Human Behavior Essays


Catcher in the Rye Essay (Updated for 2019)

Abstract Crafting a Catcher in the Rye essay on J.D. Salinger’s famed and beloved novel is an exercise both enjoyable and challenging. The book has done what so few pieces of literature have attempted to do and failed—it has remained relevant to youths everywhere, over half a century after its release. As a result of its celebrated quality, writing an essay on the novel can be daunting. This is because so many of themes and symbols have been picked apart and devoured repeatedly by scholars and critics. However, the better you understand the novel and the major concepts that shape Continue Reading...

Learning Organization

resource data base, however, by use of advanced IT could be of help in understanding such human behavior and attitudes in the period of change within organizations. A range of methods to collect employee information can be used before launching the change process (Shah, Irani, & Sharif, 2016). There are many attempts to define Big Data in literature. However, it describes and determines massive and unstructured data sets that are complex to decipher and process. Yet it can increase the productivity and operations of a business entity. Therefore, although volume is an inherent characteristic of Big Data, other attributes… Continue Reading...

Germany and the Holocaust

is never easily or simply construed. Indeed, Browning himself argues that human behavior is "a very complex phenomenon" and that the historian who attempts to explain indulges in a degree of "arrogance."[footnoteRef:5] This is good point to keep in mind, as Bergen stresses. [4: Doris Bergin, War and Genocide: A Concise History of the Holocaust (UK: Rowman & Littlefield, 2009), 32.] [5: Christopher R. Browning, "Ordinary Men," in The Holocaust: Problems and Perspectives of Interpretation, 4th ed., Donald L. Niewyk, ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 2011), 90.] For this reason, the arguments of both Goldhagen and Browning can be… Continue Reading...

Marketing

how salespeople manage their emotions during the day-to-day work in the office. Research on human behavior indicates that people can control, to a huge extent, their emotions through the use of various strategies that influence the kind of emotions a person experiences (Gross and John, 2003). This research will look at how a salesperson can influence their emotions and the effect emotions have on motivation, burnout and selling behavior. Cognitive reappraisal involves regulation of emotions and phrasing a situation that might elicit negative emotions in a way that it takes a positive perspective so the well-being of the salesperson… Continue Reading...

Ethics and Moral Guidelines Criminal Justice

intervene (Sommers, 2011). On some level, though, bystander effect is explained by the social norms that govern human behavior. Sometimes helpers end up making problems worse, or the person may resent being helped. Most of the time, though, moral actions are required to improve the quality of life for all people in a city. For instance, a person who sees a child run out into the street needs to run after that child and not just stand there expecting that the parent will do it. If the parent returns and gets angry for a person for touching their child,… Continue Reading...

Sigmund Freud & the Human Condition

rebuilt the repressed conflict; specifically, the childhood conflict with one's parents. Personality According to Sigmund Freud's theory on psychoanalytic of personality, human behavior results from the interaction of the three components of the mind: superego, ego and the id. The structural theory of personality emphasizes on conflict on the parts of the mind, personality and mind shape behavior. Such conflicts are thought to be unconscious, thus, Freud argued that the personality which develops during childhood is shaped through psychosexual stages that he called psychosexual theory of development. During the stages, the child faces conflict that results from social expectations and biological… Continue Reading...

Team America Surveillance and Espionage

is allowed to do to gather information. Interestingly, there are other ways of monitoring human behavior and even brainwashing as shown in Captain America: Civil War. Surveillance is only the tip of a large iceberg of rights erosion. For one, marketers collect purportedly anonymous data and usage statistics from customers and members of social media sites. Whenever a person uses a social media site, he or she surrenders a little more privacy. Registering for any website means placing one's email address, at the very least, on a list that can be populated and cross-referenced with other lists. On the surface,… Continue Reading...

Interpersonal Psychotherapy and Anxiety

disorders. The reason for this, so researchers suggest, is that IPT focuses on one of the main drivers of human behavior and thinking -- which is the socialization process. By approaching the psychological disorder from this standpoint, IPT is able to redirect or alter the functionality of the patient's perspective and interpersonal interactions with others. Thus, the premise of IPT is that psychological disorders like depression stem not from biological factors but rather from socialization factors, fears, isolation, etc. The effectiveness of the therapy lies in its identification of the psychological disorder stemming from an interpersonal basis. By focusing… Continue Reading...

Empirical Research Developmental Theory

their prevailing settings. In particular, practicing social work encompasses understanding human behavior to enhance proficiency in dealing with clients at different developmental life stages. The findings from the research studies will help me to understand lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons as oppressed, susceptible, and ridiculed persons in the society. It becomes possible to understand issues such as the mental issues experienced by these individuals compared to their peers (Levy, 2009). References Calzo, J. P., Antonucci, T. C., Mays, V. M., & Cochran, S. D. (2011). Retrospective recall of sexual orientation identity development among gay, lesbian, and bisexual adults.… Continue Reading...

Article Analysis on Ergonomics

goals, and the ability to persist against obstacles (Szalma, 2014, p. 1454). These variables can help to explain human behavior outcomes with regard to how humans respond to their environment -- and technology being part of the environment thus becomes a principal player in that outcome. Thus, the theory's usage is justified by the idea that an interface is meant to support an individual in attaining a goal as well as in the construction of meaning for the activity within the given context (Szalma, 2014, p. 1455). The central concept utilized in the study is the self-determination theory of… Continue Reading...

Ramayana Mahabharata Divine Incarnation

Vishnu and other divine entities use avatars to influence human behavior. Their influence is based on the need to preserve order, and to instruct humanity in how to best pursue their ethical duty or dharma. In the Mahabharata, the process of avatara is presented as a means of reinforcing human submission to the gods. In the Ramayana, the process of avatara is presented as a means of preserving social hierarchies, political order, and particularly the patriarchal order. Works Cited Halligan, Fredrica R., n.d., "Avatar." Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion, pp. 89-90. Jones, Naamleela Free, 2015, "From Gods To Gamers:… Continue Reading...

