Public Health Essays


Zika Virus Essay

  Writing a paper about a complex issue such as the Zika virus can be a challenging enterprise, but the model essay presented below provides some useful guidance concerning how to get started, including developing an appropriate thesis, writing an outline and locating relevant content from reliable and legitimate sources. Writing an abstract, introduction and conclusion becomes easier once the preliminary research for the body of the essay is completed. Topics The Effects of Zika virus on pregnant women How the Zika virus is spread from country to country Identifying opportunities to reduce Zika virus infections Will the Zika virus Continue Reading...

How Does Heroin Impact a Caucasian Family

with the issue of heroin use, mostly consumed via injections. This is a major public health issue. Viral hepatitis, HIV and other dangers associated with heroin dependence, as well as social harm resulting from accompanying poverty and crime, exceed those of almost all other drugs used. A majority of Caucasian households are indirectly as well as directly impacted by the aforementioned diseases. Increased pureness and decreased drug costs are potential factors contributing to the trend of decreased age of first-time consumption and increased initiation into habitual consumption in the Caucasian population. As heroin dependence can be successfully cured, primary… Continue Reading...

Vapeusa Marketing Campaign Through Ecommerce

and use to promote itself alongside. This is the case, for example with the public health England (2015) report on vaporizers being 95% less harmful than tobacco smoking -- or there are reports like the one by Goodman (2013) which shows that the market for vaping tech is high and growing: all of this is like gunpowder in the eCommerce business's barrel, ready to help blast the product out to the consumer. Good reports from external agencies and news services are like gifts that enable the company to develop itself in a better light by appealing to other authorities… Continue Reading...

Ethical Principles and Code Of Conduct Among Psychologists

(2016). Bullying Victimization and Racial Discrimination among Australian Children. American Journal of public health, 106(10), 1882-1884. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2016.303328 This article addresses a social issue on bullying which has often been attached to racial discrimination in many societies today. The article finds out that discrimination takes advantage of bullying and often leads to consequential effects among the young people. The article is significantly relevant in seeking ways to protect children from discrimination and abuse. The article applies to social psychology in that it addresses an issue in the field of social setting and cohesion (Priest et al., 2016). Huang, F. L.,… Continue Reading...

Working Women and Breastfeeding

issue and be a major contributor to a large number of working mothers' decision to prematurely quit breastfeeding. public health drives focused at encouraging breastfeeding among working mothers call for breastfeeding support by employers, highlighting two major potential advantages to them. Firstly, absenteeism will reduce among breastfeeding moms, as breastfed infants' immune systems are stronger and they fall ill less often. Secondly, employee retention will improve among organizations supporting breastfeeding at the workplace. A key challenge, however, is the work setting's potential endogeneity, particularly that of facilities for breastfeeding. Women with high breastfeeding propensity may opt for jobs at… Continue Reading...

Nursing Practitioner

the New Chronic Disease Guidelines in Urban Mongolia: A Qualitative Study. International journal of environmental research and public health, 13(4), 407. Family Nurse Practitioner. (2016). Retrieved September 21, 2016, from http://www.graduatenursingedu.org/family-nurse-practitioner/ History of nurse practitioners in the United States. (2014). Retrieved September 21, 2016, from https://onlinenursing.simmons.edu/nursing-blog/history-nurse-practitioners/ Hittle, K. (2010). Understanding certification, licensure, and credentialing: A guide for the new nurse practitioner. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 24(3), 203-206. Kivumbi (2011). Difference Between Legislation and Regulation. retrieved September 21, 2016, from http://www.differencebetween.net/miscellaneous/difference-between-legislation-and-regulation/ Licensure vs. Certification (n.d.). Retrieved September 21, 2016, from https://www.fsmtb.org/media/1128/member-boards-agencies-member-services-government-relations-resources-licensure-v-certification.pdf Wandrei, K. (2016). The difference between the certification… Continue Reading...

Hiv and Aids

156,300, had not yet been diagnosed (CDC, 2015). How the public health Topic Identified is Addressed at the Federal, State and Local Levels? Various federal and state departments have responded favorably to the fight against HIV / AIDS. Federal activities include prevention, treatment and care provision services. Federal bodies also do research in areas concerning HIV / AIDS. With several departments in the federal government involved in some way in the fight, expertise from several fields is availed to the cause. There is need for more coordination between the federal bodies and departments so that common goals are achieved instead… Continue Reading...

