Pharmacology Essays


Different Types Of Studies Relating to Drugs

drugs of varying sorts, whether legal or illegal. The studies in question are either quantitative, qualitative, or a mixture of both. Of course, quantitative refers to the use of numbers and statistics to draw conclusions. Qualitative studies make use of feelings, thoughts and summaries. Indeed, this is less academic and objective in nature but it can explain the "why" of things rather than just the "what." Of course, many other studies are a mixture of the two. This annotated bibliography has two of each of the different types listed above and these were chosen to show that the types of… Continue Reading...

The Potency and Potentization Of Homeopathy

of Drugs & Homeopathic Scales of Dilution," (2009). HPathy. Retrieved online: http://hpathy.com/ pharmacology/preparation-of-drugs-homeopathic-scales-of-dilution/ "Understanding Homeopathy Potency," (n.d.). Michigan Medicine. Retrieved online: http://www.uofmhealth.org/health-library/hn-2230000 Continue Reading...

Traditional and Current Usage Of Lemon Balm Comparison

Lemon balm is a member of the mint family, and it is native to Europe and Mediterranean. The herb grows to a maximum height of 28-59 inches, and its leaves have a mild lemon scent that is similar to mint. In the summer the herb produces small white flowers that are full of nectar. However, lemon balm should not be confused with bee balm, although its white flowers do attract bees. It is the leaves of the herb that are used for treatment and also for flavoring. The herb is also used by beekeepers to attract and keep bees in… Continue Reading...

Audience Style Writing on Websites Webmd and Drugs.com

of audiences including both people who have a high degree of science literacy in pharmacology and those who do not. Persuasive Strategies Neither website actually aims to persuade. Both are designed to inform the public about health-related issues, with WebMD being more focused on diseases and conditions and Drugs.com stressing pharmacology and pharmacological interventions for diseases and conditions. Both websites persuade the public to consult with doctors before making any decisions based on what they read on the internet. Technical Language and Jargon WebMD aims to avoid jargon almost to the point of pandering to an undereducated American audience,… Continue Reading...

Effects Of Poverty on the Brain

.....backed by other research works, is chiefly grounded in Luby and coworkers' 2013 research project titled "The Effects of Poverty on Childhood Brain Development: The Mediating Effect of Caregiving and Stressful Life Events". It was obtained from EBSCOhost's database via a search activity, utilizing the expression "poverty and the brain". Poverty during the early childhood stage of life has an adverse effect on the development of the individual's brain, as indicated by school-goers' MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scans (Lipina & Colombo, 2009; Lende, 2012). That environmental stimuli serve to enhance the production of hippocampal cells within lab animals in comparison… Continue Reading...

Eating Disorders in Women from the Christian Point Of View

disorders include: inpatient and outpatient treatment, counseling, therapy, and pharmacology. Inpatient treatment is typically needed when a woman suffering from an eating disorder is having health complications due to the severity of the disorder and requires 24-hour care for a duration of time in order to have her condition stabilized and an approach to care developed that will help her and her family to address the disorder adequately. Outpatient care can be delivered using similar means and methods but is typically geared towards an individual who does not require intensive care or 24-hour oversight. Counseling and therapy are two… Continue Reading...

Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder

Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD) is a childhood disorder characterized by chronic irritability that interferes with academic and social functioning. Frequent outbursts and temper tantrums, at a frequency of about three times per week, are the most obvious behavior externalizations of DMDD, but to be diagnosed with the disorder, the child must also exhibit poor mood or irritability in between outbursts, too (National Institute of Mental Health, 2018). To differentiate DMDD from pediatric bipolar disorder, it is also essential that the child does not exhibit sustained mood elevation or nonepisodic mania (Beweka, Mayes, Hameed, et al, 2016). Moreover, the symptoms of… Continue Reading...