Choice Theory and Human Behavior

William Glasser's internal control approach labeled as 'Choice Theory' postulates that the following five fundamental needs drive all of human behavior -- a physiological need to survive and 4 psychological needs (belongingness or love or acceptance; authority or acknowledgement or accomplishment; independence, or individuality or choice; and learning or excitement or enjoyment. To sum up, choice theory basically suggests that one's behavior is one's own choice. People develop all through the course of their lifespan. In this context, the term 'development' may be defined as: one's capacity of making progressively better choices with regard to fulfilling one's fundamental needs.… Continue Reading...

Grieving Process and Models

Practitioners. Social Work Education, 30(1), 29-44. Zastrow, C. H., & Kirst-Ashman, K. K. (2016). Understanding human behavior and the social environment (10th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning. Continue Reading...

Annotated Bibliography on False Confessions

the elicitation of true and false confessions. Law and human behavior 35(6): 452-465. This article shows how interrogators work under the presumption of guilt, which leads to biases in the entire criminal justice proceedings. The presumption of guilt alters the approaches used by investigators and interviewers, including what interview tactics they use. Moreover, the presumption of guilt also leads to different behavioral responses on the part of the suspect, leading to an increased chance of a false confession. The results of this study show how the "innocent until proven guilty" maxim fails to hold true for most criminal justice… Continue Reading...

Evaluation Of the Aging Process

Treatment, 14(1), 29-36. Retrieved from http://apt.rcpsych.org/content/14/1/29 Zastrow, C. H., & Kirst-Ashman, K. K. (2016). Understanding human behavior and the social environment (10th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning. Continue Reading...

Incompatibility Between Islam and Human Rights

Human rights are the activities, freedoms and conditions that all human are entitle to enjoy, and these rights include economic, political, cultural and social rights. Putting differently, human rights are inalienable, inherent, indivisible and interdependent, which cannot be taken away, must be respected, and which the governments are to put in places the instrument to regulate laws and policies for human rights protection. Similarly, international human rights are the set of rules that guide the conducts of state's behaviors. Globally, countries enter into treaties to guarantee certain rights and refrain from violating these rights within their jurisdictions. (IJRC, 2016). The… Continue Reading...

Google and the Mind

humans to undertake the task of ranking webpages, their brain would yield results nearly identical to PageRank results. PageRank and human behavior human behavior appears to affect Google search. It is possible to obtain information from it directly without having to click on links. Consequently, more recent webpages display a smaller number of links as including links is pointless when one can conveniently seek referenced webpages on Google. Hence, click through measures do not hold much significance; having said that, it is imperative to observe that the link-based PageRank is dependent on the numerous links available for its efficiency (23).… Continue Reading...

Communicating Qualitative Research Analysis

findings because it influences the conclusions obtained from the research. Since criminal justice research entails examining human behavior and social phenomena, the researcher role is crucial because his/her historical, social, personal connections and cultural experiences influences understanding of human behavior in relation to crime and crime reduction strategies. Therefore, the consideration of the researcher's role helps in ensuring that reliable findings are generated to formulate effective criminal justice policies and practices. The suitable arrangement of data for analysis relates to criminal justice research because evaluation and interpretation of criminal justice data and research findings entails transforming theoretical concepts into… Continue Reading...

Introduction to Global Business

philosophy that takes into account the values related to human behavior, with respect to whether actions are right or wrong, whether there were good or bad intents and the consequences of such actions. Integrity, on the other hand, means abiding by moral and ethical principles. There are four steps in making an ethical decision. First, all facts and situations are defined. Second, all individuals impacted by the circumstance are ascertained together with their rights and obligations. Third, alternative decisions and consequences are identified, and lastly, the right thing to do is determined and then implemented. Ethical business dealings necessitate… Continue Reading...

Comparative Analysis Of Egoism or Altruism

individuals display behaviors associated with self-centeredness. Good deeds rooted in Self-interest or Egoism Egoism is defined as the act of human behavior where humans act purposely for their self-interests. The psychological theory of egoism is based on the ultimate aim of satisfying one's welfare. While good deeds or good behaviors of many people are motivated by self-interests or egoisms, however, some behaviors are still rooted in altruism. There are several examples of people doing good deeds without their self-interests. For example, several professional doctors have been providing volunteering health services to low-income people around the world without asking for financial rewards… Continue Reading...

Child Development

development to mathematics instruction. The Mathematics Educator, 18(1). Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ841568.pdf Woody, D. J. (2003). Infancy and toddlerhood. Dimensions of human behavior: The changing life course, 113-158. Retrieved from https://us.corwin.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/16296_Chapter_3.pdf Continue Reading...

Psychology Journal

stimulus creates learning. The concept of classical conditioning is important for learning and cognition as it explains virtually every human behavior. Part 2 Developing reading comprehension can be a major challenge for second language learners. Accordingly, language educators must use effective strategies to ensure strong development of reading skills. In a study of 10 junior high school students, Wang (2016) found that effective reading strategies significantly improved reading comprehension. The study, which specifically involved assigning the participants to reading tasks, established that students who used think-aloud reading strategies performed better in reading comprehension compared to those who did not.… Continue Reading...

Online Marketing and Success

interaction, affect perceived social support, sense of community, and life satisfaction. Computers in human behavior, 30, 69 -- 78 Yang, B., Kim, Y., & Yoo, C. (2013). The integrated mobile advertising model: The effects of technology and emotion-based evaluations. Journal of Business Research, 66(9), 1345 -- 1352 Continue Reading...

Developing Personal Epistemic Beliefs

roles of education and Internet search experience in students' Internet-specific epistemic beliefs. Computers in human behavior, 62, 286-291. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2016.03.091 Madjar, N., Weinstock, M., & Kaplan, A. (2016). Epistemic beliefs and achievement goal orientations: Relations between constructs versus personal profiles. The Journal of Educational Research, 110(1), 32-49. doi:10.1080/00220671.2015.1034353 Pamuk, S., Sungur, S., & Oztekin, C. (2016). A Multilevel Analysis of Students' Science Achievements in Relation to their Self-Regulation, Epistemological Beliefs, Learning Environment Perceptions, and Teachers' Personal Characteristics. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education. doi:10.1007/s10763-016-9761-7 Pope, K. J., & Mooney, G. A. (2016). The related effects of item characteristics in… Continue Reading...

