Crimes Essays


Islamic Terrorism Essay

  Islamic Terrorism: The Radicalization of Religion   Abstract This essay focuses on radical Islamic terrorism, from its roots in the Shia rebellion that led to the Iranian Revolution to the modern day terrorist group Daesh/ISIL/ISIS/IS.  It discusses how 9-11 introduced many Westerners to the idea of radical Islamic terrorism and the self-proclaimed holy warriors who carry out these acts as a form of jihad.  In order to help explain modern terrorism, the paper discusses the roots of the Sunni/Shia split and the lingering impact that split has on the modern geopolitical environment.  The foundation of modern terrorist groups that can Continue Reading...

Social Bonding Theory

College Student Journal, 33: 450-461. Gosselin, D.K. (2005). Heavy Hands: An Introduction to the crimes of Family Violence, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education, Inc. Lumbert, S.P. (2005). Conformity and Group Mentality: Why We Comply, Rochester Institute of Technology. Pasupathi, M. (1999). Age differences in response to conformity pressure for emotional and nonemotional material. Psychology and Aging, 14, 170-174. Stinchcombe, Arthur L. (2005). The Logic of Social Research. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Wolfzorn, M., Heckert, A. & Heckert, D.M. (2006). POSITIVE DEVIANCE AND SOCIAL BOND THEORY. Free Inquiry in Creative Sociology Vol. 34, No.2, 107-122 Continue Reading...

Analyzing Critical Criminology

crime '' was coined by Edwin Sutherland to refer to crimes committed by persons in high places in society. It was meant to highlight mala prohibit crimes that are widely ignored by the investigative authorities and society in general. Sutherland demonstrated that the crimes by the upper class are not any different from those committed by those of the lower class. The only difference is the way they are handled. Sociological Schools of Crime Causation Over the second half of the 18th C, the school of criminology also referred to as the classical theory or the Free Will Approach… Continue Reading...

Violence Against Women in Macho Paradox

not much examination into why men choose to commit these crimes against women. Why they choose to abuse? If researchers and experts look into why men act out in violent ways, the cause of the problem could be resolved. Men experience abuse in their lives. It can be in childhood or as adults. They may take this experience and then become abusers themselves, refusing to be the victim. Men are also raped sometimes by women during a time they were vulnerable. (Bancroft) This may lead to violent outbursts and predatory behavior. It all begins with children. So many people… Continue Reading...

Feminism in the Hunting Trip on Parks and Recreation

amount of testosterone in men and the rates of criminal behavior in prison populations that have committed violent crimes believed to be at least partly fueled by hormone levels (Wright, Tibbetts and Daigle). This perception seems to be evident in the criminal justice system as many assume women are less prone to crimes, such as illustrated clearly in the episode. Yet women have higher levels of estrogen and different biological compositions that fluctuate in healthy females with their menstrual cycles. Other studies have also shown that women are more likely to commit crimes during their premenstrual cycle (PMS) during… Continue Reading...

Csi Effect

evidence they would expect to be provided at the trials of such crimes and the verdict they would give if certain types of evidence were adduced by both sides. The results of the survey showed high expectation of forensic evidence by all respondents. Viewers of CSI had a higher expectation of more evidence of all types than non CSI viewers. Differences between viewers of CSI and those who don't were marginal and were contrary to the perceived strong prosecutor effect. The fact that respondents expected more forensic evidence did not necessarily translate to giving guilty verdicts. For instance, it… Continue Reading...

Criminal Process from Arraignment to Pre Trial

is the need to be arraigned soon after the charges have been made. As the nature of crimes continues to change, it would be expected that the future of dependent's rights will change, not entirely but for some types of criminal cases. For example, individuals charted with terror related crimes might not have access to some of these rights. Throughout the pre-trial phase of a criminal process in the American law system, the defendant's rights are well protected even as to ensure a just and fair trial. After the defendant has been arrested or summons has been issued, arraignment… Continue Reading...

Second Chance Act Of 2008

the released prisoners are rearrested. Moreover, property offenders and those sentenced for drug crimes are in the top lists of the released prisoners likely to be rearrested. The SCA (Second Chance Act) is the federal government program designed in reducing recidivism as well as improving outcomes of individual returning from jails. The report carries out the evaluability assessment of the Second Chance Act to determine whether the program will be able to meet its target objective.   Evaluability Assessment of the Second Chance Act The study uses the Roca's Intervention Model as the evaluability assessment. The Second Act Program… Continue Reading...

Liberal and Conservative Beliefs Of Justices

should not be accepted because it would mean that justice is not served (white collar crimes especially take advantage of this). What would happen in a criminal justice system without plea bargaining is that courts would become so backed up that cases would never be heard in the lifetime of the persons involved/charged. Alternatives to the plea bargaining process to enhance justice and efficiency could include diversion programs that remove less serious charges from the process (American Bar Association, 2015). ASHFORD 4: - WEEK 3 - DISCUSSION 1 Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg was born in 1933 in… Continue Reading...

Court Case Review in Re Winship

decision particularly applies to acts that would be considered crimes if the defendant were an adult. Although juveniles are the principle recipients of the outcome, In Re Winship generally strengthens the concept of burden of proof, and upholds the inherent values in both the "beyond a reasonable doubt" standard as well as the Fourteenth Amendment guarantees to due process. The decision ultimately centers on the "reasonable doubt standard" as being "indispensible to command the respect and confidence of the community in applications of the criminal law," ("In Re Winship"). The Supreme Court decision underscores the unnecessary nebulous nature of… Continue Reading...

Impact Of Stop Frisk Policy in New York

The goal of stop and frisk policy is to reduce the incidence of violent crimes and keep guns off the street to improve the quality of life of New Yorkers. By adopting the frisk policy, the New York City administrators have been able to reduce the crime rate substantially over the last 20 years. Despite the benefits of the stop and frisk policy, large percentages of people stopped and frisked are African-Americans and Latinos. Moreover, only 5.9% of people frisked in 2011 led to an arrest and 2% led to a weapon recovery. The objective of this paper is… Continue Reading...

Criminal Justice Bias

times in his apartment house in Bronx. His life was brought to an end by a special crimes unit of a group of four policemen operating under cover. It is a New York born strategy for combating aggressive crime (Harring & Ray, 1999). There is no doubt that a crime was indeed committed. The Theory of Criminal Behavior Related to the Selected Case Crime, its practice and existence is perceived through the social construction of criminality and the factors that make it happen. According to the traditional theories in sociology, crime was caused by lack of norms. This was… Continue Reading...

Murder Inc Book Compared to Gangs Today

comes to Murder Inc. specifically. Even when faced with serious urban issues, authorities can significantly lower serious crimes' levels. New York's shootings and murders decreased 50% of late since the times of Murder Inc., and there is no recorded shift in concentrated poverty levels in urban areas. Thus, the reason for this decrease is unclear. The chief assumption cited in research works is the implementation of efficient policing techniques. The chief advantage linked to federal financing of local criminality prevention activities is the resultant advanced techniques implemented in New York, Kansas City and Boston, which have witnessed appreciable recent… Continue Reading...

Drugs and Gangs Among Detroit Teens

be at home dealing drugs or waiting to be arrested and taken to the juvenile correctional facilities for various crimes all related to drug dealings. The friend and relatives of these two young boys almost have the same stories for their lives and the lives of other close friends and relatives. These relative detail some of the key aspects of the attitudes and contradictions of living in Detroit's inner city. In this city, almost everything has been designed to take the course of drug behavior and activities, notably propagated into the lives of the young people. The young people… Continue Reading...

Racialized Violence and Police Brutality in Usa

The Martin case, as well as predecessor examples from Rodney King onward, is not just about law enforcement perpetrating crimes against citizens. The entire legal system is at fault by refusing to recognize in any significant way the gross injustices perpetrated by police or citizens against people of color. Police brutality against people of color is not about sporadic cases and examples of "bad cops." On the contrary, the problem is systemic and institutionalized. A code of silence binds offers, preventing them from speaking out against perceived injustices or racial biases. Police brutality is also reflective of a culture… Continue Reading...

Killing Consensus About Sao Paolo and Violence

means of classifying deaths. They cannot and do not investigate crimes in the same way as in wealthy countries. Violence and homicide are pervasive and common in Sao Paolo; they are even considered "normal" (Willis 6). Police tend to investigate two types of homicides: one with an unknown assailant, and police killing citizens, which is very common, at a rate of more than one per day. These types of homicide are ironically crimes perpetrated by the police, and they are labeled as "resisting arrest" The PCC -- essentially the mafia -- handles everything else. The author introduces the theme… Continue Reading...

Investigative Psychology

type of serial killer. He was intelligent, he organized his crimes, he was sexually and socially inept, he used to live alone and he attacked strangers. Paraphilia-A problem whose symptoms include strange sexual desires, usually involving dangerous or extreme activities. Cannibalism- Paraphilic cannibalism is the sexual pleasure that the paraphile gets from the intake of human flesh. Colleagues claimed that Dahmer's lunch used to be meat which had "my special gravy'."He would never allow them to taste it. In Dahmer's freezer, there was chopped human meat, which he shaped in form of patties. He claimed that eating human beings… Continue Reading...

Legal Psychology and Victimization

offender but fail with another; even when they have committed similar crimes. It is known, for instance, that serial killers do it for different reasons. Similarly, those caught for violent offences react differently to interrogation (Ebisike, 2007). Applying psychological evaluation of the accused can help investigators establish whether the accused is likely to have engaged in behaviors that could have led to the offence in focus. The process is a critical one in the assessing the evidence presented by the victim against the suspected offender. The element of regularity is common. There is a link between the personality of… Continue Reading...

European Union and Crime

typically applied to many subjectively determined acts of criminality. Prostitution Prostitution is one of the crimes that is often referred to when anyone talks about the occurrence, or potential, of a "victim-less" crime. Of course, such a debate does not focus on the individuals that engage in such actions because they are forced to for some reason that is beyond their own will, yet others draw no such distinction. An example of this is clearly the realization that human trafficking for prostitution is a real occurrence that harms many vulnerable women around the globe. In fact, some argue that there is… Continue Reading...

