Criminal Justice Essays


Criminal Justice System Essay [Free Example]

This essay discusses how the criminal justice system is an important part of the government, allowing for the prosecution, imprisonment, and rehabilitation of criminals. Apart from the court system and police, the criminal justice system has other components like criminal justice agencies that provide additional information for researchers to form studies and articles to help Continue Reading... Continue Reading...

Analysis Of Murderers Alex and Derek King

Mail Online UK: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2451335/Brothers-murdered-father-2001-just-12-13-talk-attempts-lives.html Doherty, E. E. (2005). Assessing an Age-Graded Theory of Informal Social Control. Department of Criminology and criminal justice. Laub, J.H., & Sampson, R.J. (1993). Turning points in the life course: Why change matters to the study of crime. Criminology, 31(3), 301-325. Laub, J.H., & Sampson, R.J. (2003). Shared beginnings, divergent lives: Delinquent boys to age 70. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press Power, J. (2003). Speculation on the King Brothers Case. Retrieved from NAMBLA: http://www.nambla.org/kings.html Sampson, R., & Laub, J. (2004). A General Age Graded Theory of Crime. Testing Integrated Developmental/Life Course Theories of Offending. Tasgin, S.… Continue Reading...

Social Bonding Theory

the offenders. Meanwhile, according to the gender inequality theory, females are given differential treatment by criminal justice authorities and laws, but this difference is actually to their advantage (Stinchcombe, 2005; Gosselin, 2005). Lastly, considerable evidence exists of the fact that crime has potentially heterogeneous, and not homogeneous, causes, and the heterogeneity depends on population type, unit used for comparison, and crime type. The ideal model would be applicable to all kinds of crime, comparison units, and populations. But no available theory achieves this ideal. All current crime theories are to be regarded as partial. Researchers need to continue seeking… Continue Reading...

Analyzing Critical Criminology

The impact of gun control (Bill C-51) on homicide in Canada. Journal of criminal justice, 29(4), 287-294. Retrieved, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047235201000940 Loeber, & Stouthammer-Loeber. (1986). Family factors as correlates and predictors of juvenile conduct problems and delinquency. In M. Tonry and N. Morris (Eds.). Crime and Justice, 7. Matsueda, & Grigoryeva. (n.d.). UW Faculty Web Server. Social Inequality, Crime, and Deviance. Retrieved August 10, 2016, from http://faculty.washington.edu/matsueda/Papers/Inequality.pdf Petrosino, Derzon, & Lavenberg. (2009). The Role of the Family in Crime and Delinquency: Evidence from Prior Quantitative Reviews. The Southwest Journal of criminal justice, 6(2). Retrieved, from http://swacj.org/swjcj/archives/6.2/3%20Petrosino%20et%20al.pdf (n.d.). Sage Pub. Theories… Continue Reading...

Different Types Of Studies Relating to Drugs

on Drug Abuse cooperative study of pharmacotherapy for opioid treatment in criminal justice settings. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 48166-172. doi:10.1016/j.cct.2016.05.003 • A qualitative study that looks at drug abuse interventions that involve the criminal justice system and drug therapy from legal drugs. This study would be useful in how the criminal justice system can use legal drugs to combat the use of illegal ones. This would be a way to get people off of heroin, methamphetamine and so forth. Chen, L., & Bonson, K. R. (2013). An Equivalence Test for the Comparison Between a Test Drug and Placebo in Human Abuse… Continue Reading...

Feminism in the Hunting Trip on Parks and Recreation

partly fueled by hormone levels (Wright, Tibbetts and Daigle). This perception seems to be evident in the criminal justice system as many assume women are less prone to crimes, such as illustrated clearly in the episode. Yet women have higher levels of estrogen and different biological compositions that fluctuate in healthy females with their menstrual cycles. Other studies have also shown that women are more likely to commit crimes during their premenstrual cycle (PMS) during times in which these hormones are present. But these beliefs are also supported by popular culture and aggression is constantly being associated with low… Continue Reading...

Court Process, Judicial Process, and Constitutional Issues

1 The U.S. Supreme Court is an important element of the nation's criminal justice system given its original and appellate jurisdiction. Through its original and appellate jurisdiction, the Supreme Court provides precedence which guides the criminal justice system. While local, regional, county, and state customs and practices should be revered, it's essential to have one overarching court interpreting criminal law to help avoid confusion. Therefore, Supreme Court practices can be improved through considering these customs when interpreting criminal law. The Process after a Criminal Trial The process of a criminal trial varies somewhat across states because of differences in criminal… Continue Reading...

Csi Effect

over 1000 million viewers (Cole & Dioso-Villa, 2007). This discussion seeks to establish the effect of CSI on criminal justice system. The paper reviews previous literature on the subject. Background According to a survey that was recently conducted, most jurors today expect more forensic evidence in crime cases as a result of the TV program: Crime Scene Investigation. Indeed, many jurors also believe that CSI has made the conviction process all the more harder (Hughes & Magers, 2007). In the summary of the analysis of 318 magazine and newspaper articles focusing on the effects of CSI, up to 8.5%… Continue Reading...