Philosophy Questions

2005). The subject of free will arises due to scientific discoveries about human behavior's causal influence. If science can show that free will is an illusion, many important elements of the society can be undermined. Theoretical philosophical questions involve the definition of free will, and if it can accommodate scientific discoveries on the causes of human behavior and how so. Questions with regards to epistemology, metaphysics and the language and mind philosophy are just as important to people's daily lives as moral and ethics of practical philosophy. However, people's free will beliefs are relevant. Empirical evidence in the last half… Continue Reading...

Management and Operation Consulting for Google

Text-Based Advertising and the Effect on Users' Click Behavior. Computers in human behavior, 50, 535-543. Poulfelt, F. & Olson, T. (2010). Management Consulting Today and Tomorrow: Perspectives and Advice from 27 Leading World Experts. New York, NY: Routledge. Syverson, C. (2011). What Determines Productivity? Journal of Economic Literature, 49 (2): 326 -- 65. Continue Reading...

Cognition and Learning

memory. The ability of humans to personally impact their interactions with the environment is the fundamental feature of human behavior generally, humans are also able to change their behavior thereby putting it under control. It has been stated that the basic essence of civilization involves consciously erecting monuments to prevent forgetfulness (Veraksa, 2013). The most basic and essential attributes differentiating human and animal memory are exhibited in the examples of both the knot and the monument. Domains and Domain Learning To comprehensively describe human behavior and ability, the social intelligence and development domain is a vital aspect. In the… Continue Reading...

21st Century Skills and Competencies

the 20th century's focus on psychology as a means of understanding human behavior. These theories and concepts have moreover built on one another over the years so that each is a reaction to that which came before. Of course, in some cases a new idea has come along that is completely radical and different from the others and is based on a new approach to human understanding (Maslanka, 2004). Nonetheless, even before the 20th century, leadership was a concept that philosophers, statesmen and religious thinkers all propounded upon. From Machiavelli to the modern political and organizational princes of today,… Continue Reading...

Left Brain Right Brain Worldview and Doctoral Programs

quantitative analyses are, social science research does not always lend itself to quantification. Human beings are not robots. human behavior cannot always be translated into quantifiable data outputs. On the other hand, qualitative research is also insufficient because of its inherently subjective nature. A combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods is ideal for the social sciences. The debate between the practitioner/professional doctorate and the traditional research-based PhD also reflects the left brain/right brain binary. The traditional PhD can be a left brain or right brain pursuit depending on the nature of the research. However, it is generally believed… Continue Reading...

Counter Terrorism Community Policing and Changes

the community in serious ways. Police officers are expected to become keen observers of human behavior, to the point where they revert to the antagonistic role in the community. Instead of interacting positively with members of the community, police were being viewed increasingly with suspicion. Javier and his fellow officers had also been responding more to hate crimes against the Muslim community. Structural changes to the organization included greater centralization and more reliance on technology and big data in policing methods. Officers themselves were ambivalent about the changes because of their mixed implications and results. There has been a… Continue Reading...

Couples Counseling and Social Work

Family Theory & Review, 9(1), 7-26. doi:10.1111/jftr.12182 Hutchinson, E. D. (2014). Dimensions of human behavior: Person and Environment. SAGE Publications. James, A. (2016). Spirituality and Practice in Social Work, Youth and Family Studies. Spirituality across Disciplines: Research and Practice:, 191-202. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-31380-1_15 Munson, C. (2015). Relational Systems Model for Family Therapy. Taylor and Francis. Wiebe, S. A., Johnson, S. M., Burgess Moser, M., Dalgleish, T. L., & Tasca, G. A. (2016). Predicting Follow-up Outcomes in Emotionally Focused Couple Therapy: The Role of Change in Trust, Relationship-Specific Attachment, and Emotional Engagement. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 43(2), 213-226. doi:10.1111/jmft.12199 Continue Reading...

Assessment Of Corporate Culture at Zappos

Additionally, the questions accurately assess what is required to examine a company's culture through evaluating human behavior and the existing organizational norms, values, and practices. The questions also addressed some of the most important aspects for understanding corporate culture management styles, decision-making procedures, and professional development (Howington, 2015). In conclusion, organizational culture is one of the most important aspects in the success and profitability of a company because if its direct link to how work is divided and coordinated within the organization. An analysis of a company's organizational culture can be conducted using several techniques include McGinty/Moss assessment and… Continue Reading...

Norway and Germany Compared to Us in Incarceration

Sentencing in the US versus in Germany and the Netherlands There is one major difference between the sentencing and corrections policies of the US and the sentencing and corrections policies of Germany and the Netherlands. The former bases its policy on the ideas of retribution and incapacitation, whereas the latter base their policies on the ideas of rehabilitation and socialization (Vera Institute of Justice, 2013). This basic philosophical orientation towards the corrections is what distinguishes the two policies. The US views corrections as a punitive measure while Germany and the Netherlands view corrections in a positive light -- a measure… Continue Reading...

Performance Management and Maslows Hierarchy Of Needs

first before the human can be motivated upward, and the most fundamental needs that motivate human behavior are physiological—i.e., shelter, food, water. The second level of motivation consists of needs relating to safety—personal as well as financial security. The third level consists of love and/or a sense of belonging—the need for relationships and friendships. The fourth level consists of esteem—the need to be respected and to feel confident. The highest level of motivation consists of self-actualization—the need to achieve your goals and fulfill your highest potential as a skilled, capable, talented individual (Maslow, 1943). In a performance management system,… Continue Reading...

The Origins and Types Of Behavioral Therapy

Behavioral therapy has its roots in basic behaviorism, the principle that human behavior can be modified through systematic training or interventions. Since B.F. Skinner first laid the foundations for behaviorism through experimentation, the methods used in behavioral therapy have changed dramatically. Behavioral therapy, or behavior therapy, is not one but a variety of approaches that psychological counselors use to help clients change their behaviors. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2017) advocates the use of behavior therapy as an “effective treatment for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),” (p. 1). Behavior therapies are designed not just… Continue Reading...