Cruelty and Intolerable Acts

Several genocides were accompanied by both thoughts and actions in which the perpetrators of these crimes against humanity seemed to consider their victims less than human. Livingston largely seizes upon this point in assembling what is his stance on the exact nature of the relationship between these two phenomenons. His central premise regarding that relationship is that on a basic level, dehumanization is almost a prerequisite for genocide -- and certainly is a causal agent in the carrying out of attempts to completely eradicate a certain group of people. Livingston argues dehumanization is a pivotal part of most attempts… Continue Reading...

Video Cameras and Public Safety

cameras may be used to potentially spot other kinds of crimes that can lead to breakthroughs in major criminal cases. Therefore, countries like England have added video cameras to airports, public areas, and intersections to promote safety in these areas through constant surveillance (The Telegraph, 2016). Still, video cameras can be costly to implement, maintain, and monitor. Citizens may also feel their privacy invaded without their consent. Is having video cameras as part of a way to monitor the public for a crime a good idea or a bad one? The advantages are clear and lean towards public safety.… Continue Reading...

Should the Government Ban Assault Rifles

therefore, address the massive needs of citizens. The straight annual expense of violence crimes at every level of government was approximated to be $325 per resident (Webster, et al., 2012). The researchers summarise that programs laid by law are stronger than "gun laws." They analyse that the most effective plans incorporated punitive and supportive plans to reduce the violence. It's important to note that research findings are more than theoretical. Supreme Court Justice, Stephen Brever, and America Court of Appeals Judge, Richard Posner, are leading jurists in the country, who recently made a review of relevant academic work and… Continue Reading...

Moral Issues with Internet Privacy

It is seldom possible to draw a sharp line of distinction between what's wrong and what's right. Everybody has their own distinctive view with regard to the major moral challenges linked to internet privacy, right from social media privacy to governmental surveillance. However, all stories have two sides, and this necessitates a closer examination of a few existing moral issues associated with internet privacy. Firstly, one needs to examine the chief element of guidance provided by the law on the matter of internet privacy. Possibly the most straightforward moral problem under the 'internet privacy breach' umbrella is malicious software (e.g.,… Continue Reading...

Annotated Bibliography on False Confessions

the obvious fact that they lead to innocent people being convicted for crimes they did not commit, because they can influence witnesses and even corrupt evidence by forensics teams and other professionals. This article relies on an extensive body of evidence to show how false confessions can lead to gross miscarriages of justice. The authors urge law enforcement to completely change the approach to criminal investigations, by not only changing interrogation techniques but also changing the procedures of forensics evidence gathering too. It will be useful in my research to offer suggestions for policy change. Leo, R.A. & Liu,… Continue Reading...

Juvenile Offenders in St Louis

represent such information as an excuse, it sheds light on why some juvenile offenders may commit crimes. The rest of the closing arguments involved the firefighter citing substance abuse problems after the incident and the off-duty police officer losing her job. The case seemed emotional and heated because it involved several layers of suffering from both sides. Ultimately, Nathan will remain in prison for the rest of his life. This just one of several cases in St. Louis, Missouri where juveniles commit the crime of murder and are then certified as adults. They face at times long sentences and… Continue Reading...

The Prevalence Of False Confessions

the prevalence of false confessions. The research question centers on the commonsense belief that people do not confess to crimes. However, the hypothesis suggests it happens more than believed and demonstrates through findings that offer a 20 to 25% false confession rate among those with DNA exonerations. The article is highly relevant because it offers quantifiable information through real world statistics that show not only the high occurrence of false confessions, but where these false confessions are discovered (through DNA exonerations). The findings point to police choosing innocent people based on erroneous judgments and employ interrogation techniques that coerce… Continue Reading...

Terry V Ohio Court Case

into a search-and-seizure. Heather MacDonald claims that murders and other grave crimes have dropped nearly eight and seventy-five percent, respectively, between the 1990's and 2013 because of "proactive policing," involving stopping-and-frisking practices. She claims that in the year 2011, stops produced almost 800 guns and more 5,000 knives and other weapons. That is, the disproportionate stopping of black citizens is in line with or perhaps underrepresented by disproportionate suspicions of them being violent criminals (Bandler). While critics of this practiced enounce the number of African-Americans stopped, they fail to explain what, in their view, the appropriate stop rate ought to… Continue Reading...

The Effect Of a Public Policy on an Individual

African-Americans are more likely to be arrested, tried, and convicted of drug-related crimes. African-Americans are also more likely to serve harsh sentences for drug-related crimes as opposed to alternative sentences like probation, which could keep an individual like this 23-year-old male in the community with access to viable work and social capital. When a 23-year-old African-American male is apprehended for a non-violent minor possession of cannabis, the state prosecutor's office will press charges. The 23-year-old African-American male has no prior offenses but his bail money is set high because the judge perceives him to be a high risk. Now,… Continue Reading...

Norway, England, Wales, and the United States

of time. Although, in recent times and thanks to highly publicized crimes, the Norwegian criminal justice system has changed how they wish to rehabilitate their criminals. "Rehabilitation is still a central goal of the correctional system, though, but it is now inscribed in what we may in Foucauldian terms call an apparatus of governmentality, where prisoners are supposed to learn to govern themselves to become law-abiding citizens" (Ugelvik & Dullum, 2012, p. 209). Criminals in England, similarly to the United States are punished and sent to jail more than any of its western European counterparts. England has the biggest… Continue Reading...

The New Mobile Commerce Revolution

it easier to be scammed or worse (e.g. Craigslist-related crimes) and the use of online operations and transactions does contribute a bit to the depersonalization and demarcation of society, at least according to some. The last of those is perhaps a cornerstone for concerns about family values. Mobile commerce is good in that it makes the world smaller and makes life easier. However, there is also the concern that people need to remain open and linked to the community around them. A good example would be a person using mobile commerce to buy from a local planter rather than… Continue Reading...

Key Characteristics Of a Whistleblower

a former employee of JP Morgan Chase and was a whistleblower against the company in providing proof about white-collar crimes committed by the financial institution. Fleischmann was the key witness of one of the major cases in the history of the United States, revealing secrets that the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of JPMorgan, Jamie Dimon, ended up paying $9 billion to preclude the general public from hearing. The financial institution took part in a huge criminal securities fraud within the mortgage operations department of JPMorgan. Fleischmann was employed by the company to ensure that its operations did not include… Continue Reading...

Juvenile Justice

capital punishment, a very small though significant quantity of individuals are accorded death sentences for committing particularly grave crimes. A few nations in our contemporary world deem prison facilities to be an enduring and unavoidable facet of social life. Some communities consider jails as rehabilitation centers that can aid convicts in modifying their behavior and convince them to begin leading constructive lives in society. Other communities, on the other hand, view jails as cells that isolate dangerous individuals from the society to ensure the latter's safety. With the many prison system reforms witnessed over time, prisons are becoming centers… Continue Reading...

Enron Ethics and Leadership Failures

to do with human resources and labor issues than about the white collar crimes committed by Enron executives. Both of these issues combined to create an ethical meltdown. 2. How would you characterize Enron's culture and what role, and in what way, do you think culture played in the ethical issues at Enron? Enron's culture problems began the top of the company, where pumping up the earnings was the only thing that mattered -- it was the de facto way to boost earnings. If the earnings were not reflective of reality in terms of how much revenue Enron actually… Continue Reading...

The Impact Of Legislation on Violence

like Anonymous and GOP have shown the willingness and the ability to commit "virtual" crimes. Croall (2011) locates the discussion of understanding crime within the context of how society "defines" crime (p. 5). As society changes so too does its perspective and therefore its definitions of things such as crime. What used to be considered criminal or immoral by a previous generation is not quite viewed the same way by a later generation -- and vice versa. There is a fluctuation of perception and this can have an effect on the way that crimes are reported, how they are… Continue Reading...

Pop and Ilp Policing

analysis can determine the ways criminals behave and can help for more complex crimes that involved organizations and criminals with experience. This level of crime often requires a deeper knowledge and insight of pre-existing patterns and common locations where crime may occur. crimes like human trafficking for example, could benefit from effective analysis to keep criminals from generating enough unknown activity through careful examination of data. In conclusion, policing models are changing and have changed in the last few decades. POP and ILP are just two of several models that have helped countries like the United States and Great… Continue Reading...

Children Going to Jail

monsters and criminals and not focusing on rehabbing people that commit crimes that are redeemable such as car theft and shoplifting is just contributory to the problem. This does not mean that they should not be punished. However, more hospitable jails that keep violent offenders separated from non-violent offenders and that treats the latter with grace and kindness so long as they behave is a better idea. The idea is to help address their mental health, drug use and other issues rather than just ignore them and make them worse. Some will disregard that help and prison is where… Continue Reading...

Overall Health in Fargo North Dakota

national data. Remember to cite sources as appropriate. 6. Other data as needed (air, water quality, crimes rates). Remember compare objective data for your community with local (city), state, and national data. Remember to cite sources as appropriate. Analysis of Data 1. Based on your subjective and objective review of your findings, what conclusions have you arrived at? Remember to cite sources as appropriate. • What impressions from your subjective observations were unfounded/invalid? • Given the objective data, what impressions were validated/substantiated? • What cause-and-effect relationships did you discover/identify? 2. Problem Analysis for Community/Zip Code: Problem: List two (2) problems… Continue Reading...

Criminal Justice System Issues

that create harsh punishments for child and elder abuse cases and ensuring perpetrators pay for their crimes. Week 4 -- Discussion 2 Some of the characteristics of these victims that contribute to their victimization include immaturity, dependence on caregivers, innocence, and inability to carry out daily responsibilities by themselves (Finkelhor, 2011). The criminal justice system responds to the victimization through law enforcement, arresting and prosecuting perpetrators, and encouraging reporting of such crimes. However, a holistic plan for offering restitution to child and elder abuse victims would help enhance effectiveness of the criminal justice system in dealing with the problem.… Continue Reading...