Public Health Case Study

What is public health? What are the Goals and Values of public health? public health Significance and Personal Health public health refers to the science of safeguarding and improving family and community health by promoting a healthy way of living, researching into injury and disease prevention, and identifying and controlling communicable diseases in a timely manner. On the whole, public health's focus is the safeguarding of whole populations' health, right from local communities to entire nations and world regions. public health workers… Continue Reading...

Mcardie Estate Vs Cox

including incarceration. However, in actual practice, they function as normal regulatory statutes aimed at safeguarding public health. Financiers attempting to gain entry into the nation's healthcare market through acquisitions and mergers have to adhere to the federal-level Competition Act. The Competition Bureau must be alerted by entities if: The Canadian returns or asset value of a target firm surpasses 70 million dollars and if the collective Canadian returns or assets of the entities and their associates surpass 400 million dollars. The Bureau is empowered to block transactions if it deems the transaction to be capable of "substantially" preventing or… Continue Reading...

Trends in Healthcare

deficit; they also have a lot of common features that signal possible changes in the funding of programs for public health ( Kaiser Family Foundation, 2011). Such clinical and economic balance faces with higher medical costs. These are typically driven by technology elements and the widespread acceptance of genomics and solutions from biotechnology. Such changes could have significant impact on the care of patients and professional practice for clinicians. However, the new shift with focus on the value of clinical results will also provide space and opportunity for innovation among health care experts to modify their business models for… Continue Reading...

History Of Government Intervention in Tobacco Markets

tax increase, and this encourages government to increase taxes on tobacco, especially when combined with a public health objective as well (remember that government pays Medicare, Medicaid and the VA, so pays for a lot of health care for smokers). However, if the tax increases are high enough, people will stop smoking. This is particularly true of people who wish to stop smoking, and need incentive to do so. Further, tax increases can price cigarettes out of reach of young people, so that they never take up smoking in the first place. A study by the World Health Organization… Continue Reading...

Hiv, Aids, and Hp2020 Initiative

bisexual and gay males, non-Whites, etc.) represents an important HIV prevention-focused public health approach (healthypeople.gov, 2016). Individuals seeking HIV-related care may receive: • HIV prevention services • Antiretroviral therapy • Mental healthcare • Miscellaneous health services • Sexually transmitted disease testing and treatment (healthypeople.gov, 2016) Emerging Issues in HIV With growth in the share of HIV-infected individuals who know of their HIV+ status, HIV-targeted prevention approaches are gaining importance (healthypeople.gov, 2016). HIV-related prevention efforts revolve around: • Joining and continuing treatment. • Providing HIV-affected individuals' partners with preventive services • Increasing continuous HIV prevention intervention availability • Fostering broader… Continue Reading...

How to Judge a Business Idea

mirrored a trend that follows the growth of the fast food industry which represents a decline in public health. The development of high obesity rates in industrialized countries comes from a variety of different factors, but the availability of cheap and unhealthy food sources has definitely been a key piece of the equation. Americans have the lowest-cost food supply in the world and spend the lowest proportion of disposable income on food, but this has all come at a cost to the average American's health. One study examined the relationship between diet and colon cancer and used dietary histories… Continue Reading...

Aboriginal Perspective and the Secret River

to Country and Concepts of Wellbeing. International Journal of Environmental Research and public health, 10, 678 -- 698. Pettit, E. J. (2015). Aborigines' Dreaming or Britain's Terra Nullius: Perceptions of Land Use in Colonial Australia. Iowa Histrial Review, 5(1), 23 -- 60. Continue Reading...

Community Health

quantitative primary information is gathered first-hand via listening sessions, surveys, observation, and interviews (North Carolina Division of public health, 2010; U.S. DHHS, 1992; North Carolina Division of public health, 2010). Meanwhile, secondary information is gathered for some different purpose, or by some other individual, group or organization (Institute of Medicine, 2011). 2. Policy Development One main health promotion activity is a policy for public health, whose advancement necessitates accurate anticipation of the policy's health outcomes and influencing of policy process for ensuring the health outcomes are taken into consideration. Health impact evaluation represents an approach capable of helping meet… Continue Reading...

Public Health Law Case Study

public health core function that is principally addressed by the author is law. As pointed out by the author, public health law infrastructure that is sound is imperative for the reason that it institutes the powers and duties of government to safeguard injury and disease and promote the health of the population (Gostin, 2008). There are examples of how law is used in public health. To begin with, at a personal and individual level, this core function can educate, generate inducements, deter as well as punish.… Continue Reading...