Theory Of Motivation and Maslows Hierarchy Of Needs

original research was conducted decades ago, recent research on motivation and human behavior continues to substantiate Maslow’s core claims. Researchers continue to operationalize Maslow’s definitions of needs and motivation, leading to a strengthening of the original theory and expanded applications in the social sciences. Maslow himself wrote extensively to develop and mature a comprehensive theory of human motivation based on the hierarchy of needs model. The original needs hierarchy consists of five fundamental needs: for physiological comfort and fulfillment, for safety and security, for belongingness, for esteem, and for self-actualization. Although definitions of terms have shifted somewhat, the fundamental… Continue Reading...

Psychology and Behaviorism Essay Outline

day, which many believed focused too much on the subconscious mind. Behaviorism was the first attempt to study human behavior using the scientific method. However, there were many different approaches to behaviorism. II. The Early Foundations of Behaviorism A. The structuralism versus functionalism debate 1. Structuralism: Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Tichener tried to show that they could use introspection as a scientific method with the goal of objectively understanding the structures of the human mind or consciousness. 2. Functionalism: William James and later behaviorists were more interested in how the mind works and why the mind reacts to stimuli… Continue Reading...

History Of Psychology Annotated Bibliography

dogs as subjects, the Russian scientist revolutionized the study of human behavior with his studies showing how classical conditioning works. Clark (2004) traces Pavlov’s work, and also shows how it was received. Then, the author shows how Pavlov’s conditioning experiments became classical conditioning through the work of B.F. Skinner. Essentially, this research uses primary sources to explain the evolution of behaviorism and early psychology from Twitmyer onwards. Digdon, N., Powell, R. A., & Harris, B. (2014). Little Albert's alleged neurological impairment. History of Psychology, 17(4), 312-324. In 1920, Watson and Rayner conducted a now-famous experiment on an infant named Albert.… Continue Reading...

Coping with Emotional Challenges Among Salespersons

Abstract Salespersons encounter some of the most stressful events in their daily endeavors to make sales as they handle people with widely varying emotional intelligence. This makes them have emotional challenges that is not dealt with can grow to worse conditions. This research will look at the most effective way of the salesperson participating in the handling of the emotional challenge they get themselves in. there will be a conceptual framework drafted that will help in understanding the concept of expressive suppression as a way of handling emotional challenge among sale persons leading to emotional stability among the salespersons. By… Continue Reading...

Behaviorism As a Separate School Of Thought

a science, using the tools of the scientific method to measure human behavior. However, human behavior is remarkably complex and Watson’s early research failed to capture the nuances of human cognitive-behavioral responses. Pavlov built upon Watson’s foundation, and is probably the most famous of all the pioneering behaviorists. Pavlov’s famous dog experiments have become part of the common vernacular (Clark, 2004). Like Pavlov, B.F. Skinner focused on operant conditioning. However, Skinner took the entire concept of conditioning a step further by showing how stimuli could be manipulated to manipulate responses. Pavlov had yet to break free from the purely… Continue Reading...

An Effective Strategy in Dealing with People with Mental Disorders

2004). The Freudian model adeptly explains, though falls short of forecasting, human behavior. Consequently, it is not possible to either prove or disprove the theory. For instance, testing and measuring the unconscious brain in an objective way is tough. On the whole, the Freudian theory may be considered highly unscientific. Scant evidence exists for supporting PDT’s (psychodynamic therapy) implementation for obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD), post- traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), bulimia nervosa, psychosis or cocaine addiction. The basis for a majority of Freudian theories is proofs garnered from an unreliable sample. Freud’s subjects were largely himself, a child he called… Continue Reading...

Race, Ethnicity, Culture, and Disparities in Health Care

a major role in determining health outcomes among different patient populations. References Bryan, W. V. (2014). Multicultural aspects of human behavior (3rd ed.). Springfield, IL.: Charles C Thomas - Publisher, LTD. Egede, L.E. (2006, June). Race, Ethnicity, Culture, and Disparities in Health Care. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 21(6), 667-669.   Continue Reading...

Other Cultures Xenophobia and Understanding

Oxford University Press. Bryan, W. V. (2014) Multicultural aspects of human behavior. Springfield, IL: Charles C.Thomas Publisher Kitsantas, A. (2004). Studying abroad. College Student Journal 38(3): 441-452. Marquit, M. (n.d.). 5 reasons to learn about different cultures. Retrieved online: https://liverichlivewell.com/learn-about-different-cultures/ “Understanding Culture and Diversity in Building Communities,” (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/culture/cultural-competence/culture-and-diversity/main   Continue Reading...

Dreams the Unconscious Mind and Defense Mechanisms

the way Freudian theory was a paradigm shift that helps understand global patterns in human behavior. Collective human trauma, such as the repressed memories of genocide or war, can lead to similar ego defense mechanisms among an entire culture. Applying Freudian concepts of the unconscious, dreams, and ego defense mechanisms to societies can help illuminate pathways to healing, just as with individual psychotherapy. The collective dreams of a culture are manifest in legends, myths, and folklore. Newirth (2015) discusses cultural symbols and icons, particularly with regard to heroic agency. Thus, Perera’s (2013) Jungian approach to dream analysis is therefore… Continue Reading...

Organizational Analysis for Veterans Health Administration

Dennison, Elton Mayo, and human relations historiography. Management & Organizational History, 1(2), 177-199. Kirst-Ashman, K. K. (2013). Brooks/Cole Empowerment Series: human behavior in the Macro Social Environment. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning. Landsberger, H. A. (1959). Book Note and Review: Human Relations: Job Attitudes: Review of Research and Opinion: SAGE Publications Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA. Razin, A., Sadka, E., & Swagel, P. (2002). Tax burden and migration: a political economy theory and evidence. Journal of Public Economics, 85(2), 167-190. Rodriguez-Clare, A. (2007). A political-economy theory of trade agreements. The American Economic Review, 97(4), 1374-1406. Veterans Health Administration. (n.d.). About VHA.… Continue Reading...

Cast Away: a Film Of Great Humanity

that exudes a certain commonality emerging within the human condition. Scholars of human behavior manifesting within extreme circumstances have looked at survivors of the Holocaust, refugees, war prisoners and others in comparable situations and examined how common patterns of behavior will emerge when a human being is under extreme stress. This paper will discuss some of the major themes of the human experience as demonstrated in the film Cast Away by Robert Zemeckis (2000). Synopsis The film Cast Away revolves around a work-obsessed executive at FedEx named Chuck Noland (Tom Hanks) whose plane crashes over the Pacific Ocean when… Continue Reading...