Criminal Process from Arraignment to Pre Trial

to lawyers and judiciary staffs, human rights entities and other interested parties with intention to understand the criminal justice System.   References American Bar Association. (2007). Standards relating to pretrial release (2nd ed.). Washington, D.C. Bassiouni, C. (2003). Introduction to International Criminal Law, Transnational Publishers, New York. Boyle, D. (2006). The Rights of Victims, Participation, Representation, Protection, Reparation, Symposium on Khmer Rouge trials, Journal of International criminal justice, p. 307 Conference of Criminal Presiding Judges, (2007). NEW JERSEY CRIMINAL DIVISION OVERVIEW. Retrieved from https://www.judiciary.state.nj.us/criminal/CRIMINAL_DIVISION_OVERVIEW_12.26.07.pdf on September 9, 2016. Henham, R. J. (2005). Punishment and Process in International Criminal Trials,… Continue Reading...

Second Chance Act Of 2008

has been identified as one of the most critical concepts in criminal justice. The concept refers to an ability of an individual relapsing into criminal behavior. Typically, the recidivism has been measured by a criminal act, which led to reconviction, re-arrest, or return to prison. According to data released by the National Institution of Justice (2015), approximately 67.8%, which is about two-third of the released prisoners are rearrested within three years of their released. Within five years, 76.6%, three- quarter of the released prisoners are rearrested. Moreover, property offenders and those sentenced for drug crimes are in the top… Continue Reading...

Liberal and Conservative Beliefs Of Justices

especially take advantage of this). What would happen in a criminal justice system without plea bargaining is that courts would become so backed up that cases would never be heard in the lifetime of the persons involved/charged. Alternatives to the plea bargaining process to enhance justice and efficiency could include diversion programs that remove less serious charges from the process (American Bar Association, 2015). ASHFORD 4: - WEEK 3 - DISCUSSION 1 Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg was born in 1933 in Brooklyn to Jewish parents. She attended Cornell, Columbia Law and was a professor at Rutgers and… Continue Reading...

Juvenile Probation

the probation terms. Probation as a whole, forms a rather critical area of criminal justice. At times considered a test, probation enables lawbreakers to serve their sentence partially or entirely outside of jail. From the incarceration system's perspective, probation reduces costs incurred by the state, enabling prisons to concentrate on punishing dangerous and vicious criminals. Probation for juveniles in the preferred sentence as imprisonment is considered particularly harmful to children's physical and mental wellbeing. Probation counts among the 'family of instruments', that law enforcers employ for reducing juvenile delinquency levels. History, Duties and Responsibilities of Juvenile Probation Officers The… Continue Reading...

Ethics and Moral Guidelines Criminal Justice

perhaps usually, reflects ethical codes. However, many laws remain unethical. Often, pragmatism and/or fear guide public policy in criminal justice more than ethics. The law usually reflects the difficulty balancing different ethical frameworks. A good example is drug laws. Drugs can cause addiction, which can cause personal harm. Drug prohibition is designed to "protect" the individual by restricting his or her freedom to act. However, the greater ethical principle of freedom as well as privacy also needs to be respected. Criminalizing drug users by placing them in prison is more unethical than the use of drugs itself, which can… Continue Reading...

Logical Fallacies and Criminal Justice

et al. 2014). This paper discusses some logical fallacies and how they affect criminal justice. Argumentum ad hominem The argumentum ad hominem is the argument directed at a particular person. The ad hominem is considered a fallacy that neither the speaker's character nor the circumstances reveal any facts concerning the validity or the invalidity of the argument presented by the speaker or whether the speaker's conclusion is true or false. Sometimes, even people whose characters do not conform to accepted social norms are known to offer valid arguments, and the instance of the political interests of the speaker coinciding… Continue Reading...

Criminal Justice Bias

this case on future actions and ideology of the criminal justice system relative to the psychological issues presented (or denied) in this case Questions around racial bias have been raised since the killing of Michael Brown by Officer Darren Wilson. There have been few solutions to the problem; even though it has been extensively documented. Beyond the documentation and studies, it is apparent that out conduct and behavior towards others is influenced by implicit attitudes that operate below our conscious levels. This observation holds true on whether the attitudes are directed at people of color or others of different… Continue Reading...

Racialized Violence and Police Brutality in Usa

Racial bias, even when brutality is not used, is evident at every level of the criminal justice system. Works Cited Chaney, Cassandra and Robertson, Ray. "Racism and Police Brutality in America." Journal of African-American Studies, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 480-505. Gilbert, Keon L. and Ray, Rashan. "Why Police Kill Black Males with Impunity: Applying Public Health Critical Race Praxis (PHCRP) to Address the Determinants of Policing Behaviors and "Justifiable" Homicides in the USA." Journal of Urban Health, Vol. 93, Supp. 1, pp. 122-140. Makarechi, K. (2016). What the data really says about police and racial bias. Vanity Fair.… Continue Reading...

Prison Psychologists and Biases in Corrections

Criminology Review 6(1): 12-21. Boothby, J.L. & Clements, C.B. (2000). A national survey of correctional psychologists. criminal justice and Behavior 27(6): 716-732. Entorf, H. (2013). Criminal victims, victimized criminals, or both? Retrieved online: http://ftp.iza.org/dp7686.pdf Magaletta, P.R., et al. (2016). Correctional settings. APA handbook of clinical psychology: Roots and branches, Vol. 1, (pp. 539-549). Washington, DC, U.S.: American Psychological Association, xxviii, 572 pp. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/14772-031 Continue Reading...

