National Security Essays


Employment Laws in the United Kingdom

transportation issues (United Kingdom 2016). The fourteenth section pertains to exceptions to the law including statutory provisions, issues that involve national security, charities, sports and allowable age exceptions (e.g. safety). The fifteenth chapter relates to family property such as the abolition of the husband's duty to maintain a wife, the abolition of the presumption of advancement, the amendment to the Married Women's Property Act of 1964 and civil partners and their associated laws and protections. The sixteenth chapter wraps up the law by covering a few extra details such as religious situations when it comes to civil partnerships, the obligations… Continue Reading...

Impact Of Federalism on Privacy Rights

federal government enacted the PATRIOT Act, which enables its agencies and agents to gather citizens' personal information for national security reasons. Federal measures towards ensuring and enhancing homeland security continues to generate concerns on privacy rights. Federalism has negatively impacted privacy rights by making it difficult to balance the need to preserve constitutional integrity and enhancing national security. As long as federalism provides avenues for necessary police investigation that could even result in violation of privacy, it's difficult to preserve this constitutional integrity (Dillard, 2011, p.510). The current system provides avenues for abuses of constitutional rights for the sake… Continue Reading...

Florida Congressmen

his support of terrorism-related legislation: "Terrorist groups such as ISIS and Al Qaeda pose a serious threat to our national security. As we work with our allies to defeat these groups, it's important that we continue to support our Afghan partners to prevent Afghanistan from once again becoming a safe haven for terrorists" (Sen. Bill Nelson's statement on president's decision to keep 8,400 troops in Afghanistan 2). To their credit, both Floridian senators gave their bipartisan support of SB 2040 (override the veto of legislation allowing terrorism lawsuits), and the U.S. public has historically favored bipartisan efforts in the… Continue Reading...

Government’s Right to Spy

privacy. The laws need not be secretive (Do the national security Agency Surveillance Programs Violate American Citizens' Civil Liberties?). There is a school of thought, which believes that keeping the surveillance laws secretive is important since it makes it easier to gain insight into terrorist activities and foreign powers. If the logic is followed, then when the congress passed the foreign intelligence Surveillance Act in 1970s, they ought to have found a way that could make it secretive. This would make it difficult for the Soviet agents to know what the FBI surveillance authorities were doing. However, things did… Continue Reading...

Team America Surveillance and Espionage

would agree that some government surveillance is necessary and desirable in the interests of national security and would gladly sacrifice a small amount of personal privacy in the interest of protecting the country. However, few Americans would agree to allow the contents of their minds be made public, really or symbolically through monitoring of individual social media accounts. What the government views as being "unreasonable search and seizure" under the Fourth Amendment might be defined differently from the common person, which is why civil liberties organizations make a determined effort to work with legal teams to protect the rights… Continue Reading...

Terrorism in Nigeria and Boko Haram

The Relative Deprivation Perspective. African Conflict and Peacebuilding Review 3(1): 144-157. Anyadike, N.O. (2013). Boko Haram and national security Challenges in Nigeria; Causes and Solutions. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development 4(5): Retrieved: http://rguild.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Boko-Haram-and-National-Security-Challenges-in-Nigeria-Causes.pdf Aro, O.I. (2013). Boko Haram Insurgency in Nigeria. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications 3(11): 178-185 Blanchard, L.P. (2014). Nigeria's Boko Haram: Frequently Asked Questions. Current Politics and Economics of Africa7(2) (2014): 143-172. Gilbert, L.D. (2014). Prolongation of Boko Haram Insurgency in Nigeria. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences 4(11): 150-156. Osumah, O. (2013). Boko Haram insurgency in Northern Nigeria and the vicious cycle of… Continue Reading...

International Law on Overt and Covert Interventions

Law, Berkeley La Raza Law Journal. 139. Johnson, L. K. & James, W. (2008). Intelligence and national security. New York: Oxford University Press. Kinzer, S. (2008). All the Shah's men: An American coup and the roots of Middle East terror. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons. Stratton, J. (2009). International Law. Hot Topics. State Library of New South Wales. Continue Reading...

Muslim Americans and the Impact Of September 11th

issue of Islamaphobia became more pronounced and anti-Muslim immigration policies began to be discussed as a matter of national security.[footnoteRef:2] As -- has shown, the media has been complicit in both demonizing the Muslim community in America and promoting a view of American immigration policy that is anti-Muslim.[footnoteRef:3] This paper will show that the changes in U.S. immigration policy post 9-11 have negatively affected American Muslims in several ways as a result of inherently racist legislation specifically targeting all Muslims regardless of whether they are U.S. citizens or not. [1: Jigyasu, R. "Defining the Definition for Addressing the 'Reality',"… Continue Reading...