An Explanation Of the Definition Of Science

hypothesis about why that phenomenon exists or what meaning it has. A social scientist observes human behavior. A natural scientist observes anything from animal behavior to the behavior of cells and molecules under a microscope. The observation can be directly ascertained through the human senses or indirectly through the use of instruments and apparatus. When instruments and apparatus are used, the scientist needs to verify the authenticity and reliability of those measuring devices. Instruments need to be calibrated and proven effective for measuring what they are designed to measure. Identification refers to identifying all the variables and coming up… Continue Reading...

Antwone Fisher

childhood and adulthood. Age may prove to be a key influencer of environmental experience-based individual human behavior. Fisher’s character attempts at explaining the developmental trajectory impacted by prior experience. Early childhood issues and challenges end up impacting the character’s behavior in the long run. Early childhood is an especially vulnerable age marked by fragility and events experienced herein will most certainly influence behaviors. The lack of protective elements like religion and parenting gravely threatens developmental trajectory. Early adverse experiences may have wide-ranging consequences (Ebert, 2002). The issue of prior experience and its impact on current behavior is explained explicitly… Continue Reading...

Europe and the Modern Era

countries may soon follow. References Bryan, W. V. (2014) Multicultural aspects human behavior. Springfield, IL: Charles C.Thomas Publisher, LTD. Charlemagne. (n.d.). History. Retrieved from http://www.history.com/topics/charlemagne Lucie-Smith, A. (2011). Is Belloc best forgotten? Retrieved from http://www.catholicherald.co.uk/commentandblogs/2011/12/05/is-belloc-best-forgotten/ Continue Reading...

Behaviorism and Neo Behaviorism Approaches

that it’s insufficient to account for the wide range of human behavior. One of the major criticisms of classical S-R behaviorism is from Edward C. Tolman and Clark Hull. Tolman contended that classical S-R behaviorism does not account for purposive behavior given that most animal and human behavior is deliberately targeted towards a specific goal or end state. While he did not refute the independence of conscious behavior and mentality, Tolman argued that it was essential to incorporate mental determinants of purposive human behavior in the concept of behaviorism. On the other hand, Hull introduced the concept of operationalism,… Continue Reading...

Bandura Self Efficacy and Chomsky Skinner Debate

seeming oversimplification of Skinner’s brand of behaviorism. Chomsky believed that Skinner was basing his entire view of human behavior and learning on simplistic stimulus-response activity, and Chomsky wanted to show that human beings are far more complex than animals. Coming at the issue from the perspective of a linguist, Chomsky also focused on how complex verbal behaviors are, and suggested that behaviorism cannot explain how human beings process language. Chomsky also suggested that Skinner’s methodologies were weak, in that they were only valid within the laboratory setting and not in the real world. Therefore, Chomsky questions the overall efficacy… Continue Reading...

Tools for Organization Development and Change

more likely the necessary development and change are to take hold. References Bryan, W. V. (2014). Multicultural aspects of human behavior (3rd ed.). Springfield, IL.: Charles C Thomas - Publisher, LTD. Camp, L. (2012). Strategic and organizational development tools to enhance research development. Retrieved from https://nordp.memberclicks.net/assets/RDConf2012/presentations/nordp-2012-camp.pdf Toolpack Consulting. (2012). Tools in the pack. Retrieved from https://www.toolpack.com/tools.html Continue Reading...

Cultural Diversity Issues

similar. That does not sound like true respect for diversity.   References Bryan, W. V. (2014). Multicultural aspects of human behavior (3rd ed.). Springfield, IL.: Charles C Thomas - Publisher, LTD. Moca, D. (2017). Community unity event pushes people to get out of comfort zone, embrace diversity. Retrieved from http://www.chicagotribune.com/suburbs/naperville-sun/news/ct-nvs-community-unity-march-st-1213-20171212-story.html VanTimmeren, C. (2017). WMU’s Bronson School of Nursing awarded $2 million to increase cultural diversity. Retrieved from http://wwmt.com/news/local/wmus-bronson-school-of-nursing-awarded-2-million-to-increase-cultural-diversity Continue Reading...

Police Brutality and Behaviorism

all populations. One of the founding fathers of behaviorism, B.F. Skinner, proposed a science of human behavior in which behavior could be measured and controlled using scientific methods and principles (Baum, 2011). Coinciding with radical behaviorism is research in the realm of psychobiology, which shows there are biological causes and effects of behavior. These biological causes and effects can be measured using various means such as physiological tests, blood tests for hormones, and electroencephalograms. Specifically , police brutality can be construed of as a learned response to stressful situations. The stress response is “located both in the central nervous system… Continue Reading...

The Oj Simpson Case Analysis

mitigation in capital cases: The effect of jurors\', defendants\', and victims\' race in combination. Law And human behavior, 28(5), 529-545. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/b:lahu.0000046432.41928.2b Fairchild, H., & Cowan, G. (2010). The O. J. Simpson Trial: Challenges to Science and Society. Journal Of Social Issues, 53(3), 583-591. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1997.tb02130.x Hasian, Jr., M. (2003). O.J. Simpson and the rhetoric of law. Review Of Communication, 3(1), 60-63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1835859032000084205 Interviews - Gerald Uelmen | The O.j. Verdict FRONTLINE | PBS. (2018). Pbs.org. Retrieved 4 February 2018, from https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/oj/interviews/uelmen.html Jones, J. (2018). Ethical Considerations in Criminal Justice Research: Informed Consent and Confidentiality. Inquiries Journal. Retrieved 4 February 2018, from http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/articles/674/ethical-considerations-in-criminal-justice-research-informed-consent-and-confidentiality Justice, Western Theories. (2018). Iep.utm.edu. Retrieved 4 February… Continue Reading...

