Human Behavior Essays


Catcher in the Rye Essay (Updated for 2018)

Abstract Crafting a Catcher in the Rye essay on J.D. Salinger’s famed and beloved novel is an exercise both enjoyable and challenging. The book has done what so few pieces of literature have attempted to do and failed—it has remained relevant to youths everywhere, over half a century after its release. As a result of its celebrated quality, writing an essay on the novel can be daunting. This is because so many of themes and symbols have been picked apart and devoured repeatedly by scholars and critics. However, the better you understand the novel and the major concepts that shape Continue Reading...

Learning Organization

of human resource data base, however, by use of advanced IT could be of help in understanding such human behavior and attitudes in the period of change within organizations. A range of methods to collect employee information can be used before launching the change process (Shah, Irani, & Sharif, 2016). There are many attempts to define Big Data in literature. However, it describes and determines massive and unstructured data sets that are complex to decipher and process. Yet it can increase the productivity and operations of a business entity. Therefore, although volume is an inherent characteristic of Big Data,… Continue Reading...

Germany and the Holocaust

easily or simply construed. Indeed, Browning himself argues that human behavior is "a very complex phenomenon" and that the historian who attempts to explain indulges in a degree of "arrogance."[footnoteRef:5] This is good point to keep in mind, as Bergen stresses. [4: Doris Bergin, War and Genocide: A Concise History of the Holocaust (UK: Rowman & Littlefield, 2009), 32.] [5: Christopher R. Browning, "Ordinary Men," in The Holocaust: Problems and Perspectives of Interpretation, 4th ed., Donald L. Niewyk, ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 2011), 90.] For this reason, the arguments of both Goldhagen and Browning can be compared and… Continue Reading...

Marketing

in looking at how salespeople manage their emotions during the day-to-day work in the office. Research on human behavior indicates that people can control, to a huge extent, their emotions through the use of various strategies that influence the kind of emotions a person experiences (Gross and John, 2003). This research will look at how a salesperson can influence their emotions and the effect emotions have on motivation, burnout and selling behavior. Cognitive reappraisal involves regulation of emotions and phrasing a situation that might elicit negative emotions in a way that it takes a positive perspective so the well-being… Continue Reading...

Ethics and Moral Guidelines Criminal Justice

On some level, though, bystander effect is explained by the social norms that govern human behavior. Sometimes helpers end up making problems worse, or the person may resent being helped. Most of the time, though, moral actions are required to improve the quality of life for all people in a city. For instance, a person who sees a child run out into the street needs to run after that child and not just stand there expecting that the parent will do it. If the parent returns and gets angry for a person for touching their child, at least the… Continue Reading...

Sigmund Freud & the Human Condition

the childhood conflict with one's parents. Personality According to Sigmund Freud's theory on psychoanalytic of personality, human behavior results from the interaction of the three components of the mind: superego, ego and the id. The structural theory of personality emphasizes on conflict on the parts of the mind, personality and mind shape behavior. Such conflicts are thought to be unconscious, thus, Freud argued that the personality which develops during childhood is shaped through psychosexual stages that he called psychosexual theory of development. During the stages, the child faces conflict that results from social expectations and biological drives. These are internal conflicts,… Continue Reading...

Team America Surveillance and Espionage

a government entity is allowed to do to gather information. Interestingly, there are other ways of monitoring human behavior and even brainwashing as shown in Captain America: Civil War. Surveillance is only the tip of a large iceberg of rights erosion. For one, marketers collect purportedly anonymous data and usage statistics from customers and members of social media sites. Whenever a person uses a social media site, he or she surrenders a little more privacy. Registering for any website means placing one's email address, at the very least, on a list that can be populated and cross-referenced with other lists.… Continue Reading...

Interpersonal Psychotherapy and Anxiety

The reason for this, so researchers suggest, is that IPT focuses on one of the main drivers of human behavior and thinking -- which is the socialization process. By approaching the psychological disorder from this standpoint, IPT is able to redirect or alter the functionality of the patient's perspective and interpersonal interactions with others. Thus, the premise of IPT is that psychological disorders like depression stem not from biological factors but rather from socialization factors, fears, isolation, etc. The effectiveness of the therapy lies in its identification of the psychological disorder stemming from an interpersonal basis. By focusing on… Continue Reading...