Reflection on Holistic Victim Restitution Plan

This process has involved ensuring that criminals are punished for their crimes based on the law. While these approaches have helped in dealing with victimization, they are inadequate to resolve the increased vulnerabilities of individuals and groups to crime victimization. These approaches seemingly focus on protecting victims after the occurrence of a crime rather than before the crime is conducted. Therefore, a holistic approach for reducing victimization is required in the criminal justice system. In this case, the criminal justice system should work in collaboration with other relevant bodies to meet the needs of potential crime victims and help… Continue Reading...

Statute Of Limitations on Rape

many rape victims, for whatever reason, do not report crimes against them right away, assuming they report them at all. Rita's case is proof of why it is important to give rape victims a more elongated window. In the case of Rita, she knows she was a victim but she was so concerned about what her family would think about the event happening. Even though she was simply catching a ride home and even though she made no sexual advances or engaged in voluntary sexual behavior with the man, she felt shame. That is a rather startling cultural and… Continue Reading...

Muslims As an Ethnicity in the United States

after the attacks and in the prosecution of hate crimes. Civil liberties groups, however, complained that those words were not matched by actions. In the criminal justice system, many anti-Muslim actions occurred. Suspects were detained irrespectively of constitutional limits and conditions. Moreover, arrests for other crimes, like visa overstays, drastically increased for those of Arab origin or from Muslim countries in the final months of 2001. The government disregarded the rights of Middle Eastern and Muslim Americans in numerous cases. Thus, just as African-American Muslims were targeted during the unrest of the Civil Rights Era, the post-9/11 world saw… Continue Reading...

Victimology Annotated Bibliography

crime victim blaming. It portrays the children as vulnerable victims whose sole chance of escaping crimes is the offender. The research also highlights the dependency continuum and the challenges or the loose ends of each continuum. There are various findings of the research that the writer puts forth, one such significant finding is that there are varying scopes of child victimization, varying typologies of child victimization and that there is a significant role that the gender of the child plays in the victimization process. It also looks at the various theories of victimization that help explain the childhood victimization.… Continue Reading...

Protection Of the Victims Of Crime

on the victim and the society. It leads the victims not being interested in reporting further similar crimes hence increase in such crimes in the society. The victims who are blamed get distressed hence less likely to report such further crimes since they fear getting into secondary victimization through blame on similar crimes. This stand by the victim will also negatively affect the willingness of witnesses to testify, the zeal of the authorities to execute effectively cases and pursuing offenders, will also affect the possible recommendation by the judges and prosecutor in apportioning incarceration, and a jury's decision to… Continue Reading...

Questions About Police Community Relations

the circumstances or not, there will almost certainly be an uproar. Similarly, if there are a lot of crimes in a given area of a community, the police will surely respond by beefing up police presence in that area. Describe the difference between police-community relations and police-public relations. They are part of the same paradigm but they are not the same thing. In short, the police vs. public paradigm is more general and high-level while police vs. community is about certain parts and areas of town. The decision to add officers to the force would be something that is… Continue Reading...

Political Ideologies: Social Liberalism

anarchical tendencies which turn a blind eye to a number of heinous crimes. These irregularities are left unpunished simply because the society and not individuals is to blame for them. The dangerously high crime rate is a huge problem already as there are reports of drugs among preparatory school students. Do you anticipate that the percentage of adults/ registered voters aligned with the same political ideology as you are likely to increase or decrease in the near future? Following the current political happenings in America, most especially the election of President Donald Trump as well as the sustained agitation… Continue Reading...

Counter Terrorism Community Policing and Changes

police were being viewed increasingly with suspicion. Javier and his fellow officers had also been responding more to hate crimes against the Muslim community. Structural changes to the organization included greater centralization and more reliance on technology and big data in policing methods. Officers themselves were ambivalent about the changes because of their mixed implications and results. There has been a lack of role clarity as officers are expected to continue in their traditional role in the community while also seeming to overextend themselves by participating in counterterrorism. As Ernst (2017) points out, police officers are "much more likely"… Continue Reading...

Evaluation Of Crime Incidents

that the analysis will focus on determining the series and patterns of these crimes through linking them together (Stenton, 2006). Additionally, the use of tactical analysis in these summaries would focus on identifying probable suspects responsible for the crime series and patterns, and forecasting future crime incidents depending on the identified crime patterns and trends. These incidents can be considered as a crime series, which is described as a crime pattern in which there is reasonable belief that the offenses are being committed by the same offender or offenders (McCoy, n.d.). Based on these incident summaries, there is evidence… Continue Reading...

Civil Rights and Civil Liberties

equality has come exceedingly far in a short span, ranging from countrywide marriage equality to LGBT-inclusive hate crimes. Nonetheless, several obstacles continue to prevail and LGBTQ Americans still face discrimination in numerous aspects of their lives (Congressman Polis, 2017). Make note of any aspects of the event that seemed confusing to you and/or any questions that came to mind during the observation There are a number of aspects of the event that seemed confusing to me during the observation. One of the aspects was a great extent of resistance within the LGBTQ community. This takes into account the issue… Continue Reading...

Modern Police Tactics and Tricks

a balance between catching criminals, focusing on the more severe and significant crimes (e.g. drug dealers more so than jaywalkers, etc.) and not typecasting or profiling certain groups as "automatically" being suspects such as African-Americans, Muslims and so forth (RAND). Define the "people's police" and "community." The paradigm suggested in the second question would make a police organization them the "people's police" rather than just being cops who enforce the law as they are not coming down on petty little things or acting based on prejudice and being punitive. This makes them part of the community rather than being… Continue Reading...

Community Policing and Justice

crime linked to home security, such as cyber or digital crimes, terror attacks, financial offenses and abductions. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) -- This body is charged with probing and preventing federal crimes that entail the illegal production, possession and utilization of explosives and weapons; bombings and arson; and illicit tobacco and alcohol trade. This body is also tasked with regulating the possession, transport, and selling of explosives, ammo, and weapons within interstate commerce through licensing procedures. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) -- This represents the nation's key law enforcement body in charge of averting illicit drug trade… Continue Reading...

Crimes Against Property

The common characteristics of all property crimes Property crime can encompass aspects of burglary, theft, or motor vehicle theft and this also includes attempted as well as completed crimes. In accordance to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (2010), property crime comprises of the wrongdoings of motor vehicle theft, larceny-theft, burglary, as well as, arson. In particular, the object of the theft-kind transgressions encompasses the taking of money or property, however with the lack of force or threat of force against the victims. Imperatively, the property crime classification takes into account arson for… Continue Reading...

Gun Fu and Hong Kong Cinema

this style went on to influence Hong Kong and Western cinema. Counterfeiting USD is one of the main crimes perpetrated in John Woo's A Better Tomorrow -- a film that melodramatically depicts brothers and friends torn by love, honor, and hatred, past sins and the struggle to forgive. In its basic make-up, the film is a simple tale about friendship and forgiveness -- but in order to entertain and dazzle its audience, Woo counterfeits Western action cinema as well. For example, everything is thrown into the film's egregious finale: the endless stream of bad guys for the heroes to shoot… Continue Reading...

Alcohol Use and Sex Crimes

identifying quantifiable aspects of the question for quantitative research while the lived experiences of victims of sex crimes would be more appropriate for a qualitative study. These types of research questions are important today because of the well documented relationship between alcohol and sex crimes. For instance, Kelley and Lewis (2009) report that, "Alcohol use has been found to have a strong relationship with sexual offenses, including rape and pedophilia. Approximately 40% to 50% of sex offenders have reported that they were drinking at the time they committed the offense, and about 50% were considered to have abused alcohol"… Continue Reading...

Home Invasion and Crime Spree

such category of people has a tendency of committing other crimes if they are allowed remix into the society. However, the mitigation is essential to the capital punishment. Mitigation specialists consider the employment background, and medical history, which may make the jury to consider prison sentence instead of capital punishment. In the Komisarjevsky and Hayes case, the only mitigating factor to consider is the Komisarjevsky family history, and medical history for Hayes because it is necessary to consider whether he does not have a mental problem based on his past serial killing. The sentence is an appropriate Hayes, however,… Continue Reading...

Laws on Rape, Murder, Aggravated Assault, and Robbery

crimes Committed Against Persons in the United States The United States is one of the world's super powers. Like any other country, it experiences the challenge of crimes committed against people too. The FBI has shown that the rate of violent crimes committed in the US has been declining for the past two decades. Violent crimes can be classified into types that include rape, murder, aggravated assault, and robbery. Statistically, the rate of crimes committed to people in 2016 decreased by 1.1%… Continue Reading...

Criminology in America

All other forms of crime also experienced decreases with property crimes dropping by 4.1 % while car theft, arson and burglary also reduced. One would need to go back to the '60s and '70s to find crime drop numbers in the big cities such as these. Homicides recorded in New York reduced by over 85 % between the years 1990 to 2014. Detroit and Chicago are well known for their high levels of crime, but 2014 turned out to be a record low in this regard. The number of brutal crimes and homicide in both cities has not been… Continue Reading...

Punitive and Correctional System in the United States

to imprisonment used in German, Norway, and Netherlands 2. Length of jail term • For same crimes: jail term longer in US than in German, Norway, and Netherlands 3. Connection with the society • German, Norway, and Netherlands prisoners maintain their status and rights as citizens e.g. voting • US prisoners suffer reduced access to social welfare programs • In Netherlands, German, and Norway prisoners have weekends off for family 4. Correction and judgment delivery procedures • Judgments involving jail terms are more widely delivered in America • US criminal justice has punitive meaner for all offences where Netherlands, Norway, and… Continue Reading...

Contemporary Ethical Issues in Corrections

a more chastised and compassionate view of individuals who commit crimes, noting that many of them have grown up in environments which have set them up for failure, not success. However, as the title of the article indicates, Kerik is also seeking to capitalize upon his former reputation as a criminal justice professional as well as the knowledge he has gained from an insider's perspective as an inmate, indicating that to some degree his actions may be viewed as self-serving rather than altruistic. Unlike many people in prison, Kerik's crimes were not a result of social disadvantages or mental… Continue Reading...