Prophet Muhammad Founder Of Islam

a global movement, but always Muhammad remained at the center of it, serving as the “ideal model of human behavior and action.”[footnoteRef:20] His simple lifestyle, his courage in the face of aggression, his compassion and his mercy reflect the values dear to Allah. Muhammad helped usher in a nursing community to help treat the wounded Muslims who lay on the battlefields after wars. He honored the first Muslim nurse, Rufaida al-Asalmiya, who established the very first nursing school in Arabia. She had a nursing corps who treated the wounded Muslim soldiers in 624 AD, helping to dress their wounds… Continue Reading...

Multicultural Leadership Diversity in the Workplace

harmonious and inclusive work environment. Cultural Quirks Cultural differences permeate almost every area of human behavior and even cognition. There are bound to be culturally specific quirks that differentiate people in the office. Many cultural quirks are likely to be perceived positively and with a sense of humor, but some might cause conflict. It is important to understand what cultural quirks might arise that could restrain the foreign manager from expressing his or her ideas readily. Some of those quirks are likely to be related to gender norms and roles, whereas others are more related to communication style or perception of… Continue Reading...

Conflict Resolution Education and Theory Bible

(Dixit, 2004). Theoretical bases for conflict resolution include both macro-level and micro-level frameworks that guide understanding of human behavior and decision-making (Cunningham, 1998). Many theories of conflict resolution at some point refer to human needs theory, which helps clarify sources of conflict as being traceable to unmet needs. Conflict arises when fundamental needs are not being met, and resolutions are more likely to arise when parties recognize what their needs are as well as those of their opponents. Conflict resolution theories based on needs theory focus on how multiple parties with differential needs can reach peaceable and mutually beneficial… Continue Reading...

Nature Vs Nurture Essay

few decades, new theories have emerged to explain how humans learn. Social learning theory posits that human behavior stems from the integrated point of view of behavioral, environmental, and cognitive influences.  Modeling allows for continuous reciprocation of these influences. “Bandura’s work emphasized the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others from the assumption that most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling.” (Baker and Brandell 128) If humans see something, they understand how it is done and can learn how to do it themselves. For instance, a person sees another person fishing. That… Continue Reading...

Bartleby the Scrivener Analysis Essay

as a mere odd tale about the oddities of human behavior. However, if that were true—if the summation of its words added up to nothing more than a curious story, it would have long been lost to obscurity. In examining its discernment and relevancy today, almost two hundred years after it was written, one can illuminate certain truths about what it means to be an individual, a worker, a member of society, a boss, a prisoner and a host of other archetypes that are uncannily presented in the story. Continue Reading...

Letter from a Birmingham Jail Analysis Essay

people cannot remain oppressed forever. The urge for freedom will eventually come.” King describes his wisdom about human behavior and human existence, as he has seen it and has he has studied it. This statement shows how oppression is not the answer as it will always be a temporary answer selected by an imbalanced society. “I guess I should have realized that few members of a race that has oppressed another race can understand or appreciate the deep groans and passionate yearnings of those that have been oppressed, and still fewer have the vision to see that injustice must be… Continue Reading...

European Muslims in Germany in the Postwar Period

though both nations were positioned to benefit, Germany had a very unrealistic view of human behavior or of the need for integration as a whole. German companies primarily went after laborers who had some skills or no skills, which worked on assembly lines and who often had very low literacy skills. These low literacy skills didn’t concern Germans at the time, and this is an example of more problematic thinking: Germans felt that the Islamic immigrants could just live in isolation to the rest of German society, living in dormitories near factories. The fact that they couldn’t communicate well… Continue Reading...

Cognitive Psychology Essay

up the paper with a conclusion. Titles: Cognitive Psychology:  Modern Approach to human behavior Cognitive Psychology Advancements Topics: Introduction to Applied Cognitive Psychology Cognitive Psychology of Planning Outline: I.  Introduction II.  Body A.  Scenario B.  Psychological Perspectives C.  Treatment, Therapies, Interventions D.  Effectiveness of Therapies III.  Conclusion Title:  Cognitive Psychology Scenario Essay Introduction Cognitive psychology is a relatively new or modern approach to human behavior whose main focus is how people think.  This approach in psychology focuses on how people think because of the belief that thought processes affect people’s behaviors.  In essence, an individual’s behavior is largely influenced by how… Continue Reading...

Five Principles Of Management

the most salient organizational and production activity factor. Thus, managers ought to possess basic and relevant knowledge regarding human behavior. The human relations facet of a company necessitates a grasp of individual behavior, support and knowledge. Mayo’s theory promoted the human nature vision within corporations. Mayo has contributed significantly to providing insights into industrial organization and labor. The Hawthorne experiment represents a breakthrough and historic study in the area of administrative thought, supporting interdependence rather than individualism, and collaboration instead of competition. These experiments paved the way for the social management theories. The novel theoretical framework addressed social requirements.… Continue Reading...

Catcher in the Rye Essay

first person who was ever confused and frightened and even sickened by human behavior. You're by no means alone on that score, you'll be excited and stimulated to know. Many, many men have been just as troubled morally and spiritually as you are right now. Happily, some of them kept records of their troubles. You'll learn from them—if you want to. Just as someday, if you have something to offer, someone will learn something from you. It's a beautiful reciprocal arrangement. And it isn't education. It's history. It's poetry” (246). “Don’t ever tell anybody anything. If you do, you… Continue Reading...

Mass Incarceration in Arizona Social Cultural and Legislative History

create a disruption of justice by motivating the darker inclinations of human behavior, such as greed to motivate arrests. Rather than administering justice, officials of this system would be more inclined to arrest and jail people for their own personal gain. This would mean that vulnerable populations, such as minorities, would instantly become the “low hanging fruit” and likely to be most victimized by this set-up (Dacey, 2017). All persons in America are supposed to be guaranteed liberty: a justice system that incentivized officials in such a way would be completely disconnected to integrity. In Arizona at this time,… Continue Reading...

Jewish Ethics

essential as Tamari illustrates, because money and large amounts of wealth can do dizzying things to human behavior. Greed is real. Tamari even insightfully illuminates that the more an individual acquires, the more he wants—with a person almost never having their material needs met. Given the weakness and highly influential quality of human behavior, there needs to be a formal code in place to regulate human economic behavior and to set the parameters of how wealth is spent. This way things like charity, kindness and help can be bestowed on other people, and society can be bettered by the… Continue Reading...