Nigeria Boko Haram and African Terrorism

Boko Haram to provide alternative counterterrorism solutions. Anyadike, N.O. (2013). Boko Haram and national security Challenges in Nigeria; Causes and Solutions. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development 4(5): Retrieved: http://rguild.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Boko-Haram-and-National-Security-Challenges-in-Nigeria-Causes.pdf This article is helpful for positioning Boko Haram in terms of globalized Islamic terrorism. The author shows how Boko Haram's 2009 uprising "set a precedent," and showed how a specifically Nigerian brand of Islamic fundamentalism was competing with secular Nigerian institutions. Economic disenfranchisement, "party politics and politics of anxiety," and desperate politicians have fomented the anti-government sentiments among northern Nigerians, and Islamic leaders have remained relatively "ambivalent" to the group… Continue Reading...

Moral Issues with Internet Privacy

most countries' governments to tap web traffic under their national security schemes.Whilst the exposure of the national security Agency's actions in America caused citizens to voice privacy-related concerns, a number of conservative thinkers felt it was necessary to have such an invasive agency in place to safeguard them against cybercrime. Clearly, just like with every other ethical quandary, internet privacy's story has two sides -- that of users who relinquish sensitive private information and of those who store it (What Are the Moral Issues with Internet Privacy?). Works Cited Schwartz, Mattathias. "Cyberwar for Sale." Magazine. The New York Times,… Continue Reading...

Pnac the Osp and Iraqs Wmds

and an Iraqi intelligence official" were trumpeted by Vice-President Dick Cheney and Lewis Libby (Cheney's national security advisor) -- "even though [CIA Director George] Tenet had proved that Atta was in the United States at the time of the alleged meeting."[footnoteRef:9] Tenet was not the only one to attempt to put these rumors to rest. [6: John Davis. Presidential Policies and the Road to the Second Iraq War. (VT: Ashgate, 2006), 51. ] [7: Israel Shahak, Oded Yinon, The Zionist Plan for the Middle East (Association of Arab-American University Graduates), 1-26; Oliver Stone, Peter Kuznick, The Untold History of… Continue Reading...

Addressing the Budget Deficit Problem

the deficit would be exploding as a result of wars and national security growth in the post 9/11 world -- and following the banking implosion of 2008 in the wake of the housing bubble crisis, bailouts would further increase the deficit, putting Americans even further on the hook (Burton, 2016). If anything, these decades showed that Congress was not really doing anything to reduce the deficit: its actions were impotent and the outcomes evident -- the deficit has increased dramatically. Congress is simply dysfunctional (Binder, 2015). The budget does not exist in a vacuum. The deficit is the result… Continue Reading...

Constructivism Theory in International Politics

Constructivist theory is one of the theories of the international relations emerged in the 1990s posing a challenge to the dominant liberal and realist theoretical paradigms. By taking different theoretical approaches to viewing the international systems, constructivist theory emphasizes on the material objects "rather than the mere existence of the objects themselves". (Cristol, 2011 p 1), for example, nuclear weapons in North Korea, and the United Kingdom may be identical materially, however, they possess different meaning to the US policy makers. Moreover, constructivists place a greater emphasizes on identity, norm development and idealist powers than other theoretical paradigms in international… Continue Reading...

Katz V United States

well as objectively realized by the overall society (Iannacci, 2015). Justice White’s concurrence called for an exception linked to “ national security”, to the Supreme Court ruling. Justices Brennan and Douglas also expressed a strong response in their shared concurrence. Justice Black, the only one to disagree (being forever a steadfast textualist), maintained that Amendment IV’s plain text failed to include electronic surveillance. He asserted that the Amendment didn’t create any general right to authorize the Court to freely hold all privacy-violating aspects as unconstitutional. History establishes that the freedom of reposing these powers at court is dangerous. Continue Reading...

Apple Vs Federal Government

move has led to a fierce battle between Apple and the federal government, with the latter citing national security concerns. The government's concerns over national security have gained further momentum following the discovery that one of the masterminds of the December 2015 San Bernardino terrorist attack owned an iPhone 5C (Stavridis). Unable to unlock the device due to Apple's strong encryption software, the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) sought the intervention of the courts to compel Apple, under the premise of All Writs of 1789, to assist in gaining access to the device. Apple strongly defied the order, reiterating… Continue Reading...

