as African-Americans, Muslims and so forth (RAND). Define the "people's police" and "community." The paradigm suggested in the second question would make a police organization them the "people's police" rather than just being cops who enforce the law as they are not coming down on petty little things or acting based on prejudice and being punitive. This makes them part of the community rather than being against it,… Continue Reading...

Community Policing and Justice

charge of probing crime linked to home security, such as cyber or digital crimes, terror attacks, financial offenses and abductions. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) -- This body is charged with probing and preventing federal crimes that entail the illegal production, possession and utilization of explosives and weapons; bombings and arson; and illicit tobacco and alcohol trade. This body is also tasked with regulating the possession, transport, and selling of explosives, ammo, and weapons within interstate commerce through licensing procedures. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) -- This represents the nation's key law enforcement body in charge of averting… Continue Reading...

Crimes Against Property

The common characteristics of all property crimes Property crime can encompass aspects of burglary, theft, or motor vehicle theft and this also includes attempted as well as completed crimes. In accordance to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (2010), property crime comprises of the wrongdoings of motor vehicle theft, larceny-theft, burglary, as well as, arson. In particular, the object of the theft-kind transgressions encompasses the taking of money or property, however with the lack of force or threat of force against the victims. Imperatively, the property crime classification takes into account arson… Continue Reading...

Gun Fu and Hong Kong Cinema

to influence Hong Kong and Western cinema. Counterfeiting USD is one of the main crimes perpetrated in John Woo's A Better Tomorrow -- a film that melodramatically depicts brothers and friends torn by love, honor, and hatred, past sins and the struggle to forgive. In its basic make-up, the film is a simple tale about friendship and forgiveness -- but in order to entertain and dazzle its audience, Woo counterfeits Western action cinema as well. For example, everything is thrown into the film's egregious finale: the endless stream of bad guys for the heroes to shoot and blow up; the… Continue Reading...

Alcohol Use and Sex Crimes

question for quantitative research while the lived experiences of victims of sex crimes would be more appropriate for a qualitative study. These types of research questions are important today because of the well documented relationship between alcohol and sex crimes. For instance, Kelley and Lewis (2009) report that, "Alcohol use has been found to have a strong relationship with sexual offenses, including rape and pedophilia. Approximately 40% to 50% of sex offenders have reported that they were drinking at the time they committed the offense, and about 50% were considered to have abused alcohol" (p. 68). Moreover, there is… Continue Reading...

Home Invasion and Crime Spree

include sexual assault, capital felony, murder, arson and kidnapping. Thus, such category of people has a tendency of committing other crimes if they are allowed remix into the society. However, the mitigation is essential to the capital punishment. Mitigation specialists consider the employment background, and medical history, which may make the jury to consider prison sentence instead of capital punishment. In the Komisarjevsky and Hayes case, the only mitigating factor to consider is the Komisarjevsky family history, and medical history for Hayes because it is necessary to consider whether he does not have a mental problem based on his past… Continue Reading...

Laws on Rape, Murder, Aggravated Assault, and Robbery

crimes Committed Against Persons in the United States The United States is one of the world's super powers. Like any other country, it experiences the challenge of crimes committed against people too. The FBI has shown that the rate of violent crimes committed in the US has been declining for the past two decades. Violent crimes can be classified into types that include rape, murder, aggravated assault, and robbery. Statistically, the rate of crimes committed to people in 2016 decreased… Continue Reading...

Criminology in America

criminal acts experiencing a 4.4% drop. All other forms of crime also experienced decreases with property crimes dropping by 4.1 % while car theft, arson and burglary also reduced. One would need to go back to the '60s and '70s to find crime drop numbers in the big cities such as these. Homicides recorded in New York reduced by over 85 % between the years 1990 to 2014. Detroit and Chicago are well known for their high levels of crime, but 2014 turned out to be a record low in this regard. The number of brutal crimes and homicide… Continue Reading...

Punitive and Correctional System in the United States

Alternatives to imprisonment used in German, Norway, and Netherlands 2. Length of jail term • For same crimes: jail term longer in US than in German, Norway, and Netherlands 3. Connection with the society • German, Norway, and Netherlands prisoners maintain their status and rights as citizens e.g. voting • US prisoners suffer reduced access to social welfare programs • In Netherlands, German, and Norway prisoners have weekends off for family 4. Correction and judgment delivery procedures • Judgments involving jail terms are more widely delivered in America • US criminal justice has punitive meaner for all offences where Netherlands, Norway,… Continue Reading...