Norway and Germany Compared to Us in Incarceration

Germany and the Netherlands than it is in the US. For instance, in Germany, crimes are divided into two categories, major and minor. While on the face of it, this corresponds with the American system of felony and misdemeanor categorization, it is actually much different. crimes that are categorized as felonies in the US are not so seriously categorized in Germany. There is more leniency in the European countries. For this reason, the incarceration rates in the US are nearly ten times higher than what they are in Germany and the Netherlands (Subramanian, Shames, 2013, p. 7). At the… Continue Reading...

Holistic Victim Restitution Plan

merged justice and empowerment strategies together. Youths caught by the police for criminal crimes in most cases were sentenced to community service with the aim of causing sober reflection and thereafter kill the flair for crime, enhance readjustment to community life and not necessarily be as defaming as the conventional justice process or straight freedom. Surprisingly, when thorough studies were carried out on this topic, most notably the government-led assessment of the federal Deinstitutionalization of Status Offenders demonstration projects, it was clear that this new approach towards criminal youths had no effect on their flair for crime (Visher &… Continue Reading...

American Corrections and Sentencing Trends

this domain reveal relatively little unjustified disparity for major crimes such as homicide as compared to smaller offences (particularly drug offences). [5: Supra note 1] The efforts of Alfred Blumstein in this field, which encompassed an exploration of racial disparities in apprehensions and a comparison of these with prison demographics, established that around eighty percent of the prison inequality in state inmates in the year 1979 was accounted for by differential crime by race, with the remaining twenty percent left unaccounted for[footnoteRef:6]. The author observed that in the absence of discrimination following apprehension, inmates' racial composition ought to approximate… Continue Reading...

Restitution for Victims Of Crime

fully understand intimate partner crime and victimization of the victims of such crimes and how best the holistic victim restitution process can be done. a. What victimology is in the context of intimate partners and the historical perspective and background to victimology. b. What restitution is and the various ways used to determine the levels of restitution and the modes of collection plus the challenges therein. c. What factors are considered when determining the amounts to be paid by the perpetrator in form of cash restitution. d. The institutions and individuals charged with collection of the restitution amounts. e.… Continue Reading...

Media Theory Essay

and preventing cybercrimes each time. Conclusion Cybercrimes occur systemically, involving multiple complex and heterogeneous actors and victims. All crimes entail a relationship between perpetrator and victim. When viewed in light of critical communications theories like actor-network theory, cybercrime can be dealt with far more efficiently than it is currently using outmoded methods. Actor-network theory can comprehensively and thoroughly deal with the multitude of concerns related to cybercrime. Actor-network theory addresses communication between various actors, the construction of internal logic, norms, and social mores, and the interplay between human and non-human actors. However, actor-network theory has only recently been applied to the… Continue Reading...

Human Trafficking Essay

side, patrons from wealthy nations have the ability to travel to countries where laws to protect children from sex crimes do not exist, or are not enforced. These perpetrators also can afford to change venues if a country begins to enact or exercise child sexual exploitation laws. The increasing gap between developed and emerging nations further exacerbates the problem of human trafficking and its relationship to prostitution. The economic disparity between developing and developed nations leads to the victimization of children from poorer countries by actors from more affluent countries. Moreover, some economically unstable countries victimize groups of their… Continue Reading...

Prosecution Of Andrew Fastow

burgeon its assets (Rogers, 2004). Financial schemes or technical aspects used to perpetrate the crimes Fastow utilized a number of financial schemes to perpetrate wire fraud and security fraud. One of his tools was an extremely liberal usage of marked to market accounting, which is a legitimate accounting method when correctly applied. However, Enron was using this method (in which individuals estimate the worth of assets according to market forces and not based on actual, concrete estimates) to show wild profits for assets which never truly existed (Norris and Eichenwald, 2002), such as its scheme to enter the entertainment industry… Continue Reading...

Texas Law Cases on Theft

two types of felonies, class A and C. By committing these crimes in Bridget’s house; it was a clear indication of a crime due to the method of entry he utilized to access the premises. Works cited "Jewell V. State." Justia Law, 1996, https://law.justia.com/cases/indiana/court-of-appeals/1996/51a01-9506-cr-192-9.html. LaFave, Wayne. Criminal Law. 6th ed., West Academic, 2017. Samaha, Joel. Criminal Law. 12th ed., Cengage Learning, 2016. "Sonnier V. State, 849 S.W.2D 828 – Courtlistener.Com." Courtlistener, 1992, https://www.courtlistener.com/opinion/1722690/sonnier-v-state/.   Continue Reading...

Why Parents Should Be Liable for Their Children's Bullying

Education and Centers for Disease Control (Facts about bullying 3) and many of these behaviors are crimes. A growing body of evidence confirms that bullying can have a wide range of adverse effects on both the perpetrator as well as the victim that can extend well into adulthood, and identifying ways to stop bullying in and out of the schools has assumed increasing importance and relevance in recent years as technology has created new ways for young people to bully each other. Therefore, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature to argue that parents should be held… Continue Reading...

National Security Impact Of Immigration Policy

to concerns regarding the American migrant system’s efficacy in maintaining the safety of the nation’s people. Recent events revolving around crimes, weaponry crossing national boundaries and foreign- born people has triggered a series of reactions with the most intense ones demanding a sealing of borders, barring migration for individuals hailing from high- risk foreign territories, and putting a stop to refugee resettlement. Theory of Migration Migration represents mankind’s story from the outset to the current age. It has its roots in mankind’s adventure- seeking spirit and quest to follow one’s dreams. The growth in individuals undertaking perilous, cross- border journeys across… Continue Reading...

Annotated Bibliography for Criminal Psychology

motivations for crime, but about how psychology can help law enforcement prevent crimes by using more effective profiling. Profiling can also help officers to improve their interviewing techniques. This book is also helpful because of the way it discusses the different profiling methods and the empirical research used to justify them. Continue Reading...

Sexual Assault and Legal Standards

force requirement. It is unreasonable to expect a rape victim to forcibly resist her attacker. In no other crimes is someone expected to show proof that he or she visibly resisted the attacker beyond saying “no.” With an extrinsic force requirement, the focus inevitably applies a standard which assumes the victim has a responsibility to physically resist, regardless of whether she feels safe to do so. It is also more appropriate to take a victim’s perspective of coercion. In the case of Berkowitz, the situation was solely viewed through the eyes of aggressor, who claimed that because the victim… Continue Reading...

Reforms Needed for Three Strikes Law

that exist when it comes to the “three strikes” law. It treats many different crimes and offenses in the exact same manner. This is true despite the type of crime that is committed, the costs involved, the likelihood of recidivism, the danger that exists to the public and what is proportional in terms of the crime versus the punishment. The solutions, as such, should be based on making the law more effective, more efficient, more equitable and more proportional. Even so, the safety and sanctity of the public should be upheld as well. After all, there is a reason… Continue Reading...

Improving Public Relations Between the Police Department and the Citizens

important to note that while we appreciate the fact that terrorism and violent crimes are real concerns in this city, the police force will not at any given time make use of or utilize military approaches or maneuvers in the handling of citizens and diffusion of normal/every-day scenarios. The overarching standard to be used when effecting arrests or in pursuit of suspected offenders will remain: Utilization of force that is either commensurate with the risk posed or objectively reasonable. Discuss the Methodology You Would Employ in Developing this New Policy The methodology adopted herein is inclusive of not only… Continue Reading...

Leadership Dynamics at Johnson County Sheriff Department

and obstruction of justice by giving false statements to the FBI investigators. Such crimes could earn the Sheriff a maximum of 20 years in prison for giving wrong information with the intent to hinder FBI investigations and at least another ten years for obstruction of justice (Scott & Byrd, 2012). Effect on Community Relations and Cooperation with the FBI Sheriff Jones’s behavior would have a great impact on community relations and community cooperation with the FBI. One impact that his behavior would have is that the community’s public trust and respect for the department would reduce significantly. Any misconduct… Continue Reading...

Impact Of Darryl Hunt's Case

One of the most brutal crimes in North Carolina occurred in 1984 when a young white newspaper reporter, Deborah Sykes, was assaulted, raped, sodomized, and stabbed to death a few blocks from her workplace in Winston-Salem (Stern & Sundberg, 2006). Darryl Hunt, a 19-year-old black man was charged with this crime despite the absence of any physical evidence linking him to the crime. Hunt’s charges were largely based on an eyewitness’ identification that was made by a former member of Klu Klux Klan. He was later convicted of the… Continue Reading...

Societal Perceptions Of Pornography

decreasing sexual assault and rape. In societies where pornography is legal and widely accepted, sex crimes have either remained stagnant or decreased over time, which has led to the belief and opinion that pornography is beneficial to the society. Moreover, pornography has been considered beneficial with regards to raising revenues for government, particularly in regions where it is a legal practice. However, pornography has been viewed negatively in today’s society because of its potential harms on people. The disadvantages brought by pornography to a society cannot be compared to its minimal benefits. The consideration of pornography as harmful to… Continue Reading...

Criminal Law Cases Examinations

allowed to knowingly and voluntarily consent to the commission of crimes against themselves? Why or why not? Individuals can be allowed to knowingly and voluntarily consent to the commission of crimes against themselves within reason and within reasonable circumstance. Many professions in life aside from professional sports do require individuals to put themselves in harm’s way and consent to allowing events to occur to them, which would be considered assaults or attacks in other circumstances. For example, combat or stage fighting in theatre or film attempts to take the danger out of these endeavors, however the actors know that… Continue Reading...

When Senators and Police Go Bad

1 The inability of the police to report crimes because of political purposes is disturbing. The fact that Mayor Bloomberg would try to make himself and his city look better by underreporting on crime is a very disingenuous type of leadership: it indicates that people should lie and falsify claims in order to make the situation look better than it is. This is not how communities are transformed for the better, however. The police have a duty to serve and protect, and if the community feels it is not… Continue Reading...

Criminal Law Cases Analysis

Stark had knowingly and intentionally exposed his victims to the HIV virus. Specific intention refers to crimes where in the mens reus goes above and beyond actus reus. This is to indicate that the defendant has some ulterior motive in mind. A specific intent crime is one where in theory the mens rea goes beyond the actus reus, in the sense that the defendant has some ulterior purpose in mind. In the case at hand, the actus reus is to infect the three women with the virus with the intention of causing them some suffering and harm. The defendant must… Continue Reading...