Empirical Research Developmental Theory

prevailing settings. In particular, practicing social work encompasses understanding human behavior to enhance proficiency in dealing with clients at different developmental life stages. The findings from the research studies will help me to understand lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons as oppressed, susceptible, and ridiculed persons in the society. It becomes possible to understand issues such as the mental issues experienced by these individuals compared to their peers (Levy, 2009). References Calzo, J. P., Antonucci, T. C., Mays, V. M., & Cochran, S. D. (2011). Retrospective recall of sexual orientation identity development among gay, lesbian, and bisexual adults. Developmental… Continue Reading...

Article Analysis on Ergonomics

goals, and the ability to persist against obstacles (Szalma, 2014, p. 1454). These variables can help to explain human behavior outcomes with regard to how humans respond to their environment -- and technology being part of the environment thus becomes a principal player in that outcome. Thus, the theory's usage is justified by the idea that an interface is meant to support an individual in attaining a goal as well as in the construction of meaning for the activity within the given context (Szalma, 2014, p. 1455). The central concept utilized in the study is the self-determination theory of… Continue Reading...

Ramayana Mahabharata Divine Incarnation

cosmological and social order, Vishnu and other divine entities use avatars to influence human behavior. Their influence is based on the need to preserve order, and to instruct humanity in how to best pursue their ethical duty or dharma. In the Mahabharata, the process of avatara is presented as a means of reinforcing human submission to the gods. In the Ramayana, the process of avatara is presented as a means of preserving social hierarchies, political order, and particularly the patriarchal order. Works Cited Halligan, Fredrica R., n.d., "Avatar." Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion, pp. 89-90. Jones, Naamleela Free, 2015,… Continue Reading...

Choice Theory and Human Behavior

as 'Choice Theory' postulates that the following five fundamental needs drive all of human behavior -- a physiological need to survive and 4 psychological needs (belongingness or love or acceptance; authority or acknowledgement or accomplishment; independence, or individuality or choice; and learning or excitement or enjoyment. To sum up, choice theory basically suggests that one's behavior is one's own choice. People develop all through the course of their lifespan. In this context, the term 'development' may be defined as: one's capacity of making progressively better choices with regard to fulfilling one's fundamental needs. A choice will then be "good"… Continue Reading...

Grieving Process and Models

Social Work Education, 30(1), 29-44. Zastrow, C. H., & Kirst-Ashman, K. K. (2016). Understanding human behavior and the social environment (10th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning. Continue Reading...

Annotated Bibliography on False Confessions

influence of investigator bias on the elicitation of true and false confessions. Law and human behavior 35(6): 452-465. This article shows how interrogators work under the presumption of guilt, which leads to biases in the entire criminal justice proceedings. The presumption of guilt alters the approaches used by investigators and interviewers, including what interview tactics they use. Moreover, the presumption of guilt also leads to different behavioral responses on the part of the suspect, leading to an increased chance of a false confession. The results of this study show how the "innocent until proven guilty" maxim fails to hold… Continue Reading...

Incompatibility Between Islam and Human Rights

Human rights are the activities, freedoms and conditions that all human are entitle to enjoy, and these rights include economic, political, cultural and social rights. Putting differently, human rights are inalienable, inherent, indivisible and interdependent, which cannot be taken away, must be respected, and which the governments are to put in places the instrument to regulate laws and policies for human rights protection. Similarly, international human rights are the set of rules that guide the conducts of state's behaviors. Globally, countries enter into treaties to guarantee certain rights and refrain from violating these rights within their jurisdictions. (IJRC, 2016). The… Continue Reading...