Contemporary Ethical Issues in Corrections

scandals, Kerik takes a more chastised and compassionate view of individuals who commit crimes, noting that many of them have grown up in environments which have set them up for failure, not success. However, as the title of the article indicates, Kerik is also seeking to capitalize upon his former reputation as a criminal justice professional as well as the knowledge he has gained from an insider's perspective as an inmate, indicating that to some degree his actions may be viewed as self-serving rather than altruistic. Unlike many people in prison, Kerik's crimes were not a result of social… Continue Reading...

Norway and Germany Compared to Us in Incarceration

Germany and the Netherlands than it is in the US. For instance, in Germany, crimes are divided into two categories, major and minor. While on the face of it, this corresponds with the American system of felony and misdemeanor categorization, it is actually much different. crimes that are categorized as felonies in the US are not so seriously categorized in Germany. There is more leniency in the European countries. For this reason, the incarceration rates in the US are nearly ten times higher than what they are in Germany and the Netherlands (Subramanian, Shames, 2013, p. 7). At the… Continue Reading...

Holistic Victim Restitution Plan

dangerous youths and this program generally merged justice and empowerment strategies together. Youths caught by the police for criminal crimes in most cases were sentenced to community service with the aim of causing sober reflection and thereafter kill the flair for crime, enhance readjustment to community life and not necessarily be as defaming as the conventional justice process or straight freedom. Surprisingly, when thorough studies were carried out on this topic, most notably the government-led assessment of the federal Deinstitutionalization of Status Offenders demonstration projects, it was clear that this new approach towards criminal youths had no effect on… Continue Reading...

American Corrections and Sentencing Trends

penury, joblessness, offending history and education outcomes[footnoteRef:5]. Studies into this domain reveal relatively little unjustified disparity for major crimes such as homicide as compared to smaller offences (particularly drug offences). [5: Supra note 1] The efforts of Alfred Blumstein in this field, which encompassed an exploration of racial disparities in apprehensions and a comparison of these with prison demographics, established that around eighty percent of the prison inequality in state inmates in the year 1979 was accounted for by differential crime by race, with the remaining twenty percent left unaccounted for[footnoteRef:6]. The author observed that in the absence of… Continue Reading...

Restitution for Victims Of Crime

fully understand intimate partner crime and victimization of the victims of such crimes and how best the holistic victim restitution process can be done. a. What victimology is in the context of intimate partners and the historical perspective and background to victimology. b. What restitution is and the various ways used to determine the levels of restitution and the modes of collection plus the challenges therein. c. What factors are considered when determining the amounts to be paid by the perpetrator in form of cash restitution. d. The institutions and individuals charged with collection of the restitution amounts. e.… Continue Reading...

Media Theory Essay

each time. Conclusion Cybercrimes occur systemically, involving multiple complex and heterogeneous actors and victims. All crimes entail a relationship between perpetrator and victim. When viewed in light of critical communications theories like actor-network theory, cybercrime can be dealt with far more efficiently than it is currently using outmoded methods. Actor-network theory can comprehensively and thoroughly deal with the multitude of concerns related to cybercrime. Actor-network theory addresses communication between various actors, the construction of internal logic, norms, and social mores, and the interplay between human and non-human actors. However, actor-network theory has only recently been applied to the study of international… Continue Reading...

Human Trafficking Essay

to travel to countries where laws to protect children from sex crimes do not exist, or are not enforced. These perpetrators also can afford to change venues if a country begins to enact or exercise child sexual exploitation laws. The increasing gap between developed and emerging nations further exacerbates the problem of human trafficking and its relationship to prostitution. The economic disparity between developing and developed nations leads to the victimization of children from poorer countries by actors from more affluent countries. Moreover, some economically unstable countries victimize groups of their own people to receive some of the wealth… Continue Reading...

Prosecution Of Andrew Fastow

Enron’s debt and burgeon its assets (Rogers, 2004). Financial schemes or technical aspects used to perpetrate the crimes Fastow utilized a number of financial schemes to perpetrate wire fraud and security fraud. One of his tools was an extremely liberal usage of marked to market accounting, which is a legitimate accounting method when correctly applied. However, Enron was using this method (in which individuals estimate the worth of assets according to market forces and not based on actual, concrete estimates) to show wild profits for assets which never truly existed (Norris and Eichenwald, 2002), such as its scheme to enter… Continue Reading...