Self Incrimination and Right to Counsel Approach

government. Such parity is desirable in a free law abiding society because the tenets of our adversarial criminal justice system states that partisan advocacy on either side of the case will enhance the eventual objective that those who are guilty should be convicted and the ones that are not guilty are acquitted. The protection against intentional government interference with the relationship between the client and their attorney's privacy is another instance of the significant basis for the right to counsel jurisprudence encouraged by the Supreme Court's Sixth Amendment. The Sixth Amendment grants the accused the right to counsel after… Continue Reading...

Reporting Of Criminal Justice Issues and News

Ethics Policy for the Media in Handling the Reporting of criminal justice Issues and News American constitutional history speaks of balancing two or more rights against each other; in this particular context, the two rights requiring balancing are: society's right of knowing and press victims' privacy rights. One end has media reporters who seek free public data access together with complete discretion to publish whatever they desire, while the other has crime victims who are largely private citizens wishing to remain unseen but shoved unwillingly into the press's glare. A hodgepodge of multiple-level court… Continue Reading...

The Morality Of Punishment for Actions

Punishment. Retrieved from Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: http://www.iep.utm.edu/m-p-puni/ MacKenzie, D. L. (2000). criminal justice and Crime Prevention. Retrieved from National criminal justice Reference Service: https://www.ncjrs.gov/works/chapter9.htm Oleson, J. C., & Mackinnon, T. (2015). Seeing Saw through the Criminological Lens: Popular Representations of Crime and Punishment. Criminology, criminal justice Law & Society, 16(1), 35-50. Retrieved from https://ccjls.scholasticahq.com/api/v1/attachments/557/download Continue Reading...

Should the Government Ban Assault Rifles

to Community Preventive Services. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 35-43. Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2000). Sourcebook of criminal justice statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. Carande-Kulis, V., Maciosek, M., & Briss, P. (2000). Methods for systematic reviews of economic evaluations for the Guide to Community Preventive Services. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 75-91. Gerney, A., & Parsons, C. (2014). Assault Weapons Revisited. Center for American Progress. Hahn, R., Bilukha, O., Crosby, A., Fullilove, M. T., Liberman, A., Mosicki, E.,... Briss, P. (2003). First Reports Evaluating the Effectiveness of Strategies for Preventing Violence: Firearms Laws. Findings… Continue Reading...

Pornography Child Abuse and Coersion

when they ask for help or come forward to law enforcement, they become embroiled in the criminal justice system themselves, placed in untenable foster care situations, and end up in situations no better than they had been when they were being trafficked (Mcpherson, 2016). In fact, Mcpherson (2016) notes that law enforcement will end up processing some of the victims of child pornography and child trafficking rings with criminal charges, such as if the minor had been in the possession of a drug or other contraband, or if the child had exhibited behavioral problems. Unless law enforcement takes a… Continue Reading...

Research and Theory in Criminal Justice

criminal justice researchers are usually faced with numerous anecdotal data that is supported with relatively little to no empirical support. In order to effectively explore nuances of the issues that face the society with regards to law enforcement, criminal justice researchers tend to rely on empirical data, which is considered useful. The dependence on empirical data in criminal justice is evident in the fact that most of the existing criminology journals are quantitative as compared to qualitative studies (Jacques, 2014). Empirical research data is data obtained… Continue Reading...

False Confession Phenomena

A review of the literature unequivocally reveals false confessions are oftentimes deliberately sought after by overzealous criminal justice interrogators who are much more preoccupied with ascertaining a confession -- and an ensuing conviction -- than they are with ascertaining the truth about a particular crime. Organization This paper is organized by explaining the concept that false conceptions are deliberately extracted by far too many interrogators for the purposes of a conviction -- regardless if doing so is truthful or not. The author of this document explores this tenet from a variety of differing viewpoints which support… Continue Reading...

Ethics in Corrections

The importance of ethics in the criminal justice field cannot be overemphasised. All participants must portray acceptable moral conduct for positive criminal justice outcomes to be achieved (Braswell, McCarthy & McCarthy, 2008). This is particularly true for correctional institutions, a major component of the criminal justice system. Correctional authorities play a crucial role in rehabilitating offenders and facilitating their transition back to the society. The role places huge ethical demands on correctional personnel. This paper outlines ethical requirements for correctional officers. First, a comprehensive job description of correctional… Continue Reading...

Need for Strong Moral Character in Criminal Justice System Participants

1.  Explain how a criminal justice agency can ensure that it hires moral individuals. criminal justice leaders are public servants responsible to their community. This responsibility, together with the huge amount of control and influence they have, necessitates that they display superior levels of ethical and moral conduct. Ethical practice guidelines remind criminal justice heads to realize the divide between integrity and friendship; corporate objectives and adeptness and client interests; between personal prejudices, interests, and views and professional values. In this respect, all law enforcement leaders are required… Continue Reading...

Annotated Bibliography on False Confessions

the confession is used during key moments in the criminal justice procedure, leading to what the author calls "confession contamination," (p. 1051). Because the interviewers plant ideas in the minds of the subjects, the confessions contain rich and detailed information about the crime, making the confessions seem real. Unfortunately, there are no safeguards against the predatory interrogation techniques used by law enforcement. This article is helpful for my research both in providing background information and also for providing possible solutions. Gudjonssen, G.H. & Pearse, J. (2011). Suspect interviews and false confessions. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20, 33-37. This… Continue Reading...