Google and the Mind

undertake the task of ranking webpages, their brain would yield results nearly identical to PageRank results. PageRank and human behavior human behavior appears to affect Google search. It is possible to obtain information from it directly without having to click on links. Consequently, more recent webpages display a smaller number of links as including links is pointless when one can conveniently seek referenced webpages on Google. Hence, click through measures do not hold much significance; having said that, it is imperative to observe that the link-based PageRank is dependent on the numerous links available for its efficiency (23). With more… Continue Reading...

Communicating Qualitative Research Analysis

influences the conclusions obtained from the research. Since criminal justice research entails examining human behavior and social phenomena, the researcher role is crucial because his/her historical, social, personal connections and cultural experiences influences understanding of human behavior in relation to crime and crime reduction strategies. Therefore, the consideration of the researcher's role helps in ensuring that reliable findings are generated to formulate effective criminal justice policies and practices. The suitable arrangement of data for analysis relates to criminal justice research because evaluation and interpretation of criminal justice data and research findings entails transforming theoretical concepts into operational definitions (Martin,… Continue Reading...

Introduction to Global Business

of philosophy that takes into account the values related to human behavior, with respect to whether actions are right or wrong, whether there were good or bad intents and the consequences of such actions. Integrity, on the other hand, means abiding by moral and ethical principles. There are four steps in making an ethical decision. First, all facts and situations are defined. Second, all individuals impacted by the circumstance are ascertained together with their rights and obligations. Third, alternative decisions and consequences are identified, and lastly, the right thing to do is determined and then implemented. Ethical business dealings… Continue Reading...

Comparative Analysis Of Egoism or Altruism

individuals display behaviors associated with self-centeredness. Good deeds rooted in Self-interest or Egoism Egoism is defined as the act of human behavior where humans act purposely for their self-interests. The psychological theory of egoism is based on the ultimate aim of satisfying one's welfare. While good deeds or good behaviors of many people are motivated by self-interests or egoisms, however, some behaviors are still rooted in altruism. There are several examples of people doing good deeds without their self-interests. For example, several professional doctors have been providing volunteering health services to low-income people around the world without asking for financial rewards… Continue Reading...

Child Development

Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ841568.pdf Woody, D. J. (2003). Infancy and toddlerhood. Dimensions of human behavior: The changing life course, 113-158. Retrieved from https://us.corwin.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/16296_Chapter_3.pdf Continue Reading...

Psychology Journal

classical conditioning is important for learning and cognition as it explains virtually every human behavior. Part 2 Developing reading comprehension can be a major challenge for second language learners. Accordingly, language educators must use effective strategies to ensure strong development of reading skills. In a study of 10 junior high school students, Wang (2016) found that effective reading strategies significantly improved reading comprehension. The study, which specifically involved assigning the participants to reading tasks, established that students who used think-aloud reading strategies performed better in reading comprehension compared to those who did not. Think-aloud reading essentially involves articulating one's… Continue Reading...

Online Marketing and Success

among online supportive interaction, affect perceived social support, sense of community, and life satisfaction. Computers in human behavior, 30, 69 -- 78 Yang, B., Kim, Y., & Yoo, C. (2013). The integrated mobile advertising model: The effects of technology and emotion-based evaluations. Journal of Business Research, 66(9), 1345 -- 1352 Continue Reading...

Developing Personal Epistemic Beliefs

Internet search experience in students' Internet-specific epistemic beliefs. Computers in human behavior, 62, 286-291. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2016.03.091 Madjar, N., Weinstock, M., & Kaplan, A. (2016). Epistemic beliefs and achievement goal orientations: Relations between constructs versus personal profiles. The Journal of Educational Research, 110(1), 32-49. doi:10.1080/00220671.2015.1034353 Pamuk, S., Sungur, S., & Oztekin, C. (2016). A Multilevel Analysis of Students' Science Achievements in Relation to their Self-Regulation, Epistemological Beliefs, Learning Environment Perceptions, and Teachers' Personal Characteristics. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education. doi:10.1007/s10763-016-9761-7 Pope, K. J., & Mooney, G. A. (2016). The related effects of item characteristics in measures of epistemological beliefs.… Continue Reading...