President Trump's First Day

that is starkly divergent from that laid down by Obama. He appointed important national security members and embarked on his mission to implement the daring, typically rash, promises he made during his campaign (Berger, 2017). On the evening of the first day, he signed an EO (executive order) that instructed agencies to alleviate ACA's burdens. Reince Priebus, the White House Staff Chief, instructed agencies as well, to enforce a regulatory freeze instantly. Trump, at the inaugural address, stated that it was now time to take action and not stick to empty words. As is typical of him, he fiercely… Continue Reading...

Impact Of Syrian Refugee Crisis on Marketing Arena

concerns for European governments, especially in terms of increased fiscal spending and national security due to the possibility of harbouring Islamic terrorists. From a business perspective, however, the crisis presents opportunities for growth, mainly from increased labour availability and a larger market for goods and services. Access to a larger market is a particularly important benefit for European businesses and industries given increased market saturation in Europe. To fully benefit from this opportunity, European businesses will have to adjust their marketing strategy to accommodate the preferences of the new market. References Cassidy, J. (2015, November 18). The economics of… Continue Reading...

Security Leader in a Military Organization

to issues such as personnel motivation and retention, capacity building, and veteran welfare. Yet, military organizations must constantly ensure national security. Navigating the increasingly complex security environment requires military leaders to have certain qualities. This paper discusses these qualities. Attention is particularly paid to situational leadership, integrity, people skills, effective communication, time management skills, teamwork, coping with stress, succession planning, and service leadership. Situational Leadership The fundamental idea behind situational leadership is that there is one-size-fits-all style of leadership (Bertocci, 2009). The leader adjusts their leadership style to fit the circumstance at hand -- the task to be accomplished… Continue Reading...

Military Management and the Agency Problem

At the same time, the military's role in protecting national security means that its operations are by definition not necessarily public knowledge and so communication and decision making occur without public oversight. The agency problem in the military may work its way out in different ways depending on the situation. Occasionally principals may turn directly to the President and senior advisors, as in major national security crises. The intimate relationship between military and executive branch is more open to problems than the more formalized and bureaucratic relationship that typically exists with Congressional oversight (Petrina, 2005). In some ways, military… Continue Reading...

The Impact Of Legislation on Violence

and found it to contain a number of risk factors that could exacerbate national security, national economic stability, and national cultural identity (Czech Ministry, 2016). The worry of the Czech Republic, much like those in America who view firearms not only as a right but as a deterrent to violence, is that new legislation will further destabilize the member state's sense of sovereignty, sense of stability, and sense of order. This paper uses this critical point in time to attempt to evaluate the role that legislation should play in the discussion of how firearms should be regarded and regulated… Continue Reading...

Is Mandatory Military Service a Good Idea

upon mandatory military service at one point or another in order to maintain national security (Finley, 1981). Throughout the Middle Ages, the nations of the West required mandatory military service of its populace in exchange for certain rights. Even today, states such as Israel require that all able-bodied citizens serve in the Israeli military for a number of years -- primarily because Israel feels that its security is at stake. Considering that America can be said to be in a similar position, what with the War on Terrorism continuing to this day, it stands to reason that mandatory military… Continue Reading...

Crimes Against Property

making use of the internet to perpetrate these particular crimes, which can cause a threat to national security and at the same time place consumers at risk. Moreover, the augmentation of the crimes against intellectual property have been instigated by the emergence of e-commerce as well as the globalization of commerce. This is owing to the fact that it significantly altered the manner in which counterfeit products and goods reach consumers. In the contemporary, the FBI works in tandem with its different partners in law enforcement together with the private sector to deal with and percent crimes against intellectual… Continue Reading...

Guantanamo Bay Essay

year. For instance, according to Eichenwald (2014), “Macho preening does not enhance national security. Nor does lying. Or flushing away hundreds of millions of dollars. But somehow such nonsense has become accepted dogma among America's political conservatives when it comes to the Guantanamo Bay detention center” (p. 37).  Certainly, the American taxpayers deserve to know how the tens of millions of dollars being spent on the Guantanamo Bay base each year and what impact all of these resources are having on the global war on terror, and having learned the accurate information about what goes on at the base,… Continue Reading...

Edward Snowden Essay

on Edward Snowden and how his high-profile actions adversely affected the work of the national security Agency (NSA). An analysis of what the NSA was doing prior to the leaks and how it collects intelligence information now is followed by an examination concerning what Snowden leaked and why. Finally, a discussion concerning whether the U.S. government violated Snowden’s constitutional rights is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning this issue in the conclusion. Background of the Issue Beginning in June 2013, Edward Snowden, a computer analyst working for the national security Agency began leaking thousands… Continue Reading...