Texas Law Cases on Theft

types of felonies, class A and C. By committing these crimes in Bridget’s house; it was a clear indication of a crime due to the method of entry he utilized to access the premises. Works cited "Jewell V. State." Justia Law, 1996, https://law.justia.com/cases/indiana/court-of-appeals/1996/51a01-9506-cr-192-9.html. LaFave, Wayne. Criminal Law. 6th ed., West Academic, 2017. Samaha, Joel. Criminal Law. 12th ed., Cengage Learning, 2016. "Sonnier V. State, 849 S.W.2D 828 – Courtlistener.Com." Courtlistener, 1992, https://www.courtlistener.com/opinion/1722690/sonnier-v-state/.   Continue Reading...

Why Parents Should Be Liable for Their Children\'s Bullying

Control (Facts about bullying 3) and many of these behaviors are crimes. A growing body of evidence confirms that bullying can have a wide range of adverse effects on both the perpetrator as well as the victim that can extend well into adulthood, and identifying ways to stop bullying in and out of the schools has assumed increasing importance and relevance in recent years as technology has created new ways for young people to bully each other. Therefore, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature to argue that parents should be held responsible to an extent, whether… Continue Reading...

National Security Impact Of Immigration Policy

maintaining the safety of the nation’s people. Recent events revolving around crimes, weaponry crossing national boundaries and foreign- born people has triggered a series of reactions with the most intense ones demanding a sealing of borders, barring migration for individuals hailing from high- risk foreign territories, and putting a stop to refugee resettlement. Theory of Migration Migration represents mankind’s story from the outset to the current age. It has its roots in mankind’s adventure- seeking spirit and quest to follow one’s dreams. The growth in individuals undertaking perilous, cross- border journeys across the globe dates back to the world’s Stone… Continue Reading...

Annotated Bibliography for Criminal Psychology

crime, but about how psychology can help law enforcement prevent crimes by using more effective profiling. Profiling can also help officers to improve their interviewing techniques. This book is also helpful because of the way it discusses the different profiling methods and the empirical research used to justify them. Continue Reading...

Sexual Assault and Legal Standards

It is unreasonable to expect a rape victim to forcibly resist her attacker. In no other crimes is someone expected to show proof that he or she visibly resisted the attacker beyond saying “no.” With an extrinsic force requirement, the focus inevitably applies a standard which assumes the victim has a responsibility to physically resist, regardless of whether she feels safe to do so. It is also more appropriate to take a victim’s perspective of coercion. In the case of Berkowitz, the situation was solely viewed through the eyes of aggressor, who claimed that because the victim did not… Continue Reading...

Reforms Needed for Three Strikes Law

a few problems that exist when it comes to the “three strikes” law. It treats many different crimes and offenses in the exact same manner. This is true despite the type of crime that is committed, the costs involved, the likelihood of recidivism, the danger that exists to the public and what is proportional in terms of the crime versus the punishment. The solutions, as such, should be based on making the law more effective, more efficient, more equitable and more proportional. Even so, the safety and sanctity of the public should be upheld as well. After all, there… Continue Reading...

Improving Public Relations Between the Police Department and the Citizens

city. It is important to note that while we appreciate the fact that terrorism and violent crimes are real concerns in this city, the police force will not at any given time make use of or utilize military approaches or maneuvers in the handling of citizens and diffusion of normal/every-day scenarios. The overarching standard to be used when effecting arrests or in pursuit of suspected offenders will remain: Utilization of force that is either commensurate with the risk posed or objectively reasonable. Discuss the Methodology You Would Employ in Developing this New Policy The methodology adopted herein is inclusive… Continue Reading...

Leadership Dynamics at Johnson County Sheriff Department

the incident and obstruction of justice by giving false statements to the FBI investigators. Such crimes could earn the Sheriff a maximum of 20 years in prison for giving wrong information with the intent to hinder FBI investigations and at least another ten years for obstruction of justice (Scott & Byrd, 2012). Effect on Community Relations and Cooperation with the FBI Sheriff Jones’s behavior would have a great impact on community relations and community cooperation with the FBI. One impact that his behavior would have is that the community’s public trust and respect for the department would reduce significantly.… Continue Reading...

Impact Of Darryl Hunt\'s Case

One of the most brutal crimes in North Carolina occurred in 1984 when a young white newspaper reporter, Deborah Sykes, was assaulted, raped, sodomized, and stabbed to death a few blocks from her workplace in Winston-Salem (Stern & Sundberg, 2006). Darryl Hunt, a 19-year-old black man was charged with this crime despite the absence of any physical evidence linking him to the crime. Hunt’s charges were largely based on an eyewitness’ identification that was made by a former member of Klu Klux Klan. He was later… Continue Reading...