Philosophy Questions

2005). The subject of free will arises due to scientific discoveries about human behavior's causal influence. If science can show that free will is an illusion, many important elements of the society can be undermined. Theoretical philosophical questions involve the definition of free will, and if it can accommodate scientific discoveries on the causes of human behavior and how so. Questions with regards to epistemology, metaphysics and the language and mind philosophy are just as important to people's daily lives as moral and ethics of practical philosophy. However, people's free will beliefs are relevant. Empirical evidence in the last half… Continue Reading...

Management and Operation Consulting for Google

Text-Based Advertising and the Effect on Users' Click Behavior. Computers in human behavior, 50, 535-543. Poulfelt, F. & Olson, T. (2010). Management Consulting Today and Tomorrow: Perspectives and Advice from 27 Leading World Experts. New York, NY: Routledge. Syverson, C. (2011). What Determines Productivity? Journal of Economic Literature, 49 (2): 326 -- 65. Continue Reading...

Cognition and Learning

their interactions with the environment is the fundamental feature of human behavior generally, humans are also able to change their behavior thereby putting it under control. It has been stated that the basic essence of civilization involves consciously erecting monuments to prevent forgetfulness (Veraksa, 2013). The most basic and essential attributes differentiating human and animal memory are exhibited in the examples of both the knot and the monument. Domains and Domain Learning To comprehensively describe human behavior and ability, the social intelligence and development domain is a vital aspect. In the preparation of young people for success and maturity… Continue Reading...

21st Century Skills and Competencies

century's focus on psychology as a means of understanding human behavior. These theories and concepts have moreover built on one another over the years so that each is a reaction to that which came before. Of course, in some cases a new idea has come along that is completely radical and different from the others and is based on a new approach to human understanding (Maslanka, 2004). Nonetheless, even before the 20th century, leadership was a concept that philosophers, statesmen and religious thinkers all propounded upon. From Machiavelli to the modern political and organizational princes of today, leadership has… Continue Reading...

Left Brain Right Brain Worldview and Doctoral Programs

does not always lend itself to quantification. Human beings are not robots. human behavior cannot always be translated into quantifiable data outputs. On the other hand, qualitative research is also insufficient because of its inherently subjective nature. A combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods is ideal for the social sciences. The debate between the practitioner/professional doctorate and the traditional research-based PhD also reflects the left brain/right brain binary. The traditional PhD can be a left brain or right brain pursuit depending on the nature of the research. However, it is generally believed to have a more right brain… Continue Reading...

Counter Terrorism Community Policing and Changes

between police and members of the community in serious ways. Police officers are expected to become keen observers of human behavior, to the point where they revert to the antagonistic role in the community. Instead of interacting positively with members of the community, police were being viewed increasingly with suspicion. Javier and his fellow officers had also been responding more to hate crimes against the Muslim community. Structural changes to the organization included greater centralization and more reliance on technology and big data in policing methods. Officers themselves were ambivalent about the changes because of their mixed implications and… Continue Reading...

Couples Counseling and Social Work

& Review, 9(1), 7-26. doi:10.1111/jftr.12182 Hutchinson, E. D. (2014). Dimensions of human behavior: Person and Environment. SAGE Publications. James, A. (2016). Spirituality and Practice in Social Work, Youth and Family Studies. Spirituality across Disciplines: Research and Practice:, 191-202. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-31380-1_15 Munson, C. (2015). Relational Systems Model for Family Therapy. Taylor and Francis. Wiebe, S. A., Johnson, S. M., Burgess Moser, M., Dalgleish, T. L., & Tasca, G. A. (2016). Predicting Follow-up Outcomes in Emotionally Focused Couple Therapy: The Role of Change in Trust, Relationship-Specific Attachment, and Emotional Engagement. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 43(2), 213-226. doi:10.1111/jmft.12199 Continue Reading...

Assessment Of Corporate Culture at Zappos

environment. Additionally, the questions accurately assess what is required to examine a company's culture through evaluating human behavior and the existing organizational norms, values, and practices. The questions also addressed some of the most important aspects for understanding corporate culture management styles, decision-making procedures, and professional development (Howington, 2015). In conclusion, organizational culture is one of the most important aspects in the success and profitability of a company because if its direct link to how work is divided and coordinated within the organization. An analysis of a company's organizational culture can be conducted using several techniques include McGinty/Moss assessment… Continue Reading...