Self Defense Laws and Castle Doctrine

The right to use force in self-defense an important civil liberty and right, ensconced in the Second Amendment of the Constitution. Because of Second Amendment assurances, all Americans technically have the right to bear arms in self-defense. Some states have attempted to restrict Second Amendment rights, but the vast majority of states have implemented “some statutory version” of the Castle Doctrine (“What is the Castle Doctrine,” n.d.). In fact, some states like Florida have taken the Castle Doctrine a step further to invoke what are commonly called “stand your ground laws.” Whereas the Castle Doctrine only applies to a person’s… Continue Reading...

Political Science

is Hillary Clinton. To be fair, there are plenty of Republicans that are charged with similar crimes, if not worse. The current eruption of sexual harassment and assault charges is a good example. Both Republicans and Democrats are being ensnared by such accusations. Just a few names of candidates or current elected officials include Al Franken, John Conyers, Roy Moore (Senate candidate) and a few others. As was explained by Representative Charlie McCaul in light of what happened with Rangel, there is a hope of many that there is a new era of increased transparency, honestly and compliance. The… Continue Reading...

Michigan Community Child Watch Programs

The Michigan Community Child Watch Program is a program dedicated to helping deter crimes against children. Being a Michigan based program, it helps spread education and awareness of child victims. However, the program has it weaknesses. 2. Established in 1979, the Michigan Community Child Watch Program offers the community a chance to minimize the risk of children becoming victims of crime. Administered as a joint effort by school districts and local law enforcement agencies, the Community Child Watch Program owes its long-running success to volunteers that are trained to recognize, observe, report, and record any suspicious persons and activities.… Continue Reading...

Enron Fraud

Enron was actually that the safeguards that are normally in place to prevent people from getting away with crimes like this broke down for several years. Arthur Andersen did not rotate its auditors, so the same person was able to contribute to the fraud on the auditing end. The laws were relatively weak, or perceived as such, so the executives at Enron did not feel that there were going to be significant costs to the crimes that they were committing. They were wrong about that, but the SEC did have to make moves, as did Congress, to bolster the… Continue Reading...

School Crime Prevention Programs

engage in drug use commonly engage in one or more other crimes. One example would be people that steal to support their habit. The dealing of drugs and trafficking are other behaviors that are clearly illegal and that relate to drugs. As such, educating children to stay from the use or other exposure to drugs is obviously a good idea. The pros of the program is that it has a strong foundation in reality and the facets of the program are easy for students to learn. Downsides include an overly harsh stigma being placed on drug users and the… Continue Reading...

The Ethical Issues Of Criminal Justice

for crime suspects to pass through border security. 3. Innocence program: The number at which innocent people get convicted of crimes they did not commit, due to factors such as wrong identity and selective application of law is alarming. There is an urgent need to improve the criminal justice system with an objective of alleviating wrongful convictions and enhancing the innocence program. This will minimize the chances of convictions and subversion of justice for convicts. Political ramifications Criminal justice system: it is said that it’s better to allow 100 guilty suspects to go free than to have an innocent man… Continue Reading...

Serial Killers and the Media

about the coverage of serial killers, however. First, is too much attention given to them, versus other, less cinematic crimes? Secondly, does the media attention fuel the desire within some potential perpetrators to commit crimes? Of course, the idea that coverage of violent crimes can lead to the perpetuation of violence is not a new one: As noted by Conti (2015) “….what the scientific literature has found—almost universally—is that there is a very small but statistically significant correlation between consumption of violent media and raises in level of aggression” (par. 6). The fact that there is a link between… Continue Reading...

Crime and Punishment in the American Colonies

religious cohesion, the lack of diversity within their society, and above all a desire for survival meant that crimes such as murder and robbery were scarce, particularly in Puritan New England (p. 39). The most common crimes were so-called vice crimes, or violations of the very strict standards which governed colonial society. Gambling had been very popular in England and existed within the colonies, as did heavy drinking. But while this was tolerated in the Southern colonies, in the Northern and more religiously-based colonies, these crimes were regarded as moral abominations that must be stopped, as they were not… Continue Reading...

Confronting the Problem Of Truancy

other social challenges (Mallett 2016). Mallet (2016) also notes that the majority of crimes in the juvenile justice system are status-related offenses, such as truancy, which would not be offenses for an adult. This highlights the extent to which the justice system can subvert rather than promote education, since youths are often penalized for their actions rather than have the causes of their truancy addressed, such as difficulties in the home. This is reflected, he believes, in some of the inadequate data regarding delinquency which, like Reid (2003), he also remarks upon. Most data focus on delinquency, because of the… Continue Reading...

India Government and Economics

and women continue to face barriers to reporting such crimes, including humiliation at police stations and hospitals; lack of protection” and even subjugation to “two-finger” tests performed by healthcare workers and admissible in court as evidence that the victim was “habituated to sex,” (Human Rights Watch, 2018). On the flip side, the government has been attempting to legislate rights for rape victims and also recently outlawed statutory rape, “regardless of whether she is married or not,” (Human Rights Watch, 2018 p. 1). Also, Indian parliament recently introduced bills to liberalize same-sex marriage rights and to give full rights to… Continue Reading...

 innocence Of Bruno Hauptmann

in the baby Lindbergh case is to think of it as unnecessarily and hastily linking two separate crimes: the kidnapping and the murder. It is fairly clear that Hauptmann had something to do with the kidnapping. It would have been far too much of a coincidence for him to have had the exact same ladder in his closet, and the $15,000, and not have had some part to play in kidnapping Charles Lindbergh, Jr. The most likely scenario is that Hauptmann at least helped to orchestrate the kidnapping with some accomplices, and then when the baby was about to… Continue Reading...

Fast Food Restaurant Security

does, however, keep on interior lights after hours to prevent property crimes including break-ins and vandalism. Additionally, the owner is advised to plant hedges around the perimeter to strengthen the outer barrier to entry. The hedges serve as additional boundaries that reduce opportunities for criminals to easily wander onto the property, and would also improve the appearance of the facility to achieve the additional goal of improving business. Theoretically, the more popular the restaurant, the safer it will be because crowds would deter opportunistic property crimes, but this would not necessarily reduce the likelihood of an armed robbery. Therefore,… Continue Reading...

Ancient Roman Civilization and the Gladiator Games

the gladiatorial games: slaves—Gauls and Thracians mainly—had been “compelled to engage in gladiatorial combats, not only for crimes they had committed but because of the unjust behavior of their owners. Two hundred of them planned to make an escape, but information concerning their plan was betrayed”[footnoteRef:12]—and as a result, only 70 of them put up a resistance and escaped. [12: Plutarch, “The Spartacus Slave War”, 131.] The brutality of the games thus served as a motive for the slave revolt and the ensuing war that then broke out. Spartacus, for instance, was no low-minded criminal, but rather a highly-intelligent… Continue Reading...

National Anthem Protest Essay

failed to boycott the NFL in the past despite players being convicted of crimes ranging from drug possession to murder, and continue to watch games despite a large number of domestic violence offenders being on the NFL’s active rosters.  Third, the decision to take a knee was made specifically to simultaneously show respect and protest. Essay Hook Despite his efforts to show respect while engaging in peaceful protest, Kaepernick quickly became the most controversial football player to ever play in the NFL. Thesis Statement The fact that Kaepernick’s protest is being portrayed as disrespectful, even though kneeling has long… Continue Reading...

Immigration Essay

managed to sneak into the country illegally and may be capable of other crimes. Many Americans that want illegal immigrants deported, note the identity theft crimes that illegal immigrants participate in each year. “The Social Security Administration estimated that in 2010, 1.8 million undocumented immigrants worked under a number that did not match their name” (Yee, Davis, & Patel, 2017). Risk of identity theft, loss of jobs for the working class, and potential exposure to criminals has made the idea of illegal immigrants a main issue in the country. With each year passing, the number of undocumented immigrants increases.… Continue Reading...

Criminal Justice System Essay

imprison criminals on the state and federal level. Federal prisons provided the option of incarcerating criminals who have committed crimes against the federal government or crimes that affect the country as a whole. But it not in the federal prisons where the problems lie. The main problem lies in the state and local prisons where overpopulation and overcrowding is a continued problem. Here is where many problems in today’s American criminal justice system exist. Back then there existed two forms of prison systems with Pennsylvania and the Quakers having their own form of criminal justice. “Two different prison systems… Continue Reading...

Social Media Essay

and their friends and family may interact, giving law enforcement access to potential witnesses or gain potential tips of crimes committed and whereabouts of suspects. “Facebook is helping to catch criminals. Sometimes, police are able to get tips from suspects' "friends" after the suspect inevitably brags about his deviant behavior on the social networking site” (Roufa, 2017). Bragging about crimes is surprisingly common. What used to be done in person and in private, is now being done on social media to the joy of law enforcement that find it easier to track and catch criminals. Sometimes criminals are so… Continue Reading...

Dark Net Essay

activity.  Are the people who set up marketplaces that facilitate criminal activity morally responsible for the crimes that occur on those marketplaces?  If the answer is “no,” then is it appropriate to punish them for providing that marketplace. Outline I.  Introduction II.  Body A.  How to Access the Dark Net B.  Criminal Activity C.  Silk Road, Nucleus, and AlphaBay D.  Bitcoin and Blockchain III.  Conclusion Introduction Many people are confused about what the dark web is.  There are three basic levels to the internet: the surface web, the deep web, and the dark web.  The surface web is what… Continue Reading...

Juvenile Delinquency Essay

as it is to consider, over a hundred years ago, children who committed crimes were thrown into prisons with adults and some children were even sentenced to corporal punishment or even death (Yale.edu, 2000). Reformers of the justice system were the ones who pushed for a distinct court system for the treatment of juveniles, with the underlying notion being that these young people could potentially be helped and reformed. “Central to the concept of juvenile court was the principle of parens patriae. This meant that instead of lawyers fighting to decide guilt or innocence, the court would act as… Continue Reading...