Torture and Interrogation Essay

former vice president supported the use of torture in these instances because of the importance of the intelligence to national security, the harsh reality is that even the more benign types of torture that have been used in the global war on terrorism can be regarded as inhumane and humiliating. For instance, according to the former chief of training at the Navy's Survival, Evasion, Resistance and Escape (SERE) school, waterboarding is a "controlled drowning" that "occurs under the watch of a doctor, a psychologist, an interrogator and a trained strap-in/strap-out team."7  The severity of this interrogation method may not… Continue Reading...

Gender Neutrality in the Military Women Combat

main methods of improving combat readiness. The primary goal of all militaries is to protect national security, and national security hinges on a cohesive armed forces. Good leadership is critical to a strong military. As more women serve in combat roles, more women will also be serving in top positions of power in the military. In fact, one of the most fruitful and positive repercussions of gender integration in combat positions will be the long-term effects on promoting women to leadership positions. Furthermore, women already serve, and already die in the line of duty and in leadership roles. Women… Continue Reading...

National Security Impact Of Immigration Policy

Immigration Policies as a Tool for national security Of late, societal apprehension towards immigrants, criminal behavior, and terrorism have intensified, giving rise to concerns regarding the American migrant system’s efficacy in maintaining the safety of the nation’s people. Recent events revolving around crimes, weaponry crossing national boundaries and foreign- born people has triggered a series of reactions with the most intense ones demanding a sealing of borders, barring migration for individuals hailing from high- risk foreign territories, and putting a stop to refugee resettlement. Theory of Migration Migration represents mankind’s story from the outset to the current age. It… Continue Reading...

Organizational Culture and National Culture Of Automakers Comparison

Overview Many countries developed their own automobile industries, and did so in order to create jobs, for national security reasons, and simply because shipping cars overseas was impractical for much of the 20th century. This paper will look at three major automobile manufacturers, one each from Europe, Japan and America, to examine the differences and similarities between them. Each company evolved differently, and did so on the basis of both national culture and in terms of the markets in which they operated. The companies studied are Ford, Hyundai and Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi. The latter makes a nice case study because… Continue Reading...

The Us Grant Programs for Emergencies

and devises governmental continuity plans in the event of threats to national security (Burns, 2006). Ever since its institution, the agency has directed various authorities which facilitate its role as the central federal, monetary and technical support source in the emergency management domain (Anderson, 2002). The different kinds of aid the agency offers include training and educational initiatives for improved non-federal authority response, grants, mobile communication, and food, shelter and other material for helping disaster victims fulfil their pressing needs (Burns, 2006). While the agency does not exert much regulatory power, its underlying directives empower it to institute standards… Continue Reading...

Future Of the Wto

a zero-sum victory is always palpable, controlling for this outcome may be impossible. References Ahmed, S. & Bick, A. (2017). Trump’s national security strategy: A new brand of mercantilism? Retrieved from http://carnegieendowment.org/2017/08/17/trump-s-national-security-strategy-new-brand-of-mercantilism-pub-72816 Bloomberg. (2017). China’s Silk Road cuts through some of the world’s riskiest countries. Retrieved from https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-10-25/china-s-new-silk-road-runs-mostly-through-junk-rated-territory Brown, C. (2017). Will the Proposed US Border Tax Provoke WTO Retaliation from Trading Partners? Retrieved from https://piie.com/system/files/documents/pb17-11.pdf Gonzales, A. (2017). Govt pushing for inclusive globalization at WTO meet. Retrieved from http://www.manilatimes.net/govt-pushing-inclusive-globalization-wto-meet/367928/ Lamy, P. (2012). Emerging economies have shifted the balance of power in world trade. WTO. Retrieved from https://www.wto.org/english/news_e/sppl_e/sppl258_e.htm Lohr, S. (2016).… Continue Reading...

The Trump Travel Ban

within the country. “Courts were justifiably skeptical of the idea that legitimate national security considerations, as opposed to religious biases or political motives, drove the first version of the travel ban.” (University) This is not progress and feels like a step back from the efforts made to create equality in recent years. To racially discriminate, to discriminate based on religion is immoral and illegal. To have a Government that promotes such illegal actions is reprehensible. They say it is all for the safety of the American people, like the measures taken by Former President George W. Bush after the… Continue Reading...