Norway and Germany Compared to Us in Incarceration

Sentencing in the US versus in Germany and the Netherlands There is one major difference between the sentencing and corrections policies of the US and the sentencing and corrections policies of Germany and the Netherlands. The former bases its policy on the ideas of retribution and incapacitation, whereas the latter base their policies on the ideas of rehabilitation and socialization (Vera Institute of Justice, 2013). This basic philosophical orientation towards the corrections is what distinguishes the two policies. The US views corrections as a punitive measure while Germany and the Netherlands view corrections in a positive light -- a measure… Continue Reading...

Performance Management and Maslows Hierarchy Of Needs

be met first before the human can be motivated upward, and the most fundamental needs that motivate human behavior are physiological—i.e., shelter, food, water. The second level of motivation consists of needs relating to safety—personal as well as financial security. The third level consists of love and/or a sense of belonging—the need for relationships and friendships. The fourth level consists of esteem—the need to be respected and to feel confident. The highest level of motivation consists of self-actualization—the need to achieve your goals and fulfill your highest potential as a skilled, capable, talented individual (Maslow, 1943). In a performance… Continue Reading...

The Origins and Types Of Behavioral Therapy

Behavioral therapy has its roots in basic behaviorism, the principle that human behavior can be modified through systematic training or interventions. Since B.F. Skinner first laid the foundations for behaviorism through experimentation, the methods used in behavioral therapy have changed dramatically. Behavioral therapy, or behavior therapy, is not one but a variety of approaches that psychological counselors use to help clients change their behaviors. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2017) advocates the use of behavior therapy as an “effective treatment for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),” (p. 1). Behavior therapies are designed not just… Continue Reading...

Theory Of Motivation and Maslows Hierarchy Of Needs

psychopathy can occur (Maslow, 1943). Although Maslow’s original research was conducted decades ago, recent research on motivation and human behavior continues to substantiate Maslow’s core claims. Researchers continue to operationalize Maslow’s definitions of needs and motivation, leading to a strengthening of the original theory and expanded applications in the social sciences. Maslow himself wrote extensively to develop and mature a comprehensive theory of human motivation based on the hierarchy of needs model. The original needs hierarchy consists of five fundamental needs: for physiological comfort and fulfillment, for safety and security, for belongingness, for esteem, and for self-actualization. Although definitions… Continue Reading...

Psychology and Behaviorism Essay Outline

which many believed focused too much on the subconscious mind. Behaviorism was the first attempt to study human behavior using the scientific method. However, there were many different approaches to behaviorism. II. The Early Foundations of Behaviorism A. The structuralism versus functionalism debate 1. Structuralism: Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Tichener tried to show that they could use introspection as a scientific method with the goal of objectively understanding the structures of the human mind or consciousness. 2. Functionalism: William James and later behaviorists were more interested in how the mind works and why the mind reacts to stimuli as… Continue Reading...

History Of Psychology Annotated Bibliography

Pavlov’s experiments. Using dogs as subjects, the Russian scientist revolutionized the study of human behavior with his studies showing how classical conditioning works. Clark (2004) traces Pavlov’s work, and also shows how it was received. Then, the author shows how Pavlov’s conditioning experiments became classical conditioning through the work of B.F. Skinner. Essentially, this research uses primary sources to explain the evolution of behaviorism and early psychology from Twitmyer onwards. Digdon, N., Powell, R. A., & Harris, B. (2014). Little Albert's alleged neurological impairment. History of Psychology, 17(4), 312-324. In 1920, Watson and Rayner conducted a now-famous experiment on an… Continue Reading...

Coping with Emotional Challenges Among Salespersons

Abstract Salespersons encounter some of the most stressful events in their daily endeavors to make sales as they handle people with widely varying emotional intelligence. This makes them have emotional challenges that is not dealt with can grow to worse conditions. This research will look at the most effective way of the salesperson participating in the handling of the emotional challenge they get themselves in. there will be a conceptual framework drafted that will help in understanding the concept of expressive suppression as a way of handling emotional challenge among sale persons leading to emotional stability among the salespersons. By… Continue Reading...