Societal Perceptions Of Pornography

it helps in decreasing sexual assault and rape. In societies where pornography is legal and widely accepted, sex crimes have either remained stagnant or decreased over time, which has led to the belief and opinion that pornography is beneficial to the society. Moreover, pornography has been considered beneficial with regards to raising revenues for government, particularly in regions where it is a legal practice. However, pornography has been viewed negatively in today’s society because of its potential harms on people. The disadvantages brought by pornography to a society cannot be compared to its minimal benefits. The consideration of pornography… Continue Reading...

Criminal Law Cases Examinations

be allowed to knowingly and voluntarily consent to the commission of crimes against themselves? Why or why not? Individuals can be allowed to knowingly and voluntarily consent to the commission of crimes against themselves within reason and within reasonable circumstance. Many professions in life aside from professional sports do require individuals to put themselves in harm’s way and consent to allowing events to occur to them, which would be considered assaults or attacks in other circumstances. For example, combat or stage fighting in theatre or film attempts to take the danger out of these endeavors, however the actors know… Continue Reading...

When Senators and Police Go Bad

1 The inability of the police to report crimes because of political purposes is disturbing. The fact that Mayor Bloomberg would try to make himself and his city look better by underreporting on crime is a very disingenuous type of leadership: it indicates that people should lie and falsify claims in order to make the situation look better than it is. This is not how communities are transformed for the better, however. The police have a duty to serve and protect, and if the community feels it is not being served by them… Continue Reading...

Criminal Law Cases Analysis

his victims to the HIV virus. Specific intention refers to crimes where in the mens reus goes above and beyond actus reus. This is to indicate that the defendant has some ulterior motive in mind. A specific intent crime is one where in theory the mens rea goes beyond the actus reus, in the sense that the defendant has some ulterior purpose in mind. In the case at hand, the actus reus is to infect the three women with the virus with the intention of causing them some suffering and harm. The defendant must not only be shown to have… Continue Reading...

Self Defense Laws and Castle Doctrine

The right to use force in self-defense an important civil liberty and right, ensconced in the Second Amendment of the Constitution. Because of Second Amendment assurances, all Americans technically have the right to bear arms in self-defense. Some states have attempted to restrict Second Amendment rights, but the vast majority of states have implemented “some statutory version” of the Castle Doctrine (“What is the Castle Doctrine,” n.d.). In fact, some states like Florida have taken the Castle Doctrine a step further to invoke what are commonly called “stand your ground laws.” Whereas the Castle Doctrine only applies to a person’s… Continue Reading...

Political Science

would cite is Hillary Clinton. To be fair, there are plenty of Republicans that are charged with similar crimes, if not worse. The current eruption of sexual harassment and assault charges is a good example. Both Republicans and Democrats are being ensnared by such accusations. Just a few names of candidates or current elected officials include Al Franken, John Conyers, Roy Moore (Senate candidate) and a few others. As was explained by Representative Charlie McCaul in light of what happened with Rangel, there is a hope of many that there is a new era of increased transparency, honestly and… Continue Reading...

Michigan Community Child Watch Programs

Community Child Watch Program is a program dedicated to helping deter crimes against children. Being a Michigan based program, it helps spread education and awareness of child victims. However, the program has it weaknesses. 2. Established in 1979, the Michigan Community Child Watch Program offers the community a chance to minimize the risk of children becoming victims of crime. Administered as a joint effort by school districts and local law enforcement agencies, the Community Child Watch Program owes its long-running success to volunteers that are trained to recognize, observe, report, and record any suspicious persons and activities. Every trained… Continue Reading...

Enron Fraud

that the safeguards that are normally in place to prevent people from getting away with crimes like this broke down for several years. Arthur Andersen did not rotate its auditors, so the same person was able to contribute to the fraud on the auditing end. The laws were relatively weak, or perceived as such, so the executives at Enron did not feel that there were going to be significant costs to the crimes that they were committing. They were wrong about that, but the SEC did have to make moves, as did Congress, to bolster the regulatory environment, and… Continue Reading...

School Crime Prevention Programs

the law. Second, people that engage in drug use commonly engage in one or more other crimes. One example would be people that steal to support their habit. The dealing of drugs and trafficking are other behaviors that are clearly illegal and that relate to drugs. As such, educating children to stay from the use or other exposure to drugs is obviously a good idea. The pros of the program is that it has a strong foundation in reality and the facets of the program are easy for students to learn. Downsides include an overly harsh stigma being placed… Continue Reading...