Social Psychology

the psychological aspects of disaster preparedness, but am more interested and concerned with criminal justice generally. Therefore, I narrowed down my selection of the scenarios mainly because of personal interest and curiosity about the subject matter, which motivates my desire to conduct the research necessary to write a proposal and complete the report. Scenario Two described involving false confessions raises several points about the ethics of criminal justice, and how officers lie in order to extract information from suspects or witnesses. That information should not be admissible in court but sometimes is because of the defendant's lack of access… Continue Reading...

Mixed Methods Designs

of the design. The paper also examines the relevance of the design to criminal justice agencies. The mixed methods design has a number of components. The first step is to define the design (Creswell, 2014). This is particularly important as the design is quite new in research revolving around social and human disciplines. Defining the design gives the reader a comprehensive understanding of the core attributes associated with the design. This entails describing the collection, analysis, and interpretation of qualitative and quantitative data. It also involves describing the timing of data collection as well as the theory and philosophical… Continue Reading...

Communicating Qualitative Research Analysis

reliable conclusions regarding the issue under investigation. Relationship between these Aspects and criminal justice Research The evaluation and interpretation of criminal justice data and research findings is a process that is geared towards making judgments relating to the suitability, effectiveness, and efficiency of programs or initiatives in the criminal justice field. Research in the criminal justice field is geared towards providing assessment and analysis of crime and offer strategies for reducing crime (Garrison, 2009). Therefore, during the evaluation and interpretation of criminal justice data and research findings, it's important to consider several important aspects, especially in qualitative research writing. The… Continue Reading...

The Prevalence Of False Confessions

False confessions are an unfortunate part of the criminal justice system. False confessions are often extracted in order to gain a quick conviction without careful consideration for the facts of the case. This can lead to major problems for the defendant and the court system as defendants try to convince juries of unethically extracted confessions. While many in the criminal justice system believe, a false confession is a rare occurrence, research suggests it is a far more pervasive problem than imagined. If one were to look at false confessions via the lens of cognitive… Continue Reading...

Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Research

the researcher's meaning or the meaning suggested by extant literature (Creswell, 2014). These two aspects have important implications for criminal justice research. For instance, using qualitative research designs such as case study, ethnography, and phenomenology places the researcher in a better position to understand the psychological and behavioural characteristics of a certain criminal or type of criminals. More fundamentally, understanding the distinct nature of qualitative research enable consumers of research to more appropriately interpret published research findings. They interpret those findings oblivious of the fact that they may not be readily generalised beyond the subjects included in the study. These… Continue Reading...

Restorative Justice

Does Restorative Justice Reduce Recidivism? Though restorative justice has become an increasingly popular practice in the criminal justice field, there is still no concise, universally acceptable definition of the concept. There is often confusion over what actually constitutes restorative justice, with the concept usually being used interchangeably with terms such as relational justice, peacemaking criminology, transformative justice, and community justice (Latimer, Dowden & Muise, 2005). Even so, restorative justice is essentially an approach to offender rehabilitation where the offender is reconciled with victim(s) and/or the larger community (Wenzel et al., 2008). In other words, all stakeholders in… Continue Reading...

The Effect Of a Public Policy on an Individual

retain hegemonic systems and to oppress people of color through the criminal justice system. The Impact of the Policy on the Individual From the perspective of this young African-American male, it is possible to show how public policies differentially affect people of color. As Williams (2016) points out, the War on Drugs has "destroyed lives, torn families apart, filled our jails and prisons and hijacked countless futures of black and brown youth," (p. 1). The perspective of the African-American male on drug policy in particular reveals intersections of race, class, and gender. A 23-year-old African-American male is more likely… Continue Reading...

Norway, England, Wales, and the United States

..... criminal justice system protects the public from criminals and criminal activity by investigating, catching, and thwarting crime. Although some countries have similar methods of punishing criminals and preventing crime, many countries have different methods and strategies. Norway has its own way of handling criminals and criminal investigations that often involves a decentralized police and investigative force. The United States operates via tiered system: federal, state, and local (Cole, Smith, & DeJong, 2013). England offers a tiered system as well, with most investigative efforts occurring in London. This… Continue Reading...

Use Of the Scientific Method

example of a field and problem that could benefit from the application of the scientific method is the criminal justice field with regards to the reliability of eyewitness testimony. According to Bohannon (2014), eyewitness testimony is one of the crucial elements in the criminal justice field that has considerable outcomes on the outcomes of a case. However, the reliability of eyewitness testimony has been a major issue for professional in the criminal justice field. This is a major concern because of the fact that an individual may not have accurate memory of an event and the likelihood to criminal… Continue Reading...

Miscarriage Of Justice in Gideon V Wainwright

the indigent defendants do not fare well in the criminal justice system. There are many challenges that face them and their quest to providing the best representation to their clients. In the case of Eddie Lloyd, the indigent defendant has a very short time to organize his case. As a result, he was unable to gather all the evidence that was needed to ensure that the defendant was not sent to jail. Based on his incompetence and lack of good investigation, Eddie was sent for life without any option for parole although killed nobody. Therefore, the defendant was not… Continue Reading...