Behaviorism As a Separate School Of Thought

person to propose behaviorism as a science, using the tools of the scientific method to measure human behavior. However, human behavior is remarkably complex and Watson’s early research failed to capture the nuances of human cognitive-behavioral responses. Pavlov built upon Watson’s foundation, and is probably the most famous of all the pioneering behaviorists. Pavlov’s famous dog experiments have become part of the common vernacular (Clark, 2004). Like Pavlov, B.F. Skinner focused on operant conditioning. However, Skinner took the entire concept of conditioning a step further by showing how stimuli could be manipulated to manipulate responses. Pavlov had yet to… Continue Reading...

An Effective Strategy in Dealing with People with Mental Disorders

structure and processes of his/her personality (Freud, 2004). The Freudian model adeptly explains, though falls short of forecasting, human behavior. Consequently, it is not possible to either prove or disprove the theory. For instance, testing and measuring the unconscious brain in an objective way is tough. On the whole, the Freudian theory may be considered highly unscientific. Scant evidence exists for supporting PDT’s (psychodynamic therapy) implementation for obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD), post- traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), bulimia nervosa, psychosis or cocaine addiction. The basis for a majority of Freudian theories is proofs garnered from an unreliable sample. Freud’s subjects… Continue Reading...

Race, Ethnicity, Culture, and Disparities in Health Care

a major role in determining health outcomes among different patient populations. References Bryan, W. V. (2014). Multicultural aspects of human behavior (3rd ed.). Springfield, IL.: Charles C Thomas - Publisher, LTD. Egede, L.E. (2006, June). Race, Ethnicity, Culture, and Disparities in Health Care. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 21(6), 667-669.   Continue Reading...

Other Cultures Xenophobia and Understanding

H. & Lombardo, M.V. (2013). Understanding Other Minds. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Bryan, W. V. (2014) Multicultural aspects of human behavior. Springfield, IL: Charles C.Thomas Publisher Kitsantas, A. (2004). Studying abroad. College Student Journal 38(3): 441-452. Marquit, M. (n.d.). 5 reasons to learn about different cultures. Retrieved online: https://liverichlivewell.com/learn-about-different-cultures/ “Understanding Culture and Diversity in Building Communities,” (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/culture/cultural-competence/culture-and-diversity/main   Continue Reading...

Dreams the Unconscious Mind and Defense Mechanisms

a paradigm shift that helps understand global patterns in human behavior. Collective human trauma, such as the repressed memories of genocide or war, can lead to similar ego defense mechanisms among an entire culture. Applying Freudian concepts of the unconscious, dreams, and ego defense mechanisms to societies can help illuminate pathways to healing, just as with individual psychotherapy. The collective dreams of a culture are manifest in legends, myths, and folklore. Newirth (2015) discusses cultural symbols and icons, particularly with regard to heroic agency. Thus, Perera’s (2013) Jungian approach to dream analysis is therefore equally as applicable to sociological… Continue Reading...

Organizational Analysis for Veterans Health Administration

Mayo, and human relations historiography. Management & Organizational History, 1(2), 177-199. Kirst-Ashman, K. K. (2013). Brooks/Cole Empowerment Series: human behavior in the Macro Social Environment. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning. Landsberger, H. A. (1959). Book Note and Review: Human Relations: Job Attitudes: Review of Research and Opinion: SAGE Publications Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA. Razin, A., Sadka, E., & Swagel, P. (2002). Tax burden and migration: a political economy theory and evidence. Journal of Public Economics, 85(2), 167-190. Rodriguez-Clare, A. (2007). A political-economy theory of trade agreements. The American Economic Review, 97(4), 1374-1406. Veterans Health Administration. (n.d.). About VHA. from https://www.va.gov/health/aboutVHA.asp… Continue Reading...