Private Security Vs National Security

between private and national. However, the perception that private security forces are somehow inferior to national security forces should be eradicated by the fact that in most cases these private security forces are comprised of ex-military and are formed alongside or under military industrial firms that can supply technology and weaponry required for providing military-grade security services. That kind of service background, along with training and experience in operating crime scenes, investigating bomb threats, and securing buildings, maritime operations, and airport facilities in the face of terroristic risk, place private security at a top-tier level right alongside national securityContinue Reading...

Joint Operations

this concept “migrated to positions near the top of the U.S. national security agenda.” In essence, there are three kinds of potential partners in capacity building efforts that have been identified by Marquis et al. 2010. These are coalition partners, regional leaders, and indigenous partners. The authors define a coalition partner as “a willing provider of significant stability operations-related capability in support of coalition operations outside the nation’s own boarders” (Marquis et al. 2010). In essence, such a partner, as the authors further point, out ought to be internally stable, have a strategic ‘chemistry’ or rapport with the U.S.,… Continue Reading...

Environmentalism and Some Positive and Negative Trends

that environmental problems are not just about climate change and impacts like natural disasters, but about national security too. Wars could easily be fought over access to water. Natural disasters or droughts could lead to mass migration and environmental refugee crises. The global scale of environmental degradation aside, pollution at the local level is impacting public health and lowering quality of life. Adebobola (n.d.) notes that urban centers are not the only places impacted by pollution. Water pollution can affect not just areas with high population densities but also rural regions. Polluted water can also impact the integrity of… Continue Reading...

How the Internet Has Changed Society

towards population migration and geographic independence. Finally, the Internet presents new challenges in terms of cybersecurity, terrorism, and national security. The Impact of the Internet On Society Increased Dependency on Technology Just less than twenty years ago, only 4% of the world was online; now about 50% of the world is online (Rainie & Anderson, 2017, p. 1). The number of people using the Internet increases, although penetration is likely to be slower in developing countries with poor infrastructure development. Overall, the Internet has increased dependency on technology at almost every level of society. Governments, public utilities, and all… Continue Reading...

Immigration Essay

new legislation, any undocumented immigrant who poses a “risk to public safety or national security” qualifies as a priority” (Bendix, 2017). While the Obama Administration sought to prioritize the capture of criminal illegals, especially those involved in gangs and organized crime, Trump decided to widen the net and used such priority on most illegal immigrants. As to why many of these arrested illegals have not been deported, the backlog experienced by the courts serve as the main reason. With more cases added thanks to the new arrests, the immigration court system has slowed down, keeping deportations at a stand-still.… Continue Reading...

President Donald Trump Essay

Medicaid Services; Don McGahn as White House Counsel; K.T. McFarland as Deputy national security Advisor; Betsy DeVos as Secretary of the Department of Education; Nikki Haley as the U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations; Mike Pompeo as CIA Director; Jeff Sessions as Attorney General; Michael Flynn as national security Advisor; Steve Bannon as Chief Strategist; and Reince Preibus as Chief of Staff. Repealing Obamacare was one of Trump’s major campaign promises and his choice of Tom Price, a very vocal Obamacare opponent, suggested that he intended to keep that promise.  However, his choice of Seema Verna as the administrator… Continue Reading...

Russian Meddling in U.s. Election Essay

that Russia may have managed to breach some U.S. voting systems.  According to a document leaked by a national security Agency employee, Russian military intelligence executed a cyberattack on at least one U.S. voting software supplier (Bump 2017).  This allegation is especially important given that election day results in several key districts throughout the United States had results that were substantially different from poll results in the days prior to the election and from exit poll results the day of the election.  If these voting systems were compromised, then Russia did not just manage to exert influence on the… Continue Reading...

Robert Mueller Investigation Essay

investigations in the former chairman for the Trump campaign, Paul Manafort, and Trump’s former national security Advisor, Michael Flynn.  While the focus of the investigation has been on election interference and collusion with Russia, it has also investigated possibly related areas, such as hush-money payments made by people connected to the Trump campaign to various individuals who have claimed sexual relationships with Trump.  I Essay Hook While President Trump or his surrogates have repeatedly called the Mueller Investigation a witch-hunt and suggested it has no foundation, the reality is that Mueller has not only found enough evidence to indict… Continue Reading...