European Muslims in Germany in the Postwar Period

as fortunate. “Scores of opinion polls, hundreds of anti-Turkish hate crimes, and the ubiquity of vicious ‘Turkish jokes’ all testify to the extreme public opposition that most Gastarbeiter have faced in the Federal Republic” (Fetzer 70). Germany had long established itself as a nation that did not welcome immigration with open arms. Even though in the postwar period Germany desperately needed a massive influx of able-bodied labor, there was still a social resistance to immigration. As Mandel explains, immigrants from Islamic states created a sense of Uberfremdung, which can best be translated as “overforeignization” (2008). Mandel quotes writer Max… Continue Reading...

Dark Web, Darknet, Deep Web Essay

marketplaces that facilitate criminal activity morally responsible for the crimes that occur on those marketplaces?  If the answer is “no,” then is it appropriate to punish them for providing that marketplace. Outline I.  Introduction II.  Body A.  How to Access the Dark Net B.  Criminal Activity C.  Silk Road, Nucleus, and AlphaBay D.  Bitcoin and Blockchain III.  Conclusion Introduction Many people are confused about what the dark web is.  There are three basic levels to the internet: the surface web, the deep web, and the dark web.  The surface web is what people use for everyday internet interactions.  It… Continue Reading...

Death Penalty Essay

penalty was practiced. “Code of King Hammurabi of Babylon codified the death penalty for twenty five different crimes, although murder was not one of them” (Reggio 2014). In Europe, by the tenth century, hanging was commonly used as a means of execution and by the Middle Ages in Great Britain and the rest of Europe, prisoners were often tortured before being executed, even for relatively minor crimes or for their religious affiliations. Well into the eighteenth century, stealing small sums of money were capital offenses although by the early nineteenth century in Great Britain, only serious offenses were capital… Continue Reading...

Gun Control Essay

the availability of illegal guns makes it easy to commit crimes regardless of limited or no access to legal guns. A 2016 news article states most crime is performed by those with access to illegal guns and only a small fraction of those crimes is committed by legal gun owners. “…in approximately 8 out of 10 cases, the perpetrator was not a lawful gun owner but rather in illegal possession of a weapon that belonged to someone else.” (Ingraham) This leads to the third reason. Supporters of gun rights believe gun ownership deters crimes. They believe if someone has… Continue Reading...

The Importance Of Cultural Awareness

cross-cultural awareness and communication can help police secure justice for victims of crimes. Suspects When interacting with suspects, police need cross-cultural awareness and education. Misunderstandings and stereotypes can lead to faulty conclusions and miscarriages of justice. Coworkers Police and civilian sector workers need to build cross-cultural coalitions and leadership teams. Cross-cultural awareness and education can enhance organizational efficiency and effectiveness, helping to resolve conflicts quicker, too. Conclusions The two Hmong scenarios demonstrate the fundamental importance of fostering cross-cultural awareness at all levels of law enforcement and public service. Cross-cultural awareness requires ongoing training and education. At all points of… Continue Reading...

Federal Versus State Courts Authority

States are heard in the state courts. These include crimes that are violations of state laws, including criminal laws, disputes about constitutionality, cases in which the states are a litigant, such as violations of tax policy, and real estate cases. State courts also often have special juvenile and traffic courts to hear those specific offenses (“State Courts and Federal Courts,” 2018). These cases often have unique features, such as the additional protections and restrictions offered to juveniles, which is why they are deemed to be more appropriately relegated to a separate system. The critical difference between trial and appellate… Continue Reading...

Police Killings

Dallas’ police killers had a valid license for the weapons utilized to perpetrate the crimes). As revealed by the terrible massacres in San Bernardino, Orlando, and Sandy Hook, the issue of gun violence in the US is just as grave as that in certain Latin American areas. Gun violence adversely impacts every American citizen, but Blacks are disproportionately impacted. Moreover, high-caliber guns’ extensive availability puts police officials in danger, interferes with their ability of protecting others, and intensifies the feeling of fear (Sánchez-Garzoli, 2016). In a period of highly polarized rhetoric, police reform efforts are commonly dismissed and considered… Continue Reading...

Mass Incarceration in Arizona Social Cultural and Legislative History

cause tremendous amounts of trauma to the individual. In prisons, cellmates learn how to abuse drugs, commit crimes, and engage in violence, while suffering enormous psychological scarring. Within the for-profit prison system, high rates of recidivism abound, a sign of the inherent failure of the system, but probably to the warped minds that run this system, they see it as a positive thing, as if these repeated prisoners are like “repeat customers” Disrupting the for-profit prison system is something that needs to occur so that justice might reign again. Another way in which the egregious shame of mass incarceration… Continue Reading...

Tools for Crime Analysis

or any other variables that may better inform the decision-making process. Tactical The “Car crimes at the Liberty Tree Mall” pattern review offers a product that can be used to make tactical decisions related to a specific geographic location. This report indicates the number of auto thefts and car break-ins resulting in the theft of GPS devices and stereos, using a graph to show what time of day those crimes are taking place. Knowing what time of day the property crimes are taking place helps law enforcement work with private security personnel to come up with immediate tactical interventions. For example,… Continue Reading...

Escobar’s “bloody Christmas

want anyone coming in and pushing him around or holding him and his department accountable for their crimes against the community. That was the real issue the whole time. References Escobar, E. J. (2003). Bloody Christmas and the irony of police professionalism: The Los Angeles Police Department, Mexican Americans, and police reform in the 1950s. Pacific Historical Review, 72(2), 171-199. Continue Reading...

Modus Operandi Of a Crime Series

of analysis that is being performed when reviewing the incident summaries is tactical, as the crimes are all committed within a few weeks of one another in the same region and the aim of the review is to provide “information to assist operational personnel in the identification of crime trends and in the arrest of criminal offenders” (Beaverton Police, 2018). As Bruce and Santos (2011) point out, a crime series is “a group of similar crimes thought to be committed by the same individual or group of individuals acting in concert” (p. 3). As these three robberies bear striking similarities to… Continue Reading...

Approaches to Psychological Profiling

Offender profiling involves obtaining information from law enforcement regarding the types of people who commit crimes (Douglass & Burgess, 1986). From the data compiled about crimes and individuals who commit crimes, an offender profile is developed to identify the type of person who might commit crime. These types are categorized according to crime, with a specific profile developed for a specific crime. For example, the profile of an individual who might be an arsonist would differ from the profile of an individual who might be a drug dealer. Victim profiling involves creating a database of information on victims of… Continue Reading...

Argument in Favor Of the Life in Prison over Execution

is a far more reasonable sentence for the most heinous of crimes than capital punishment is. There are several reasons why the death penalty plays no role at all in a civilized democracy, and why it also threatens to undermine the very foundations of Constitutional law. The worst criminals—those who prove themselves incapable of rehabilitation or reform due to their psychological constitutions—can be effectively dealt with in prison, promoting public safety without putting at risk the integrity of the criminal justice system. One of the main reasons to avoid using the death penalty is the possibility of false confessions… Continue Reading...

Dead Man Walking and Capital Punishment

justice. I think there are certain criminals who have engaged in crimes so monstrous and unspeakable and who show no shred of respect for humanity, that putting them to death is the only answer. Serial killers like Ted Bundy, Peter Tobin, Jeffrey Dahmer, Peter Sutfliffe, and Clifford Olson and others, are all people who deserved the death sentences that they received. These men not only killed many people, but many of them tortured and mutilated their victims, causing unfathomable levels of suffering for them and their families. Through their actions, serial killers tell the world that they are not… Continue Reading...

Assessing the Benefits Of Marijuana

their involvement with drugs, nearly fifty thousand of them solely for crimes involving marijuana. In the last years of the 20th century, a series of Supreme Court cases and government actions specifically involving marijuana led to a substantial increase in the power of the government at the expense of the Bill of Rights. As a result of the war against cannabis, Americans are demonstrably less free today” (Pollan, p.126). The federal government maintains that marijuana must be subject to the very same thorough scientific examination and clinical trials applied by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) to every other… Continue Reading...

Fbi Uniform Crime Reports

reporting trends and attitudes regarding crime (particularly as regards minor offenses), affects rate of reported crimes as well (Freilich et.al, 2014). For evaluating different jurisdictions’ law enforcement reaction and criminality, various factors need to be considered that, though significantly affecting crime, cannot be applied pervasively to all areas and aren’t easily measurable. Jurisdiction-specific demographic and geographic factors need to be taken into account and applied for making a comprehensive, accurate crime evaluation in the jurisdiction. Numerous information sources are accessible which can facilitate the exploration of factors impacting crime in any given area. For instance, data issued by the… Continue Reading...

The Historical Construction Of Rape Sexuality Race

In “ crimes Which Startle and Horrify: Gender, Age, and the Racialization of Sexual Violence in White American Newspapers, 1870-1900,” Estelle Fredman situates rape as a series of interconnected power relations, focusing on the intersection between race and gender in particular. Fredman analyzes the historical context of rape, showing how rape is socially constructed in ways that reinforce patriarchal and racist norms. Besides the cogent thesis driving Fredman’s work, the author also relies on a tight methodology, focusing on media accounts in nineteenth century American newspapers geared to primarily white male readers.… Continue Reading...

Psychology Questionnaire

prison furlough policy was to Americans. The ad mentioned how hundreds of prisoners escaped and have committed additional crimes like rape. This ad shows through a conditioned fear response, the need to change specific policies. Clearly the ad was one-sided not demonstrating the positive effects of such a policy. However, regardless of how one-sided the message was, it was clearly effective in implementing change. Now, the United States is one of the countries with the densest prison population. When emotions are manipulated through conditioning such as seen through the black and white video of prisoners and a revolving door,… Continue Reading...

Elder Abuse

shows how otherwise normal, functioning, law-abiding citizens can commit crimes such as abuse by using rationalization tactics to justify their criminal behaviors. By engaging in rationalization tactics, persons can remove any sense of guilt or regret from their minds and consciences. It is a rationalization of corruption that, in the case of elder abuse, can become a two-way street as the victims may rationalize or justify the behavior of the perpetrator, especially if the perpetrator is a loved-one such as a son or daughter, or if the victim senses that he or she really is a burden and deserves… Continue Reading...