Cast Away: a Film Of Great Humanity

fascinating behavior, though behavior that exudes a certain commonality emerging within the human condition. Scholars of human behavior manifesting within extreme circumstances have looked at survivors of the Holocaust, refugees, war prisoners and others in comparable situations and examined how common patterns of behavior will emerge when a human being is under extreme stress. This paper will discuss some of the major themes of the human experience as demonstrated in the film Cast Away by Robert Zemeckis (2000). Synopsis The film Cast Away revolves around a work-obsessed executive at FedEx named Chuck Noland (Tom Hanks) whose plane crashes over… Continue Reading...

An Explanation Of the Definition Of Science

that phenomenon exists or what meaning it has. A social scientist observes human behavior. A natural scientist observes anything from animal behavior to the behavior of cells and molecules under a microscope. The observation can be directly ascertained through the human senses or indirectly through the use of instruments and apparatus. When instruments and apparatus are used, the scientist needs to verify the authenticity and reliability of those measuring devices. Instruments need to be calibrated and proven effective for measuring what they are designed to measure. Identification refers to identifying all the variables and coming up with a research… Continue Reading...

Antwone Fisher

Age may prove to be a key influencer of environmental experience-based individual human behavior. Fisher’s character attempts at explaining the developmental trajectory impacted by prior experience. Early childhood issues and challenges end up impacting the character’s behavior in the long run. Early childhood is an especially vulnerable age marked by fragility and events experienced herein will most certainly influence behaviors. The lack of protective elements like religion and parenting gravely threatens developmental trajectory. Early adverse experiences may have wide-ranging consequences (Ebert, 2002). The issue of prior experience and its impact on current behavior is explained explicitly in the film,… Continue Reading...

Europe and the Modern Era

exited the EU and other countries may soon follow. References Bryan, W. V. (2014) Multicultural aspects human behavior. Springfield, IL: Charles C.Thomas Publisher, LTD. Charlemagne. (n.d.). History. Retrieved from http://www.history.com/topics/charlemagne Lucie-Smith, A. (2011). Is Belloc best forgotten? Retrieved from http://www.catholicherald.co.uk/commentandblogs/2011/12/05/is-belloc-best-forgotten/ Continue Reading...

Behaviorism and Neo Behaviorism Approaches

it’s insufficient to account for the wide range of human behavior. One of the major criticisms of classical S-R behaviorism is from Edward C. Tolman and Clark Hull. Tolman contended that classical S-R behaviorism does not account for purposive behavior given that most animal and human behavior is deliberately targeted towards a specific goal or end state. While he did not refute the independence of conscious behavior and mentality, Tolman argued that it was essential to incorporate mental determinants of purposive human behavior in the concept of behaviorism. On the other hand, Hull introduced the concept of operationalism, which… Continue Reading...

Bandura Self Efficacy and Chomsky Skinner Debate

of Skinner’s brand of behaviorism. Chomsky believed that Skinner was basing his entire view of human behavior and learning on simplistic stimulus-response activity, and Chomsky wanted to show that human beings are far more complex than animals. Coming at the issue from the perspective of a linguist, Chomsky also focused on how complex verbal behaviors are, and suggested that behaviorism cannot explain how human beings process language. Chomsky also suggested that Skinner’s methodologies were weak, in that they were only valid within the laboratory setting and not in the real world. Therefore, Chomsky questions the overall efficacy of behaviorism… Continue Reading...

Tools for Organization Development and Change

necessary development and change are to take hold. References Bryan, W. V. (2014). Multicultural aspects of human behavior (3rd ed.). Springfield, IL.: Charles C Thomas - Publisher, LTD. Camp, L. (2012). Strategic and organizational development tools to enhance research development. Retrieved from https://nordp.memberclicks.net/assets/RDConf2012/presentations/nordp-2012-camp.pdf Toolpack Consulting. (2012). Tools in the pack. Retrieved from https://www.toolpack.com/tools.html Continue Reading...