Social Work Mental Health Issues

deserve. Because socio-economic class status, race, and ethnicity often factor into who gets funneled into the criminal justice system and who has access to mental health services, social workers need to pressure politicians to create a system that is fairer and more just. The mental health commitment standards and mental health services in my state are underdeveloped, even when it comes to accessing my state's Medicaid program. Therefore, activism remains a crucial concern. References Marsella (2011). Twelve Critical Issues for Mental Health Professionals Working with Ethno-Culturally Diverse Populations. Psychology International. Oct 2011. Retrieved online: http://www.apa.org/international/pi/2011/10/critical-issues.aspx NASW (2017). Mental health.… Continue Reading...

Biological Theories Of Crime

Nature of Crime. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 May 2017. Helfgott, Jacqueline B. Criminal Behavior: Theories, Typologies, and criminal justice. Los Angeles: SAGE, 2008. Print. MacLaughlin, Eugene, John Muncie, and Gordon Hughes. Criminological perspectives: essential readings. London: SAGE, 2013. Print. Continue Reading...

Young Drivers Speeding Intentions and Behaviors

Drivers' Perceptions of Peer Pressure, Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol and Drugs, and Involvement in Road Accidents. criminal justice Studies, 21(1), 3 -- 14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786010801972639. Simons-Morton, B. G., Ouimet, M. C., Zhang, Z., Klauer, S. E., Lee, S. E., Wang, J., et al. (2011). The Effect of Passengers and Risk-taking Friends on Risky Driving and Crashes/Near Crashes Among Novice Teenagers. The Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, 49(6), 587 -- 593. Continue Reading...

Criminal Justice System Issues

the elderly is a major issue in the American criminal justice system because of increased prevalence of such cases. However, getting accurate information regarding the extent of child and elder abuse is increasingly challenging in the United States. Some of the major issues contributing to this problem include the fact that most child and elder abuse cases are not reported, misreporting of these cases, seeming inability of victims to report the cases, and the fact that most perpetrators are caregivers. Children and senior adults are more likely to be victims of abuse, neglect or maltreatment because of lesser physical… Continue Reading...

Reflection on Holistic Victim Restitution Plan

is one of the disciplines that has emerged in the criminal justice field to examine situations and vulnerabilities that make it more likely for people to become victims of crime. Additionally, this discipline also focuses on examining and understanding the harm people suffer due to being victims of crime or illegal activities. One of the core components of victimology is understanding who and/or what are crime victims in light of situations that increases vulnerabilities to crime. The rise of victimology today's society is attributable to the increased vulnerabilities that certain individuals and/or groups face, which increases their likelihood of… Continue Reading...

Factors Influencing the Use Of Performance Information for Decision Making

making in the public sector. From the health and education sectors to criminal justice agencies, government agencies and organisations are ever keener on outputs and outcomes. Performance measurement frameworks such as benchmarking and the balanced score card are now utilised to inform decision making. For instance, performance measurement enables the government to evaluate the effectiveness of a given policy or initiative. Based on the findings, decisions can then be made to expand or discontinue the initiative. Given the unique characteristics of the public sector, it is imperative to understand the factors that drive the use of performance information in… Continue Reading...

Muslims As an Ethnicity in the United States

however, complained that those words were not matched by actions. In the criminal justice system, many anti-Muslim actions occurred. Suspects were detained irrespectively of constitutional limits and conditions. Moreover, arrests for other crimes, like visa overstays, drastically increased for those of Arab origin or from Muslim countries in the final months of 2001. The government disregarded the rights of Middle Eastern and Muslim Americans in numerous cases. Thus, just as African-American Muslims were targeted during the unrest of the Civil Rights Era, the post-9/11 world saw Muslims as the source of problems in society -- even though ample evidence… Continue Reading...

Protection Of the Victims Of Crime

they have avoided glorifying violence and have avoided showing victims blood or body bag. The criminal justice system has also significantly improved their approach in protection of the victims through hiding of their identity by banning publications, particularly child victims or witnesses and the sexual assault victims. The justice system has also ensured possibility of concealing identity and voice of the victims who may be appearing in court as complainants or witnesses. The justice system has acted within the law to recognize the victimization of victims of crime and have developed several legal mechanisms that help in protection of the… Continue Reading...

Joe\'s Case Study and Evidence Based Practice

moral judgments on people like Joe and to especially refrain from criminalizing the client or diverting clients into the criminal justice system. However, social workers also understand how policies constrain their ability to take action to help people like Joe. Joe's case exhibits gaps in service delivery related to intersectionality and social class status. Guiding principles of social work include understanding the patient in a systemic way, taking into account issues like social policy, social status in the community, and family status when working with clients. The NASW (2013) recommends a "supportive approach" that refrains from judgment and stigma… Continue Reading...

Management Vs Leadership Essay

of the chosen organization: Florida Gang Investigators Association. In the U.S. criminal justice system, an estimated half of workers are employed at the local level. The rest are employed at federal and state levels. Although managers do not exist within the context of private businesses, there are supervisory staff that oversee the actions of employees in government organizations. Management grants power to influence others (Allen & Sawhney, 2015). This power does not come from the respect and admiration of subordinates, but through the promise of monetary gain and position within the organization. Subordinates follow management orders because they are paid… Continue Reading...