The Ethical Issues Of Criminal Justice

for crime suspects to pass through border security. 3. Innocence program: The number at which innocent people get convicted of crimes they did not commit, due to factors such as wrong identity and selective application of law is alarming. There is an urgent need to improve the criminal justice system with an objective of alleviating wrongful convictions and enhancing the innocence program. This will minimize the chances of convictions and subversion of justice for convicts. Political ramifications Criminal justice system: it is said that it’s better to allow 100 guilty suspects to go free than to have an innocent man… Continue Reading...

Serial Killers and the Media

however. First, is too much attention given to them, versus other, less cinematic crimes? Secondly, does the media attention fuel the desire within some potential perpetrators to commit crimes? Of course, the idea that coverage of violent crimes can lead to the perpetuation of violence is not a new one: As noted by Conti (2015) “….what the scientific literature has found—almost universally—is that there is a very small but statistically significant correlation between consumption of violent media and raises in level of aggression” (par. 6). The fact that there is a link between observing violence and committing violence, no… Continue Reading...

Crime and Punishment in the American Colonies

their society, and above all a desire for survival meant that crimes such as murder and robbery were scarce, particularly in Puritan New England (p. 39). The most common crimes were so-called vice crimes, or violations of the very strict standards which governed colonial society. Gambling had been very popular in England and existed within the colonies, as did heavy drinking. But while this was tolerated in the Southern colonies, in the Northern and more religiously-based colonies, these crimes were regarded as moral abominations that must be stopped, as they were not in keeping with the true intention of… Continue Reading...

Confronting the Problem Of Truancy

and other social challenges (Mallett 2016). Mallet (2016) also notes that the majority of crimes in the juvenile justice system are status-related offenses, such as truancy, which would not be offenses for an adult. This highlights the extent to which the justice system can subvert rather than promote education, since youths are often penalized for their actions rather than have the causes of their truancy addressed, such as difficulties in the home. This is reflected, he believes, in some of the inadequate data regarding delinquency which, like Reid (2003), he also remarks upon. Most data focus on delinquency, because of… Continue Reading...

India Government and Economics

rampant sexual assault. However, “girls and women continue to face barriers to reporting such crimes, including humiliation at police stations and hospitals; lack of protection” and even subjugation to “two-finger” tests performed by healthcare workers and admissible in court as evidence that the victim was “habituated to sex,” (Human Rights Watch, 2018). On the flip side, the government has been attempting to legislate rights for rape victims and also recently outlawed statutory rape, “regardless of whether she is married or not,” (Human Rights Watch, 2018 p. 1). Also, Indian parliament recently introduced bills to liberalize same-sex marriage rights and… Continue Reading...

 innocence Of Bruno Hauptmann

think of it as unnecessarily and hastily linking two separate crimes: the kidnapping and the murder. It is fairly clear that Hauptmann had something to do with the kidnapping. It would have been far too much of a coincidence for him to have had the exact same ladder in his closet, and the $15,000, and not have had some part to play in kidnapping Charles Lindbergh, Jr. The most likely scenario is that Hauptmann at least helped to orchestrate the kidnapping with some accomplices, and then when the baby was about to be returned to the Lindberghs, the murder… Continue Reading...

Fast Food Restaurant Security

however, keep on interior lights after hours to prevent property crimes including break-ins and vandalism. Additionally, the owner is advised to plant hedges around the perimeter to strengthen the outer barrier to entry. The hedges serve as additional boundaries that reduce opportunities for criminals to easily wander onto the property, and would also improve the appearance of the facility to achieve the additional goal of improving business. Theoretically, the more popular the restaurant, the safer it will be because crowds would deter opportunistic property crimes, but this would not necessarily reduce the likelihood of an armed robbery. Therefore, an… Continue Reading...

Ancient Roman Civilization and the Gladiator Games

the gladiatorial games: slaves—Gauls and Thracians mainly—had been “compelled to engage in gladiatorial combats, not only for crimes they had committed but because of the unjust behavior of their owners. Two hundred of them planned to make an escape, but information concerning their plan was betrayed”[footnoteRef:12]—and as a result, only 70 of them put up a resistance and escaped. [12: Plutarch, “The Spartacus Slave War”, 131.] The brutality of the games thus served as a motive for the slave revolt and the ensuing war that then broke out. Spartacus, for instance, was no low-minded criminal, but rather a highly-intelligent… Continue Reading...