Whether Immigration Is a Problem or Not

the United States, immigrants participate in the civil service and military sectors to protect national security and promote the common welfare. Immigrant communities can advocate for themselves and human rights, preventing racist discourse from dominating the public consciousness. Immigrants also contribute to the companies they start, or the companies they work for, creating a robust economy. Finally, immigration is not a problem because it builds both economic and cultural capital. Economic capital is built through immigrant contributions to the economy in their labor and their entrepreneurship. Immigrants directly build cultural capital by introducing arts, music, food, and business ideas… Continue Reading...

The Active Shooter Crisis in America

nevertheless important to acknowledge the reality that active shooters present a major threat to national security and to respond accordingly. Myths abound regarding active shooters, so one of the most important elements of a proactive response strategy is to reduce misinformation. First, not all active shooters are ideologically driven, but many are. Second, the majority of active shooters over the past several years have shared in common several demographic characteristics including being white males in their 30s, either single or divorced, unemployed, with a low level of education and a history of mental illness (Capellan 407). Yet beyond this,… Continue Reading...

United Kingdom Freedom Of Expression Within the Social Media

of killing a person, how to sabotage the government, etc. In the past, classified information that could threaten national security has also been leaked, with the most notorious of such leaks being the one by Edward Snowden (Scaife 2017). Conclusion In the final analysis, it is important to note that the relevance of promoting freedom of expression within social media in the U.K. cannot be overstated. This is more so the case given the social benefits that accrue when people are free to express their views online freely and without any fear of reprisal. These benefits have been clearly… Continue Reading...

Negotiating Peace in the Middle East

and collecting profits from pumping oil and gas to Europe, and 2) expanding their own territory and national security (Engdahl, 2014). As an ally of Israel, the U.S. is heavily leaning towards supporting regime change and has so in the past with respect to Syria. However, now that Russia and Iran have emerged as defenders of Assad and have helped to drive back ISIS and the U.S.-supported rebels, the game has changed substantially and regime change no longer seems possible save for an all-out war between world powers U.S. and Russia. In order to get these various countries to… Continue Reading...

Will Congress End the War on Terror

the new Office of Homeland Security to help confront a new threat to national security in the first step of what became the War on Terrorism (Select Committee on Homeland Security, 2004). One week earlier, Congress had signed off on the Authorization for Use of Military Force (AUMF), allowing the president broad scope for using military force against countries or organizations who “planned, authorized, committed, or aided” terrorism (Ackerman & Hathaway, 2011). 17 years and more than $2 trillion later, the War on Terrorism continues with no sign of easing up (Amadeo, 2018). Though President Trump ran a campaign… Continue Reading...

Social Media in the Uk Promoting Freedom Of Expression

laws which limit people’s ability to freely express themselves in the name of fighting crime and advancing the national security agenda (Dimbleby, 2015). However, as several authors have pointed out in the past, hate speech ought not to be used interchangeably with freedom of expression (Klang and Murray, 2005, p. 44). In that regard, therefore, freedom of speech and hate speech should be distinguished and sanctions adopted for the latter, not the former. Hate speech, according to the Council of Europe (2018), has no assigned definition. However, it could be seen as a “broad discourse that is extremely negative… Continue Reading...

Differences Between Proprietary and Contract Security

When considering their security needs, businesses will be faced with whether to develop an in-house, proprietary team or to outsource their security to a contractor. There are significant differences between contract security services and proprietary security, as well as costs and benefits associated with each. With proprietary services, the company can control and monitor all their security needs, change security strategies as needed, and conduct all training in-house. Security personnel are also directly reporting to the company, creating a safer and more internally cohesive security strategy. Yet few companies can afford to develop a security staff from scratch, maintain that… Continue Reading...

Critical Infrastructure Security Information Technology

strategic planning interventions for these sectors, with voluntary compliance expected and counted upon to preserve national security interests. Hardware manufacturers and the members of their supply chains, software developers, and service providers all fall under the general rubric of information technology critical infrastructure (GAO, 2017). Various vulnerability assessment methods can be used to evaluate the nation’s information technology critical infrastructure. One assessment tool is the Infrastructure Survey Tool offered by the Department of Homeland Security. This tool is a web-based security survey that focuses mainly on physical facilities and is therefore limited in scope. A systems dynamics approach uses… Continue Reading...

Key Resources Critical Infrastructure

mission of CIKR (Moteff & Parfomak, 2004). The continuity and protection of CIKR is fundamental for national security, safety, vitality, lifestyle and public health. Critical infrastructure can be understood as the systems, networks and assets, virtual or physical (Fisher & Norman 2010). Critical infrastructure is quite fundamental to a nation to the extent that their destruction or incapacitation may cause a devastating impact on public health, national security, safety, or a combination of all (Moteff & Parfomak 2004). Critical infrastructure sectors include: Food and Agriculture: This sector can be understood as the national animals, feeds, and feeds supply chain… Continue Reading...