Safeguarding Criminal Justice System from Wrongful Convictions

It entails the sentencing and subsequent punishment of someone for crimes they never committed (Huff & Killias, 2013). Wrongful convictions can happen in civil and criminal cases alike. Many criminal justice processes have been tailored to overcome this possibility and overturn such erroneous judicial decisions. It is quite difficult to achieve this, however, due to fundamental challenges in the judicial system. Wrongful convictions may take years or decades to overturn. In some instances the discovery of innocence happens after a person has already served their time in prison, after they are dead or after they are executed. Wrongful convictions… Continue Reading...

False Advertising

are the heads of the household, so to speak, and they should have to answer when crimes are committed and the public’s safety or security is threatened by the company’s reckless behavior and the CEO’s inability to address the recklessness. References Hallowell v. Citaramanis. (1991). Justia. Retrieved from https://law.justia.com/cases/maryland/court-of-special-appeals/1991/1060-september-term-1990-0.html United States v. Park. (2010). CaseBriefs. Retrieved from https://www.casebriefs.com/blog/law/criminal-law/criminal-law-keyed-to-kadish/group-criminality/united-states-v-park/   Continue Reading...

What Is Causing Inflation

big banks, insurance companies and ratings agencies needed help covering up for their socio-economic crimes (Cheng, Raina & Xiong, 2014; Oet & Lyytinen, 2017). So the real variable impacting the prices of goods and services can be found right there in the Federal Reserve. Raising wages may cut into profits for businesses, but if one just looks at the soaring wages of CEOs and other top executives over the same twenty year period (Gabaix & Landier, 2008), while lower level wages have basically stagnated, one can see that there is a problem with the distribution of profits: as in,… Continue Reading...

Civil Rights and Social Change

movement? Why? The purpose of Prohibition was ostensibly to reduce alcohol-related crimes and the suffering perpetrated by alcoholism on individuals, families (particularly women and children), and society as a whole. The Temperance Movement was widely supported by women’s rights activists and abolitionists throughout its existence. Yet it was largely made up of rural, native-born Protestants and there was also a strong anti-immigrant sentiment within the movement. The virulently racist Klu Klux Klan, for example, also supported Prohibition. In urban locations, the sentiment towards Prohibition was far different. In general, religion was less influential in cities, and many people profited from… Continue Reading...

Port Security Customs and Border Protection

people smuggling and arms smuggling has become big business in recent times. Transnational crimes are unlikely to go away by 2020. Chances are that such crimes will only increase. Corruption perpetuated by organised criminal groups which control illegal activities will definitely threaten security and safety of people and governments. Organised crime groups have an ability to come up with strong alliances and therefore infiltrate international borders sooner than later hence compromising State security (Banlaoi, 2005). CBP has been separated from DRO and this has caused challenges in the national coordination efforts. The two agencies are different and they pursue… Continue Reading...

Statistical Data Usage in Criminal Justice Leadership

collected by the FBI since 1930. The UCR includes statistics on seven crimes classified as either violent crime or property crime: murder, rape, assault and robbery fall under the violent crimes category, while arson, burglary, larceny-theft and motor vehicle theft fall under property crimes.” A database like the one maintained by the FBI is highly useful in supplying data and information that can be used to create policies in criminal justice as it basically serves as a giant store of what issues are spreading, where problem areas can be found, and what percentages of crimes involve specific types of… Continue Reading...

Death Penalty Based on Film Dead Man Walking

as an inmate he would have reckoned with the truth of his crimes, had he not been forced to face his own demise. It is likely that Poncelet would not have called upon the services of Sister Helen either, if he were not sitting on death row. Serving out a life term instead, Poncelet might have become even more entrenched in his white supremacist subculture, fomenting the hatred and bitterness that he too inherited from others. From this vantage point, it seems that the death penalty might indeed serve some function in stimulating remorse in those who would otherwise… Continue Reading...

Policy Of Choice Patient Safety

help to drug addicts by embracing humanity and perceiving drug abuse cases not as crimes but as medical conditions. Eventually this will lead to sound public policy in the windows stream stage. References Canadian Nurses Association (2018). Patient Safety. Retrieved 9, September, 2018 from https://www.cna-aiic.ca/en/nursing-practice/evidence-based-practice/patient-safety Chandler, R. K., Fletcher, B. W., & Volkow, N. D. (2009). Treating Drug Abuse and Addiction in the Criminal Justice System: Improving Public Health and Safety. Journal- American Medical Association, 301, 2, 183-190. Kingdon, J. W. (2011). Agendas, alternatives, and public policies. Boston: Longman. Nova Recovery Center (2016). Rethinking Prison for Drug Offenders: Alternatives to Incarceration. Retrieved 9,… Continue Reading...

New Jim Crow Mass Incarceration War on Drugs

of Americans were duped into thinking the War on Drugs was keeping America safe. In fact, responding to drug-related crimes with excessive measures like incarceration and the lifelong penalties associated with being a felon do nothing to improve public health, public safety, or quality of life in the nation. [3: Michelle Alexander, The New Jim Crow, New York: The New York Press, 2010, p. 2). ] Based on the extensive impact the War on Drugs has on American lives, mass incarceration is a civil rights issue, and a human rights issue. Mass incarceration is not at all a response… Continue Reading...

Psychology Ethics and Law

issue facing psychologists is whether facilities should be used as a form of punishment for crimes or as an opportunity to rehabilitate individuals. In the courts system, one issue faced by psychologists is whether plea bargaining is helpful or hurtful to clients aims, or whether prosecutors will apply undue pressure in order to get a plea just to avoid having to take a case to trial (Grossman, 2005). In academia, the issue faced by psychologists is whether free speech is hurtful or helpful. All of these areas have in common the ideas promoted by the Constitution—and the psychologist’s role… Continue Reading...

Civil Tort Criminal Law Differences

significant distinction being that the state generally has the authority to prosecute crimes but not torts, while individuals have the power to directly bring civil but not criminal charges. The goals of a criminal case are to determine the guilt or innocence of the accused, but also to uphold the tenets of the law, protecting the public safety and in many cases offering some form of victim restitution to promote principled justice (“The Difference Between Torts and crimes,” 2004). Players The distinction is due to the perception that crimes are affronts to the state, and require no individual plaintiff.… Continue Reading...

Browning Versus Shakespeare Irony and Menace

is accustomed to having orders obeyed. Browning skillfully conveys the injustice of the Duke by noting the specific, perceived crimes of the woman in question, which include smiling at the compliments of the portraitist Fra Pandolf, cherries brought to her by a lower-class man, or riding her white mule. The exaggerated disgust he feels for these actions, in sharp contrast with their innocence clearly shows him to be at fault. His excessive pride is seen in the fact that he even refuses to complain to his wife, which he sees as stooping. In general, the contrast of the married characters… Continue Reading...

Mass Repression Order No. 00447

anti-Soviet elements have been the main instigators of all sorts of anti-Soviet crimes and acts of sabotage,” (Ezhov 1). The liberal use of the phrase “anti-Soviet” reveals one of the author’s rhetorical strategies: to justify and motivate the mass repressions, terrors, and killing of anyone who has been branded as a threat to the state. Ezhov insists also that the anti-Soviet elements are “armed,” and thus dangerous, accusing these disparate groups of “crimes and acts of sabotage,” (1). After establishing the presumed necessity of taking immediate action against these threats, Ezhov goes on to outline the NKVD course of… Continue Reading...

Complicity in a Crime Of Murder

Classification of crimes Joe should be charged with murder, since he wielded the murder weapon. As it was a drive-by shooting, multiple shots were fired and another person was injured, the charges should include capital murder, and attempted capital murder. Larry, who served as an accomplice in the drive-by shooting, should also be charged with the same crimes, as he assisted in them by driving the car. Even though he did not operate the murder weapon, he was complicit in the act and enabled it to… Continue Reading...

State Vs Federal Crime

Federal vs. State Crime While some crimes are deemed to be state crimes, others are considered to be federal crimes. In essence, a vast majority of crimes are heard and determined in state courts as they happen to be state crimes. In seeking to distinguish between federal and state jurisdiction in prosecutions of a criminal nature, and in reference to crimes against persons, this text will concern itself with kidnapping. Kidnapping, in basic terms, has got to do with the illegitimate or illegal restraint/imprisonment and transfer of an individual from a specified… Continue Reading...

The Challenge Of Doctors Without Borders

when their hospitals are attacked it goes without saying that supporters of the group call such attacks war crimes, and rightly so. The U.S.’s own investigation into the attack ultimately called it the result of “human error” (Arsalai), but with today’s precision missiles and GPS-guided attacks it is hard to understand how this type of “collateral damage” can be swept under the rug. The group cannot continue to satisfy the need if it is targeted politically and blown up literally by bombs and bullets. Ordinary people, therefore, have to do more to get involved. The government is accountable to… Continue Reading...

New Media and Social Media

Edward Snowden. Assange reported on the U.S.’s War on Terror, war crimes, and the NSA’s spying and collecting of data on ordinary citizens. Assange told the world about how people’s right to privacy was being violated by the federal government, which was harvesting data on users of the Internet by accessing their emails, watching their browsing history, viewing their phone calls and so on. Assange currently lives in the Ecuadorian Embassy in London, as Ecuador has granted him asylum for the time being. He has been there for several years, first because he was wanted by Sweden for questioning… Continue Reading...

Elements Of a Criminal Act

fined in accordance to the law. According to the common law on murder crimes a person is considered to commit murder when they have a malicious aforethought towards the plan. Malice is satisfied in 4 ways and they are: One is the killing intention. This happens to be the only category that qualifies as express malice. Implied malice entails intention to inflict bodily harm on another person. Recklessly disregarding human life and its value is another way of exuding malice. The last form of malice is when someone dies following the attempt to commit the felony act. Clearly there was… Continue Reading...