The Relevance Of Anthropology Today

The Usefulness of Anthropology in a Globalized Society In his seminal text, The Naked Ape, Desmond Morris examines the biological basis for modern human behaviors in urban settings, and makes the point that some of the more baffling ways that people act today can be traced to evolutionary responses to the exigencies of the prehistoric environment. Since its publication in 1967, this anthropological analysis has been followed by a growing body of scholarship concerning evolution and ecological principles and their implications for modern society (Dunaif-Harris, 1987). Today, the concept of gender is undergoing increased scrutiny and notions such as pansexuality… Continue Reading...

Disparities and Diabetes Among Latinos

by making some lifestyle changes. For example, obesity is a major predisposing factor of diabetes. Another modifiable human behavior is physical inactivity. When high blood pressure remains untreated it not only damages the cardiovascular system but is also noted as a possible diabetes trigger (American Heart Association, 2018). Usually, minorities live in neighborhoods that are rated as inferior because they lack access to healthy food, gyms and manifest a high level of crime. The lack of value food sources, exercise amenities and the prevalence of stressors such as high crime rates and limited levels of social cohesion are all… Continue Reading...

The Role Media Plays in Relation to Gender Stereotypes

It is, indeed, a way of promoting inequality. Written, visual and verbal communication determine the extent of human behavior and thoughts. Therefore, there should be a deliberate effort to change the harmful and retrogressive thoughts through the responsible management of media content the audience is exposed to. The choices that we make in our daily visual, and verbal communication has a far-reaching impact on the social decorum and the treatment of stereotypes including the negative perception of gender roles and skewed belief of superiority and inferiority of the sexes as the case and context might be. Communication that is… Continue Reading...

How to Be a Successful Student

taking place. The idea that motivation is the driving force of human behavior was first put forward by Maslow in 1943. Maslow identified a hierarchy of needs that explained the motivation of human behavior: people acted according to whatever level of needs had to be met at a given time. There was a basic level of needs—i.e., the need for shelter, food, love, etc.—and a higher level of need that culminated in self-actualization, the ability to be self-motivated for no other reason that the individual desired to achieve something positive. This sense of self-actualization—this ultimate motivational drive—is what a student… Continue Reading...

Behaviorism Psychoanalysis and Hte Psychology

movements evolved relatively concurrently, with behaviorism assuming the mantle of scientific, empirical approaches to measuring and controlling human behavior and psychoanalysis concentrating more on emotions and consciousness. Sigmund Freud is the founder of the psychoanalytic movement, and his theories continue to influence psychology. Neo-Freudians such as Adler, Horney, and Erikson are also among the most influential thinkers in the psychoanalytic movement. Skinner, Watson, and Pavlov are the dominant historical figures in the realm of behaviorism, which went on to influence other branches of psychology that rely heavily on the scientific method. Humanistic, transpersonal, and existential psychology evolved from the… Continue Reading...

Self Management in Nursing

measure of self-management of type 1 diabetes for adolescents. Nursing Research, 37, 87-99. Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and human behavior (No. 92904). Simon and Schuster. Verchota, G., & Sawin, K. J. (2016). Testing components of a self-management theory in adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Nursing Research, 65(6), 487-495.   Continue Reading...

The Global Economic Crisis

to assert that self-interest is the rational motivating force behind human behavior is to really not understand humanity: humans are just as capable of being self-destructive and irrational as they are of being rational and selfless. How this translates into economic issues can be seen in a number of ways. First, there is the Global Economic Crisis of 2008, which was spawned by the short-term self-interest of various players in the markets. Their short-term self-interest inevitably gave way to long-term woes. Some of these players collapsed under the weight of their folly, while others were bailed out by taxpayers… Continue Reading...

Psychology and Sociology Gender Inequality

is actually quite straightforward. Basic behaviorism shows how rewards and punishments guide human behavior. When a person, and especially a child, is rewarded with attention, admiration, and other shows of respect, they will repeat that behavior. On the other hand, any behavior that elicits a negative or undesirable response will be diminished. It takes a strong character to subvert gender norms. Thankfully, the society is starting to change whereby gender non-conformity is becoming more normative. We still have a long way to go before becoming a gender-neutral society, though. I still notice that women are treated differently from men:… Continue Reading...

The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas

“The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas,” Ursula Le Guin draws attention to the different ethical frameworks that guide human behavior. The title does draw attention to those who walk away, those who believe that there must be something better out there. Because there is no way of knowing whether those who leave do actually find anything better, it can only be inferred based on their not returning that there is nothing better than Omelas. Choosing to remain is actually more courageous than leaving, because it calls upon the individual to perpetually grapple with moral ambiguity: the deepest challenge… Continue Reading...

Black Comedians and Racism in Society

in Chapter 9, “inequality is a significant determinant of human behavior” (slide 4). This is relevant to what makes black comedians helpful in the process of amalgamation because they highlight the inequalities and show exactly what it is that makes us different. Rock in his comedy, for example, highlights his fear of young white students because he doesn’t want to get shot by a “crazy” kid. Implicit in this comedy is the idea that black kids are different from white kids (black kids would be playing basketball not dressing up in trench coats acting like they were in a… Continue Reading...

Psychology Phenomenology Descriptive Qualitative Methods

what it is not: it is not about using the scientific method to study human behavior, and it is not about studying personality or psychoses. Rather, phenomenological psychology is about understanding the nature of reality itself, through an evaluation of both individual and collective human psychological experience. Husserl set forth principles for ontology in psychology as well as epistemology, which can be especially useful when studying the divergent experiences of those with psychotic disorders like schizophrenia, whose sense of reality is radically different from their peers and yet theoretically no less “real,” (Wertz, 2005). Besides Husserl, the primary contributors… Continue Reading...

Sexuality Feminism and Advertising

selling beer—just as Bernays figured it would. Sex is the motivating force of human behavior, Freud taught. While there are other forces no doubt, sex is still a powerful one. The fact that gender is still depicted according to this idea in ads suggests that ideology is only something that people talk about. When it comes to consumption and to actually spending dollars, men are still lured by women and by ideas of being the leader and the most important thing. Ads seem to say that men are what matter most. However, there is an argument that can be… Continue Reading...