Critical Infrastructure Protection Using Computers in Modern Society

the successful protection of critical infrastructure. According to the Department of Justice, any unpermitted intrusion into a critical national security system by an individual or a group of individuals is a crime (Sharp, 1998). It is the responsibility of all levels of governments in the United States to prevent unauthorized intrusion into critical systems. Critical infrastructure security is therefore the responsibility of all stakeholders. There are quite a number of prevention initiatives that have been used over the years to protect critical infrastructure. The initiatives are aimed at ensuring that relevant agencies, local and state governments, and private actors share… Continue Reading...

The Importance Of Communications As a Critical Infrastructure

11 and the creation of the DHS, swift action was taken to synergize national security efforts and interests. The National Strategy redefines the meaning and definition of critical infrastructure and key assets, offering guidance to individual sectors for risk management, risk mitigation, information sharing, and more (Erbschloe, 2004). Moreover, the National Strategy takes into account the diversity of its audience, recognizing that a large number of stakeholders in critical infrastructure and key assets are in the private sector. This means that the Department of Homeland Security plays a more active role now in monitoring any critical infrastructure or key… Continue Reading...

Defence and National Strategy

and tactical objectives (Bush, 2002). The Air Force plays a big role in national security. Some of the critical capabilities that determines what the Air Force is able to provide for a nation include: action freedom in air, space and cyberspace; power projection; air diplomacy; global situational awareness; and military support to civil authorities. The above mentioned capabilities are divided into three parts; one that defines it, one that develops a national strategy vision and one that describes its shocks – highlights the strengths and weaknesses of each capability (Gates, 2009). Certain recommendations have been made to help the… Continue Reading...

Us Foreign Policy and the Use Of American Military Power

the NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), Joint Chiefs of Staff, and NSA ( national security Agency) (Rosen, 2003). The Defense Department’s jurisdiction largely covers the sizable quantity of military-devoted tax money. During the latter part of the 90s, its yearly budget was more than 250 billion dollars. Further, over three million individuals (defense force members as well as civilians) were in the Department’s employ. The figure for the year 1998 was: 480,721 individuals actively serving within the US Army, 377,039 working for the Naval Forces, 365,639 Air Force employees, and 173,031 employed as Marine Corps members (Deutsch, 1997). The… Continue Reading...

The Reagan Administration U S Diplomatic Relations with the Uk Throughout the Falkland War

SOUTH ATLANTIC, 1981–1984, (November 4, 1982). Office of the Historian “Note From the President’s Assistant for national security Affairs (Clark) to President Reagan” in FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES, 1981–1988, VOLUME XIII, CONFLICT IN THE SOUTH ATLANTIC, 1981–1984, (May 5, 1982). Office of the Historian “Telegram From the Embassy in Argentina to the Department of State” in FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES, 1981–1988, VOLUME XIII, CONFLICT IN THE SOUTH ATLANTIC, 1981–1984, (April 27, 1982). Office of the Historian.   Continue Reading...

Uae and Japan Relations

and other Southeast Asian nations rather than its own national security interests (Lind, 2014). In addition, this also means that the UAE and Japan will remain heavily dependent on protection by the U.S. Navy, especially in the hotly contested Straits of Hormuz in the Persian Gulf and Malacca between the Indian and Pacific Oceans and the Gulf of Oman which are important but congested transit routes for international oil and gas shipments. It is also important to note that the UAE and Japan are not global neighbors, but are rather located about 5,000 miles apart, meaning they are located… Continue Reading...

Radical Negotiation Posturing and Political Strategies Trump and Alinsky

the border wall, Trump has entirely blamed the opposition in their failure to honor the need for national security. Whether one agrees with him or not, he has consistently demanded during this current impasse that the wall is moral and just. However, Alinsky might critique some of Trump’s positioning regarding funding for the wall overall, given that during the campaign Trump claimed that he would force Mexico to build the wall using its funding, versus having to appropriate funds from Congress. This has made some of Trump’s posturing seem both practically and morally inconsistent, weakening his position. Alinsky stressed… Continue Reading...