Strategies to Improve Collaboration and Cooperation Between the Homeland Security Agencies

and Customs Enforcement) aims at protecting Americans from illegal immigration and crimes across the border as well as from anything that might compromise the safety and security of the public (Homeland Security, 2018).The objectives of the security department are achieved by way of enforcing the numerous federal statutes. Focus is given to the enforcement of smart immigration, alleviation of illegal transfer of goods and people, and prevention of terrorism (Homeland Security, 2018). The enforcement of immigration laws and regulations is the one most conspicuous ICE responsibility. Certain aspects of ICE duties revolve around cooperation and collaboration with the border… Continue Reading...

The Problem Of Poverty

their people getting arrested and going to jail for petty crimes while white collar criminals of the ruling classes never get punished for their actions which wreck the economies of entire nations. It is an unfair system that they see and it depresses their motivation to try to change things. Education is the biggest way for people to advance, but as Pogge points out it is very hard for people who grow up in poverty to get the kind of education they need. The achievement gap is a real thing (Balfanz and Byrnes) and there are no good solutions… Continue Reading...

Impact Of Organized Crime

of the most adversely affected areas by organized crime. Economic crimes from organized crime have monumental financial consequences on any society. Organized crime consequences extend beyond monetary consequences as well. Corruption, intimidation, and violence are primary characteristics of organized crime. Organized crime will characteristically affect the security and solace of any community, neighborhood, and home. Human rights to order, good governance, and peace are fundamentally affected by organized crime activities. Organized crime corrupts the political system as well as the governance structure of any society, diminishes the life quality of the community, puts the security of the people at… Continue Reading...

Criminal Law and Psychopathy

of the opinion that psychopaths have an existing predisposition to commit crimes as a result of their lack of concern or compassion of any kind for those they hurt. Psychopathy is on this front regarded as untreatable and those who harbor psychopathic behaviors are thought of as being highly likely to repeatedly engage in psychopathic behaviors. For this reason, this school of thought has in the past pushed for increased punishment for such individuals, with psychopathy in this case being taken to be the aggravating factor. This is more so the case given that an argument could be sustained… Continue Reading...

Military Tribunals or Federal Courts Terrorism

preclude the ability for the prosecution to try suspects for ancillary crimes that might yield a conviction that at least helps protect public safety. For example, a military tribunal has no jurisdiction over cases involving charges such as financial support for terrorism or fraud (“Myth v. Fact: Trying Terror Suspects in Federal Courts,” 2018). Military tribunals have also been accused of sending the wrong message to the American public regarding the status of terrorism and of terrorists. For instance, being tried in a military court makes terrorists seem more like “warriors” than like general criminals, which psychologically diminishes the… Continue Reading...

How Germans View the Holocaust

how to atone, how to memorialize the Holocaust and pay for the crimes that their soldiers had committed in secret. This paper will show how the Germans tried to engage or disengage from this history of the war, of the Holocaust, and how now they have come to accept it and desire to move on from it. The Past is Prologue Schlink states that the Holocaust has become so familiar to the German people today that they have become bored with it: it is the effect of over-saturation. There is too much of it everywhere they turn—and they are… Continue Reading...

Ted Bundy

helped him gain his victims’ trust, but also helped foster public fascination with Bundy.  Bundy committed crimes across multiple states, which helped create national awareness of his crimes at a time when crime reporting was still often confined to local areas.  He had multiple successful escapes, which not only created news while authorities searched for him, but also helped support the mythology of Bundy as a genius.  His antics during the trial, where he represented himself, were focused on engaging the press in an attempt to win public support.  Finally, after he was convicted, he attempted to use the… Continue Reading...

Criminal Justice Process and Victims

police officers (Frances & Nicholas, 2011). Online reporting of crimes through emergency call centers and independent charitable organizations are some of the avenues of reporting a crime. The process for lodging a crime complaint needs to be simplified with more consideration to the victims. The modern society is a digital society, digital communication for crime proceedings becomes paramount. 2. Investigation The criminal justice process commences with an allegation by a law enforcement officer or private citizen of occurrence of a crime. A statement is filed by the aggrieved victim of the complaining witness to document the crime which is… Continue Reading...

Why R2p Does Not Work

Protect 2015, 1.] [6: Gareth Evans , "The Responsibility to Protect: Ending Mass Atrocity crimes Once and for All." Irish Studies in International Affairs 20 (2009), 10.] Evans uses Rwanda and other atrocities as justification for intervention, which he calls “protection” to side-step the fact that the U.S. is intervening in parts of the world without a clear mandate from sovereign countries for assistance.[footnoteRef:7] Bellamy cites the Fascist aggression of WWII and the Holocaust as justification for R2P (as does Evans).[footnoteRef:8] Atrocities are commonly viewed as the reason for humanitarian intervention, and the West primarily attempts to assert its own virtue… Continue Reading...

Wrongful Convictions

else, as is often done in the case of crimes committed by a more powerful person who is shielded by someone further down the totem pole willing to sacrifice himself and take the blame so that the other may go free. There are numerous ways in which a person might falsely confess to a crime—and none of them have to be committed under duress. However, some interrogation techniques can lead to false confessions, and torture is one of them. Whenever a prisoner is held for questioning, if the interviewer puts the prisoner under duress in order to obtain a… Continue Reading...

How Does Public Policy Work

routinely votes to look the other way when it comes to apartheid and war crimes committed by Israel. Additionally, it has no problem supporting foreign wars in the Middle East that support the ambitions of greater Israel. Essentially, the wars in the Middle East have been all about that, championed by dual-American-Israeli citizens in the State Department, such as Abrams, Wolfowitz, Doug Feith, Richard Perle, and Robert Kagan. This would also allow representatives like Ilhan Omar greater freedom to criticize the lobby if she wants and to allow for a greater discussion of the role that outside money plays… Continue Reading...

Ethical Framework

to engage in a victimless crime: well, there are no such things as victimless crimes if we really think about it, and the Golden Rule framework that I have developed has help me to realize that. References Ajzen, I. (2002). Perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, locus of control, and the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 32(4), 665-683 Kohlberg, L., & Hersh, R. H. (1977). Moral development: A review of the theory. Theory into practice, 16(2), 53-59. Lutz, D. W. (1996, January). Rival traditions of character development: Classical moral philosophy and contemporary empirical science. In Joint Services Conference on Professional Ethics… Continue Reading...

Can Nato Still Keep the Peace

the collaboration was not without its controversy (due to the bogus allegations of war crimes the Bush administration leveled at Iraq at the time). Controversy only grew with NATO’s role in the Bosnian War in 1992. Bombing of Kosovo in 1999, and Afghanistan post-9/11, followed by Iraq, the Gulf of Aden, the Libyan intervention which eventually led to regime change and the brutal murder of Gaddafi (and now a failed state), all showed signs of NATO speeding up its “peacekeeping” missions now that the Cold War was over: humanitarian aid at the barrel of a gun or on the… Continue Reading...

Game Of Thrones

the Wall.  Snow takes back Winterfell, by defeating Ramsay. The High Sparrow puts Cersei on trial for her crimes, and Cersei gets her revenge by killing him.  However, she also kills her son Tommen’s wife, Margaery, which causes Tommen to commit suicide.  The Dothraki take Daenerys prisoner, but she convinces them to let her go by walking through fire.  She becomes their leader.  Theon and Yara join forces with Daenerys.  Arya, who has now become an assassin, begins to avenge deaths.  The Night King kills Bran’s mentor, and Bran takes his mentor’s place.  Daenerys heads towards Stannis’s old home.  Melisandre… Continue Reading...

Trump Versus Hawaii

by terrorists travelling freely into the country and getting away with the crimes. There has to be strict immigration policy to enable deep vetting of individuals entering the country and the need to root out who was a genuine citizen or not. Their civil and privacy laws will be violated since there is a search on their personal finances, criminal records, priors and any other relevant digital data to help profile them. Most people from the Middle East were categorized on a profile of being potential terrorists. They were designated special task forces to vet them when entering the… Continue Reading...

Future Of Policing Law Enforcement

help when they need it, or to provide other critical information that helps to prevent and solve crimes,” (“What 21st Century Policing Means,” 2015). Therefore, rebuilding trust is one of the most important factors for promoting and achieving the desirable outcomes such as crime reduction. To develop and deal with changes, law enforcement needs leadership. Leadership in law enforcement will lay the groundwork and set the stage for a new normative culture in policing that no longer condones unethical behavior and which views its primary obligation to keeping communities safe. Police officers also need to more willingly embrace new… Continue Reading...

Big Data in Criminology and Law Enforcement

of Criminal Justice Systems (UN-CTS). The UCR and the UN-CTS are similar in that they track reported crimes. Tracking reported crimes requires an established, clear definition of each crime. It also requires that all participating law enforcement agencies use the same definitions for those crimes and report instances of those crimes in the same way. Because law enforcement agencies have a large degree of discretion when it comes to reporting crimes, let alone prosecuting them, the data collected by the UCR and the UN-CTS may not always be as reliable as it seems. Similarly, systems that track victim reports such… Continue Reading...

Why Marijuana Should Be Legalized

to the use of harder drugs or a factor in causing crimes or juvenile delinquency” (Revell). In other words, the mayor who had an international airport named after him in New York City conducted a study on marijuana and found that it was not the killer that opponents were making it out to be. Yet the government still went ahead and banned it. History is on the Side of Weed Nonetheless, in spite of what Americans in the 20th century did, history is on the side of weed. Cannabis was a common plant in the Neolithic Age and could… Continue Reading...

Wrongful Convictions Exonerations and Race

convictions occur when factually innocent persons are convicted of crimes; a miscarriage in the justice system. The handful convictions of innocent persons challenges the efficacy of the US justice system. The National Registry of Exonerations (2019) records 2439 exonerations in the US between 1989 and 2019, equivalent to more than 21290 years lost by the innocent convicts. While non-DNA exonerations amounted to 1895, DNA exonerations accounted for 484 cases. Homicide cases are the leading cases of exonerations which amounted to 945 cases, sexual assault, 322 cases, child sex abuse; 266 cases and other 846 cases. The increasing prevalence of… Continue Reading...