Law Enforcement and Corrections

and corrections by impacting the individuals that will hold different positions in criminal justice, for instance the police, judges, prosecutors as well as correctional executives. Law enforcement, administration, and corrections are linked with politics on various extents and levels. Prevailing political philosophy and ideology influence the structure, organization, as well as anticipation of a society's criminal justice organization. As a result, these institutions impact the manners in which criminal law is implemented and administered and corrections put into place (Law Library, 2017). Police agencies are part and parcel of the law enforcement. In a police agency undertakes its law… Continue Reading...

Evaluation Of Crime Incidents

important processes in the fight against crime and efforts towards enhancing the effectiveness of the criminal justice system in dealing with crime. In the past few years, crime analysis has continued to expand in law enforcement agencies across the globe. This expansion has contributed to the development and use of different methods of crime analysis including strategic, tactical, and administrative strategic analysis. These techniques of crime analysis are utilized when examining different crime incidents and resolve them. This paper provides a review of different crime incidents using different techniques of crime analysis and an analysis of the various factors… Continue Reading...

Community Policing and Justice

N.p., n.d. Web. 23 June 2017. National Center for Victims of Crime. "The criminal justice System." The criminal justice System. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 June 2017. Roufa, Timothy. "Federal Law Enforcement Agencies." The Balance. N.p., 02 Mar. 2017. Web. 23 June 2017. Walton, Eugene. "How Washingtons first race riot set off a debate on the meaning of justice." The Washington Post. WP Company, 31 July 2015. Web. 23 June 2017. Continue Reading...

Criminology in America

mother of crime?" Atlantic Review of Economics (2014). Birkbeck, Christopher. "Media Representations of Crime and criminal justice." Criminology and criminal justice, Communities and Crime (2014). Online. Brown, Brittini. Is the Media Altering Our Perceptions of Crime? 11 March 2015. 5 June 2017. Francisco, Joycelyn and Christian Chenier. "A comparison of large urban, small urban and rural crime rates." Canadian Center for Justice Statistics (2007). Gonzalaez, Alma. "Education: The Secret to Crime Reduction?. " PhD Thesis. 2015. Lochner, Lance and Enrico Moretti. "The Effect of Education on Crime: Evidence from Prison Inmates, Arrests, and Self-Reports." 2003. Machin, Stephen, Olivier Marie and… Continue Reading...

Punitive and Correctional System in the United States

states of America in contrast with the German, Norwegian and Netherlands systems. • Introduction to US criminal justice system • A general outlook of the German, Norway, and Netherlands criminal justice system • A thesis statement Similarities Opening statement Classification of prisons • security levels • Prisons differentiated based on age, and sex. Operations within incarceration facilities • Compulsory work duties and vacations • Compensation for work Access to amenities • Leisure activities • Education and skill improvement opportunities Differences Opening statement Basic and foundational principle of the criminal justice system, • Rates of imprisonment • US is punitive/retribution and… Continue Reading...

Contemporary Ethical Issues in Corrections

Bernard B. Kerik offer a sobering view of the criminal justice system. Even Kerik, a veteran of several conservative administrations, notes that his experiences in prison convinced him that prison does little to rehabilitate prisoners, only hardens them. He also notes that the presumption of prosecutors in the criminal justice system is that offenders are guilty, not innocent until proven guilty, and this often results in violations of defendants' rights. After his own corruption scandals, Kerik takes a more chastised and compassionate view of individuals who commit crimes, noting that many of them have grown up in… Continue Reading...

Holistic Victim Restitution Plan

some class base to criminal activity. Unwillingness to resort to the criminal justice process only appears in the case of assaults. The fundamental change in the relationship of the victim to the criminal justice process ultimately resulted from the emergence of the 'new' police, this also played a part in the demise of theses associations. Examples of legislative changes include the increase in the reimbursement to prosecutors in 1818 and 1826 and the abolition of capital punishment for a property offense, this were all designed in part as an encouragement for people to use the prosecution process more frequently.… Continue Reading...

American Corrections and Sentencing Trends

black and white: A propensity score matched, multilevel examination of racial drug sentencing disparities." Journal of Ethnicity in criminal justice 14, no. 4 (2016): 327-347.] Causes of Disparity Study findings record prevalent racial differences in state incarceration, and clarify the fact that in spite of increased public awareness of mass imprisonment and a small deal of moderate success in achieving decarceration, ethnic and racial inequalities continue to be a significant aspect of America's prison system. The following three recurring justifications for racial differences arise out of several researches into the subject: procedures and policies driving disparity; the impact of… Continue Reading...

Restitution for Victims Of Crime

appropriate roles and extent of involvement of the victim to the crime. criminal justice Systems Response The criminal justice system is one of the arms of governance that directly deals with the crimes and the victimization process. It is therefore significant to ensure there is in-depth understanding of how the justice system operates and thereafter look at the way the various instances of victimization were handled by the justice system whether they were satisfactory and the aspects that were considered before the clarification of a possible victimization case. The case studies will again be of great significance and the take… Continue Reading...