Cultural Diversity Issues

are similar. That does not sound like true respect for diversity.   References Bryan, W. V. (2014). Multicultural aspects of human behavior (3rd ed.). Springfield, IL.: Charles C Thomas - Publisher, LTD. Moca, D. (2017). Community unity event pushes people to get out of comfort zone, embrace diversity. Retrieved from http://www.chicagotribune.com/suburbs/naperville-sun/news/ct-nvs-community-unity-march-st-1213-20171212-story.html VanTimmeren, C. (2017). WMU’s Bronson School of Nursing awarded $2 million to increase cultural diversity. Retrieved from http://wwmt.com/news/local/wmus-bronson-school-of-nursing-awarded-2-million-to-increase-cultural-diversity Continue Reading...

Police Brutality and Behaviorism

populations. One of the founding fathers of behaviorism, B.F. Skinner, proposed a science of human behavior in which behavior could be measured and controlled using scientific methods and principles (Baum, 2011). Coinciding with radical behaviorism is research in the realm of psychobiology, which shows there are biological causes and effects of behavior. These biological causes and effects can be measured using various means such as physiological tests, blood tests for hormones, and electroencephalograms. Specifically , police brutality can be construed of as a learned response to stressful situations. The stress response is “located both in the central nervous system and… Continue Reading...

The Oj Simpson Case Analysis

of jurors', defendants', and victims' race in combination. Law And human behavior, 28(5), 529-545. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/b:lahu.0000046432.41928.2b Fairchild, H., & Cowan, G. (2010). The O. J. Simpson Trial: Challenges to Science and Society. Journal Of Social Issues, 53(3), 583-591. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1997.tb02130.x Hasian, Jr., M. (2003). O.J. Simpson and the rhetoric of law. Review Of Communication, 3(1), 60-63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1835859032000084205 Interviews - Gerald Uelmen | The O.j. Verdict FRONTLINE | PBS. (2018). Pbs.org. Retrieved 4 February 2018, from https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/oj/interviews/uelmen.html Jones, J. (2018). Ethical Considerations in Criminal Justice Research: Informed Consent and Confidentiality. Inquiries Journal. Retrieved 4 February 2018, from http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/articles/674/ethical-considerations-in-criminal-justice-research-informed-consent-and-confidentiality Justice, Western Theories. (2018). Iep.utm.edu. Retrieved 4 February 2018, from https://www.iep.utm.edu/justwest/#SH1b Labaton, S. (2018). Lessons… Continue Reading...

Prophet Muhammad Founder Of Islam

center of it, serving as the “ideal model of human behavior and action.”[footnoteRef:20] His simple lifestyle, his courage in the face of aggression, his compassion and his mercy reflect the values dear to Allah. Muhammad helped usher in a nursing community to help treat the wounded Muslims who lay on the battlefields after wars. He honored the first Muslim nurse, Rufaida al-Asalmiya, who established the very first nursing school in Arabia. She had a nursing corps who treated the wounded Muslim soldiers in 624 AD, helping to dress their wounds and prevent the spread of disease. Muhammad greatly admired… Continue Reading...

Multicultural Leadership Diversity in the Workplace

would help maximize productivity and promote a harmonious and inclusive work environment. Cultural Quirks Cultural differences permeate almost every area of human behavior and even cognition. There are bound to be culturally specific quirks that differentiate people in the office. Many cultural quirks are likely to be perceived positively and with a sense of humor, but some might cause conflict. It is important to understand what cultural quirks might arise that could restrain the foreign manager from expressing his or her ideas readily. Some of those quirks are likely to be related to gender norms and roles, whereas others are more… Continue Reading...

Conflict Resolution Education and Theory Bible

transmutation (Dixit, 2004). Theoretical bases for conflict resolution include both macro-level and micro-level frameworks that guide understanding of human behavior and decision-making (Cunningham, 1998). Many theories of conflict resolution at some point refer to human needs theory, which helps clarify sources of conflict as being traceable to unmet needs. Conflict arises when fundamental needs are not being met, and resolutions are more likely to arise when parties recognize what their needs are as well as those of their opponents. Conflict resolution theories based on needs theory focus on how multiple parties with differential needs can reach peaceable and mutually… Continue Reading...