Obesity and Nursing Rates Of Care Community

assessments of risk status, assessment of patient attitudes and lifestyle, dietary and lifestyle recommendations, and also pharmacological interventions. pharmacology Especially at the preventative and early intervention stages, obesity can be managed through lifestyle changes alone. When the disease has progressed, however, and when genetic or biological factors are involved in the persistence of the disease, pharmacological interventions may be warranted or necessary. Research shows that pharmacological interventions combined with lifestyle changes are more effective than lifestyle changes alone for some patients (Li & Cheung, 2009). However, the global healthcare community understands that pharmacological interventions alone are rarely efficacious in disease… Continue Reading...

Assessing the Benefits Of Marijuana

1-THC) in heavy users of marijuana.". European Journal of Clinical pharmacology 37 (3): 273-7. PMID 2558889. 1989. Lichtman, A.H., Martin, B.R. Spinal and Supraspinal Components of Cannabinoid-Induced Antinociception. Journal of pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 258:517-523. 1991. Martin, B.R. "Cellular Effects of Cannabinoids." Pharmacological Reviews 38:45-74. pg. 46. 1986. Matsuda, L., Lolait, S., et al. Structure of a cannabinoid receptor and functional expression of the cloned cDNA. Nature 346:561-564. 1990. Newman, Tony. Connecting the Dots: 10 Disastrous Consequences of the Drug War. 01 February 2013. 13 June 2018. Pollan, Michael. The Botany of Desire: A Plant's-eye View of the World.… Continue Reading...

Asthma Treatment Options

practice. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Tindall, W. N., Sedrak, M., & Boltri, J. M. (2014). Patient-centered pharmacology: Learning system for the conscientious prescriber. F.A. Davis.   Continue Reading...

Using Drugs to Treat Hepatitis C

rats to investigate characteristics of effect and side effects. Regulatory Toxicology and pharmacology, 76, 21-29. Tabibian, J. H., O'hara, S. P., Splinter, P. L., Trussoni, C. E., & LaRusso, N. F. (2014). Cholangiocyte senescence by way of N?ras activation is a characteristic of primary sclerosing cholangitis. Hepatology, 59(6), 2263-2275. Tabibian, J. H., Varghese, C., LaRusso, N. F., & O'hara, S. P. (2016). The enteric microbiome in hepatobiliary health and disease. Liver International, 36(4), 480-487. Continue Reading...

Health Care and Obesity

in rats: increased body weight, body fat and triglyceride levels.  pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 97(1), 101-106. Malik, V. S., Popkin, B. M., Bray, G. A., Després, J. P., Willett, W. C., & Hu, F. B. (2010). Sugar sweetened beverages and risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care, https://doi.org/10.2337/dc10-1079 Stanhope, K. L., Medici, V., Bremer, A. A., Lee, V., Lam, H. D., Nunez, M. V., ... & Havel, P. J. (2015). A dose-response study of consuming high-fructose corn syrup–sweetened beverages on lipid/lipoprotein risk factors for cardiovascular disease in young adults–. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 101(6), 1144-1154. World Health… Continue Reading...

The Diagnostic Criteria and Treatments for Ptsd

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is classified under the rubric of Trauma and Stress related disorders in the fifth edition of the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The rubric of Trauma and Stress related disorders is itself relatively new, starting only with the DSM-5, with previous editions classifying the disorder as an anxiety disorder (Sascher & Goldbeck, 2016). Unlike anxiety disorders, all disorders classified under the Trauma and Stress umbrella are differentiated by the presence of a precipitating traumatic event (McGraw-Hill Education, 2012). In other words, one of the main diagnostic criteria of PTSD is… Continue Reading...

Bipolar Disorder

According to Geddes & Miklowitz (2013), the major breakthrough in treating bipolar disorder with pharmacology occurred in the 1970s with the use of lithium and chlorpromazine. Anti-epileptics such as valproate and carbamazepine were commonly used in in the 1980s and 1990s as a way of stabilizing mood (Geddes & Miklowitz, 2013). While these pharmacological approaches were found to be useful for some patients, not all patients responded equally well. Additionally, there were physical side effects which posed varying degrees of risk for these classes of drugs, such as renal failure in the case of lithium. Lithium still remains the… Continue Reading...