Behaviorism As a Separate School Of Thought

management issues, and in the ways companies structure their human resources policies and programs. Even the criminal justice system is basically based on behaviorism. Positive reinforcement refers to offering rewards for desirable behaviors, and negative reinforcement refers to punishing undesirable behavior with the goal of eliminating it. Question 2 There were many influences and trends in research leading to the emergence of behaviorism as a separate school of thought. The most important theorists that contributed to the evolution of behaviorism as a separate school of thought presented their work as fundamentally different from the other life sciences like biology,… Continue Reading...

Criminal Justice Organizational Issues

of empirical data (News9.com, 2010). Quantitative decision-making seemingly takes precedence in budgeting and issues affecting criminal justice agencies. Quantitative decision-making provides the most accurate information for budget making in these organizations because addressing budget issues in the criminal justice field requires analysis of empirical data. Since quantitative decision-making provides a framework for analysis of empirical data, it provides accurate first-hand information for budget management. Qualitative-based budgetary decision making rely on information that is not easily measurable while quantitative-based budgetary decision making rely on numbers, which is easily measurable. Therefore, quantitative-based budgetary decision making is more suitable since it relies on… Continue Reading...

Compare and Contrast Childhood and Adulthood

social status differences between children are adults become evident in formal institutions like the criminal justice system. There are two justice systems, one for children and one for adults. Children are deemed “minors,” because they are minor human beings that the state does not view as ready or capable of voting or running for public office. A child cannot open a bank account or do much of anything official without an adult present. Many of the external restrictions placed on children is to protect them, as well as to protect the society from the frivolous actions many children make.… Continue Reading...

Reforms Needed for Three Strikes Law

amount of money from the public coffers that can be used for criminal justice. Further, there is a widespread feeling that a lot of the money spent on criminal justice matters is done to excess and is wasted. The criminals that “age out” or people going to jail for very non-violent felonies is another. However, there is the other consideration of public safety and the rights of the common person to not have their life, liberty and freedom disrupted due to the criminal actions of someone else. Indeed, some people hold property crime to be a minor thing and… Continue Reading...

Improving Public Relations Between the Police Department and the Citizens

Cengage Learning Hagan, F.E. (2010). Essentials of Research Methods in criminal justice and Criminology (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Prentice Hall Herzberg, F. (1976). One More Time: How do you Motivate Employees? Harvard Business Review, 65(5), 109-120. . Hess, M.M. & Orthmann, C.H. (2011). Management and Supervision in Law Enforcement (6th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning Institute of Leadership and Management. (2013). Managing Performance. New York, NY: Routledge Johnson, C.E. (2015). Organizational Ethics: A Practical Approach (3rd). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Kleiman, L. (2012). Human Resource Management: A Managerial Tool for Competitive Advantage (6th ed.). Mason, OH: Kendall Hunt… Continue Reading...

Leadership Dynamics at Johnson County Sheriff Department

officers of the court. Moreover, it would have a devastating effect on the performance of the criminal justice system and the FBI investigations. It may erode public trust in all officers, including the most honest officers leading the community to disbelieve police testimony with the testimony that their contributions will not make any significant changes (Paludi, 2012). Such scenarios have played out in various states in the country with hundreds of Sheriff’s convicting or protecting perpetrators based on race. As a result, we are likely to witness a scenario whereby the juries and defense lawyers will be dismissing many… Continue Reading...

Impact Of Darryl Hunt\'s Case

did not commit before his release in 2004. This case has had significant impacts on the criminal justice system with regards to rape and murder cases. Analysis of Hunt’s Case Darryl Hunt’s case is an example of a wrongful conviction and sentencing of an individual for a crime he did not commit. The wrongful conviction and sentencing of Darryl Hunt for Sykes’ murder was seemingly influenced by racial division/bigotry in the jury. Despite DNA evidence raising significant doubts on Hunt’s involvement in Sykes’ murder, the failure by the criminal justice to release him for another 10 years raised more… Continue Reading...

Careers in Criminal Justice and Prospects

how important networking and job hunting is for me now, I have already made some contacts in the criminal justice field. Working as an intern and as assistant have helped me to acquire some on-the-job training that will prove helpful when I land my first job, whether in Missouri or another state. I will not be a completely inexperienced young graduate, but someone whose resume speaks for itself. I will have solid grades and some credentials as a new corrections officer. That being said, the starting salaries for my target position are low. Increasing numbers of graduates do have… Continue Reading...

School Crime Prevention Programs

going to prevent or stop all crime or its precursors. References Ferguson, C. (2007). The Effectiveness of School-Based Anti-Bullying Programs- criminal justice Review. Journals.sagepub.com. Retrieved 17 December 2017, from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0734016807311712 Graham, C. (2017). Analysis | A brief history of DARE, the anti-drug program Jeff Sessions wants to revive. Washington Post. Retrieved 17 December 2017, from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2017/07/12/a-brief-history-of-d-a-r-e- the-anti-drug-program-jeff-sessions-wants-to-revive/?utm_term=.dfb57d2d3090 NIJ. (2017). Second Step®: A Violence Prevention Curriculum. Crimesolutions.gov. Retrieved 17 December 2017, from https://www.crimesolutions.gov/ProgramDetails.aspx?ID=221 Continue Reading...