Military Tribunals or Federal Courts Terrorism

the federal government’s ability to detain suspects indefinitely without a trial, ostensibly for “preventative” purposes proclaiming national security (Bennett & Litt, 2009, p. 1). However, Constitutional law is generally interpreted in ways that extend protections like Miranda rights to non-citizens of the United States (“Myth v. Fact: Trying Terror Suspects in Federal Courts,” 2018). Likewise, the United States has maintained offshore detention facilities, most notably the one at Guantanamo Bay, in order to conveniently and credibly circumvent the pesky legal constraints that would otherwise apply if detention centers sat more squarely on American soil even though technically such offshore… Continue Reading...

Theories and International Relations

Introduction International relations theory refers to the study of the theoretical perspective of international relations. It provides a framework which is conceptual upon which analysis of international relations is done. International relations theories can also act like pairs of colored sunglasses which only allows the person wearing it to see what’s relevant to the theory. There are three most prominent theories available - constructivism, liberalism and realism. International relations theories are divided into rationalist and reflectivist theories. Rationalist theories are those that focus on analysis that is principally of state level. Reflectivist theories incorporate the meanings of security in an… Continue Reading...

Improving Collaboration Between Agencies

states allocate so much more money than others do? Bush, G. W. (2002). The national security strategy of the United States of America. Executive Office of the President Washington DC. Department of Homeland Security. (2013). Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program. The Department. Hagen, J. D. (2006). Interagency collaboration challenges among homeland security disciplines in urban areas. Naval Postgraduate School Monterey CA. Institute of Medicine (US). Committee on Department of Homeland Security Workforce Resilience. (2013). A Ready and Resilient Workforce for the Department of Homeland Security: Protecting America's Front Line. National Academies Press. Office of Homeland Security. (2002). National strategy… Continue Reading...

Public Administration Government and Interagency Relationships

areas. Thesis for Naval Postgraduate School. http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a445405.pdf Marcella, G. (2004). national security and the interagency process. http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/army-usawc/strategy2004/17marcella.pdf United States Department of Justice (2017). Interagency crime and drug enforcement congressional submission. https://www.justice.gov/jmd/file/821331/download Continue Reading...

Can Nato Still Keep the Peace

Introduction The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was established in 1949 as part of the post-war effort among the nations of the West to work together to establish the peace. Throughout the Cold War, NATO was more of a symbol than an actual military alliance. It was not until the Cold War ended that the first joint military NATO operations were conducted. The first was in 1990 and the second in 1991—Anchor Guard and Ace Guard were NATO’s response to Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait. The Gulf War that followed, based on Bush’s trumpeting of the same kind of unsubstantiated claims… Continue Reading...

Trump Versus Hawaii

put their social, political and economic sectors in order. The law targets immigrants and refugees, citing from the national security Council memo, saying that every foreigner is a threat to national security until they are vetted. It is important for the refugees and immigrants to be protected under the first amendment stating America as the land of the free. It is also important to accept that most people are inclined to travel to the US for fear of being labelled suspects, but the constitution protects all of them from discrimination. Judge Derrick Watson issued a temporary restraining order barring… Continue Reading...

Development and Education Of Security Management

It Comes to Terrorism, How Prepared Are Local and State Agencies? RAND Corporation, national security Research Division. Fernandez, C. S., Noble, C. C., Jensen, E., & Steffen, D. (2015). Moving the needle: A retrospective pre-and post-analysis of improving perceived abilities across 20 leadership skills. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 19(2), 343-352. Williams, S. (2018). Workplace Violence Prevention: Providing a Safe Environment. California Hospital Association.   Continue Reading...

Future Of Policing Law Enforcement

in the 21st century will include responding to the ongoing challenges of threats to national security, too. Finally, a shift in norms and values may help reduce the mass incarceration epidemic and liberate police resources away from antiquated drug policies. References IACP (2018). 21st century policing blueprint. https://www.theiacp.org/projects/21st-century-policing-blueprint The President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing (2015). Final Report. https://cops.usdoj.gov/pdf/taskforce/taskforce_finalreport.pdf “What 21st Century Policing Means,” (2015). United States Department of Justice Archives. https://www.justice.gov/archives/opa/blog/what-21st-century-policing-means   Continue Reading...

Private Security and Homeland Security

suddenly come into being just after 9/11. On the contrary, collaboration between private security and national security has been ongoing for many years: “the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP), National Sheriffs’ Association, and ASIS International (formerly the American Society for Industrial Security) joined together, with funding from the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs’ Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), to launch “Operation Cooperation,” a national effort to increase collaborative efforts between the private sector, particularly private security, and state and local law enforcement agencies” (U.S. Department of Justice, 2005, p. vii). In other words, the… Continue Reading...