Dynamic Network Theory Article on Psychology

and then outline the most important roles social networks fulfill in human behavior. Dynamic network theory posits eight social network roles, all of which are related to goal setting, striving, and resistance to goal fulfillment. Those eight roles include goal striving, system supporting, goal preventing, supportive resisting, system negating, system reacting, interacting, and observing. According to the authors, networks give rise to emotional “rippling,” which could even have future implications for cognitive scientists (p. 277). Westaby, Pfaff & Redding (2014) continue to explain how researchers in clinical psychology derived these eight roles from an extensive body of research, citing… Continue Reading...

Berg Versus Allied Security Inc

al. 376–402). According to Kinney et al., the CAPTED concept is an essential link between human behavior and the design of the environment. The ability to comprehend the link will make the security system planner have the capability to utilize environmental factors for the purpose of minimizing crime, loss and enhance productivity. Essentially the design of buildings and their construction can impact the level of crime such a place perpetrates. By applying the CPTED principles facilities can enjoy lesser crime and become safer. CPTED strategies include natural surveillance, access control, and territorial reinforcement (Fennelly and Crowe 23-56; McCrie 302). … Continue Reading...

Nature Vs Nurture Vs Free Will

Bandura and was himself a student of Darwin. He thus postulated that “nature” was responsible for the development of human behavior—that some people were simply born with greater gifts, such as intellectual ability, than others. Galton was a 19th century philosopher and scientist and his views aligned with ideas like the Great Man Theory, which articulated the position that great leaders are born, not made. This paper will show how the debate between nature vs. nurture has never really abated and how there is most likely a little bit of evidence to support both sides of the argument—meaning the… Continue Reading...

Health Psychology Social Media Trends

the so-called Hawthorne effect, which states that being observed often has a significant influence upon human behavior, and can thus bias results (McCambridge, Witton, & Elbourne, 2014). It should be noted that despite the frequent criticism of the ubiquity of online interactions, there is no evidence, according to current research, that frequent social media use exacerbates the stress, at least of adults. According to Hampton (et al. 2015), although women report higher levels of stress than men overall, for women there is an association with lower levels of stress and moderate use of online media, which is often associated… Continue Reading...

Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory Of Personality

of Tony Soprano Psychodynamic Theory Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of personality makes the argument that human behavior is resultant of the interrelations amongst three constituent parts of the mind including the id, ego, and superego (Petocz, 1999). This theory of personality lays substantial significance of the manner in which conflict, more often than not unconscious, amongst the areas of the mind end up shaping an individual’s behavior and personality. The Id deals with instantaneous satisfaction of basic physical needs and desires and it functions completely unconsciously. The Superego takes into account social rules and morals, and is… Continue Reading...

Community Psychology Diversity and Social Action Research

focus only on individual variables, community psychologists take into account multiple dimensions and contextual constraints and influences on human behavior, identity, and relationships. Using a systems or ecological approach also transforms the nature of the social scientist’s work in community psychology. The community psychologist does not just work with individual clients, although that is certainly possible. A community psychologist forges strategic alliances with other members of the individuals community, including formal and informal social structures and organizations (Society for Community Research and Action, 2018). The community psychologist aims not just to transform individual lives but also to improve the… Continue Reading...

Personality and the Jung Test

but usually only when it relates in some way to human behavior. I can study manuals and information that is purely mechanical—such as how to change oil in a car—but I do find it to be tedious and more like a chore than something I enjoy. According to INFP Learning Style (2018), my learning is improved when the material I am learning is presented with theory intact and when it relates in some way to the humanities, sociology or psychology. I enjoy multiple viewpoints and complex material is also easy for me to grasp. Learning is difficult for me… Continue Reading...

Scarcity and Supply and Demand

economies that promote a free market. 2 The economy is a result of human behavior because a country must prioritize its economic goals to determine how to deal with scarce resources. Some countries have a command economy, where the centralized government essentially sets the prices for all goods. This was the case in the Soviet Union where, for instance, the price of sugar was set and not determined by the principle of scarcity or the law of supply and demand. In the U.S., price fixing of this nature is supposed to be illegal, but in reality because of the globalized nature… Continue Reading...

Durkheim and Weber on Sociology

he viewed human society was that he could identify the social facts that predicate human behavior. Durkheim (1895) stated, “A social fact is any way of acting, whether fixed or not, capable of exerting over the individual an external constraint; or: which is general over the whole of a given society whilst having an existence of its own, independent of its individual manifestations.” Durkheim thus understood society to be a system that could be studied using the scientific method: theories and hypotheses could be developed based on observations and education. These hypotheses could be tested, just as one tests… Continue Reading...

Social Psychology

Social psychology is the study of human behavior in social situations, showing how social pressures and sociological variables can impact psychological phenomenon such as identity, motivation, personality, or behavior. A quintessential topic in the field of social psychology is bullying. Bullying can be studied from a public health perspective, showing how the external variables such as how a school is designed and the leadership and organizational culture of the school affects risk factors implicated in bullying behaviors or victimization patterns. Alternatively, bullying can be examined from a purely… Continue Reading...

Challenges Of Command and Control Leadership

to the employees. People-Centered Leadership Approach Leadership is a chance to direct human behavior in creativity and productivity areas. There are only two ways for a leader to influence human behavior, one can either inspire it or manipulate it. It is for this reason that the best leaders have been established to be the ones who inspire their followers. The people-centered leadership approach views leadership as a process of influence that involves working with people in order to accomplish their goals and the organization’s goals (Black and La Venture, 2018). This approach al all about trust building and creating a clear… Continue Reading...

Nursing Homes and Resident Care

689-710. Roshan, M., Warren, M., & Carr, R. (2016). Understanding the use of social media by organisations for crisis communication. Computers in human behavior, 63, 350-361. Rowles, G. D., & Teaster, P. B. (Eds.). (2015). Long-Term Care in an Aging Society: Theory and Practice. Springer Publishing Company. Sanford, A. M., Orrell, M., Tolson, D., Abbatecola, A. M., Arai, H., Bauer, J. M., ... & Hajjar, R. (2015). An international definition for “nursing home”. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 16(3), 181-184.   Continue Reading...