The Ethical Issues Of Criminal Justice

Discussion 1 Considered policies and programs 1. criminal justice system: Impact caused by a lengthy criminal justice system on crime suspects 2. Border Control Program: Significance of enhanced boarder control in preventing crime, drug trafficking and counterfeit goods 3. Innocence Program-Suspect Conviction processes: Consequences of wrongful conviction of inmates and measure needed to alleviate wrongful convictions Impact of relevant political and ethical issues associated with the program evaluation The criminal justice system has many good but also negative consequences. To the extent that there still are wrongful convictions and the policy makers may have to reevaluate… Continue Reading...

Police Brutality and Behaviorism

on the ground the high rate of police brutality does hurt the objectives of the criminal justice system. Moreover, the Bureau of Justice Statistics (2015) shows that the incidence rates of police brutality are far higher for non-whites than for whites. Black and Hispanic people are more likely to experience use of or threat of force than their white counterparts. While sociological tools of analysis are necessary for understanding the broader issues related to racial justice and police brutality, a psychological perspective can be perhaps more helpful in offering solutions to the problem. Behaviorism, for example, shows how officers… Continue Reading...

The Oj Simpson Case Analysis

OJ Simpson Versus the People: Impact on criminal justice The American criminal justice process and system are responsible for shaping the present-day US laws; influential entities include even 19th-century governmental authorities and political leaders. The system, which comprises law enforcement bodies like local police forces, correctional facilities and criminal courts, was primarily created for ensuring American citizens’ safety. It constitutes a structural framework that facilitates the maintenance of law and order in American society (Zedner & Ashworth, 2012; "Justice, Western Theories", 2018; Baldwin, 1912).  According to Mueller (1996), the structuring of the US criminal justiceContinue Reading...

Death Penalty As a Deterrent for Murder

showing that the death penalty should only be administered in states where there is harmony between social justice and criminal justice. Introduction While it may seem ironic that the death penalty should be considered as a deterrent for murder, the underlying premise that supports the proposition is simply this: laws must be backed by force in order to be compelling, and if the force is insufficient to carry the weight needed to compel order and respect for the law in society, both law and order will be unenforceable and therefore unsupportive of the natural aims of society. From this… Continue Reading...

Domestic Violence and the Effect on Children

worse. This paper will discuss how domestic violence impacts children and what effects that has on the criminal justice system. Freeman (2015) shows through case study what can happen to a small child who is the victim of a domestic violence situation. Freeman’s (2015) case study examines the life of Sophia, a witness to domestic violence at a young age. After being removed from her family and placed in several different foster homes, she does poorly in school, is maladjusted socially, gets in repeated fights, and is routinely viewed as a trouble maker in her neighborhood. Her environment had… Continue Reading...

The New Nation Jackson and Beyond

who were accustomed to a relatively loose and informal criminal justice system was difficult. The new nation was much larger and more spread out than had been the case in European nations upon which America modeled its new system of laws. Alcoholism was a problem and resistance to taxation and attempts to exercise moral control over the colonists came to a head in the Whiskey Rebellion, when Alexander Hamilton attempted to tax distilled liquor. This reminded many colonists of the previous tea tax imposed by the Crown and federal troops were required to quell it. Q1. What social and… Continue Reading...

Personal Leadership Development Plan

G. S. (2013). Transformational leadership skills and correlates of prison warden job stress.  criminal justice and Behavior, 40(5), 551-568. Doody, O., & Doody, C. M. (2012). Transformational leadership in nursing practice. British Journal of Nursing, 21(20), 1212-1218. Shanks, N. H. & Buchbinder, S. B. (2012). Introduction to health care management. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.  Warrick, D. D. (2011). The urgent need for skilled transformational leaders: Integrating transformational leadership and organization development. Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics, 8(5), 11-26. Continue Reading...

Police Culture

https://opentextbc.ca/ethicsinlawenforcement/chapter/8-1-police-culture/ Nhan, J. (2014). Police culture. The Encyclopedia of Criminology and criminal justice. DOI: 10.1002/9781118517383.wbeccj371 “Police Culture,” (n.d.). http://sociologyindex.com/police_culture.htm “The Police Culture,” (n.d.). https://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/38432_4.pdf “The Police Culture and Work Stress,” (n.d.). https://us.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/77481_cox_ch_8.pdf Yan, H. & Mier, A. (2016). States require more training time to become a barber than a police officer. CNN. 28 Sept 2016. https://www.cnn.com/2016/09/28/us/jobs-training-police-trnd/index.html Continue Reading...

Is America in Moral Decline?

mythical tune or quotes its non-existent lyrics. Likewise, the author talks about the “collapse of the criminal justice system” but not based on real facts like prison overcrowding but on the “inability to even convict the clearly guilty,” (Bork, 1996, p. 4 ). The author fails to refer to the specific inability to convict incident. The author picks on illegitimate birth as a calling card of liberalism, which weakens the overall argument entirely given that births out of wedlock can occur for any number of reasons, and are not necessarily a symbol of moral decay. One of the most egregious… Continue Reading...

The History Of Crime in the United States America

them too. Likewise, fear enables government allocation of resources to things like criminal justice. In the absence of the Cold War, the media also had a vacuum to fill and filled it promptly with imagery of ordinary crime. Without communism as the enemy, Americans turned to ordinary crime as the new focal point. It was as if Americans genuinely wanted something to fear, and their attention was easily fixated on the news media and its portrayal of rising crime rates. If the public believes that crime is on the rise, citizens start to demand aggressive criminal justice policies. From… Continue Reading...