Childrens Rights and Teacher Advocacy

new studies that might protect children from improper care and promote more positive results ( public health England, 2013). Some of these factors are: i. Maternal health -- the[[:blank:]]wellbeing of children and the wellbeing of their mothers were found to be intertwined (this does not make the influence of their fathers' wellbeing less important, but the study provided very little data on the specific influence of the fathers' wellbeing on the children's wellbeing) ii. Wellbeing in families and family relationships-getting along with members of one's family has been linked to increased good moods and reduced anxiety in children, and viewed… Continue Reading...

Racialized Violence and Police Brutality in Usa

Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 480-505. Gilbert, Keon L. and Ray, Rashan. "Why Police Kill Black Males with Impunity: Applying public health Critical Race Praxis (PHCRP) to Address the Determinants of Policing Behaviors and "Justifiable" Homicides in the USA." Journal of Urban Health, Vol. 93, Supp. 1, pp. 122-140. Makarechi, K. (2016). What the data really says about police and racial bias. Vanity Fair. Retrieved online: http://www.vanityfair.com/news/2016/07/data-police-racial-bias Troutt, David Dante. "Imagining Racial Justice in America." The Nation. 29 Dec, 2014. Retrieved online: http://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/39295435/IMAGINING_RACIAL_JUSTICE_IN_AMERICA.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAJ56TQJRTWSMTNPEA&Expires=1479418404&Signature=44fHry0sN8hb5XP0j10Izw%2B0EMk%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DIMAGINING_RACIAL_JUSTICE_IN_AMERICA.pdf Continue Reading...

Ethics in Engineering and Public Safety

ethic of public safety, given the direct and immediate impacts of pollution on individual and public health. Engineers have the ability to directly impact water quality and air quality, with possibly deleterious effects on public health. Social justice concerns may also play into the engineer's program, because of the link between manufacturing plant locations and socio-economic inequalities (Michelfelder & Jones, 2013). However, immediate toxins and pollutants are only one facet of the overall engineering ethics related to environmental justice and sustainability. The longer-term impacts of engineering on climate change and pollution also need to be considered part of professional… Continue Reading...

Community Planning Methods That Involve Legalization Of Recreational Marijuana

legalized the use of marijuana should embark on policies that will promote public health and ones that will monitor and control the production of marijuana. The message in this essay is to urge community leaders and planners to institute effective controls for the production and distribution of marijuana and its products and monitor taxation if they wish to realize the intended objectives. Background and Context of the Research California became the first state in the U.S. to legalize marijuana in 1996 through proposal 215. The state now has large formal groups of growers, processors and sellers of the product.… Continue Reading...

Return on Investment with Fall Prevention

costs. There would also be looking at partnerships like those with people in the public health sphere, people that are focused on aging (like the NCOA) and healthcare providers in general. Programs and services that would be looked at would include exercise programs, medication reviews, vision screening and home assessments. The reach of this data collection and review would necessarily encompass the actual adults that are 65+, consumers, healthcare providers, children of elderly adults, caregivers, community service providers, policymakers and state coalition makers. Finally, there are the aforementioned outcomes. The NCOA is prescient enough to know that some outcomes… Continue Reading...

Health Industry Professional Boards

professional organization chiefly engaged in publishing studies geared at advancing public health, in addition to advocating for licensed doctors' interests. It participates in the areas of Obamacare implementation, healthcare IT, Medicare/Medicaid, improvements in care delivery quality and patient safety, etc. Resident doctors, medical students, and all doctors are entitled to apply for AMA membership (Rouse, 2015). A summary of the functions of each of these boards, their primary focus, and what they do ANA The ANA represents the nation's lone full-service agency that speaks for the whole RN labor force in America. In all places, including the Congress, boardrooms,… Continue Reading...

Sea Treasures – Business Model

non-native species that are commercially appealing will present similar public health and environmental risks such as the poisonous fresh water stingrays. There is need to assess the threats and influence posed by the virtual and ecommerce communities that participate in the trade of ornamental fish varieties, and pursue measures for control of such trade (Jacobi & Magalhaes, 2010). Social marketing and digital media, is, perhaps the most revolutionary change that has occurred in the business world. Purchase decisions are now influenced by informed choices provided on a business website, product reviews and information shared on social media sites. The… Continue Reading...

Nursing License and Process

from the predominant use of these processes in the healthcare field, they are being used more and more in public health and many other regulated professions. Depending on the stream of healthcare, the processes of licensing and credentialing have varying terms of licensing and credentialing. It also depends on the particular local government or agency who may have additional norms to meet the local demands expected from the professionals. However, within the healthcare context, there are differences between licensing and credentialing as understood by the professionals and agencies ("Self-regulation of Professionals in Health Care," 2000). For example, licensing is… Continue Reading...

8 Issues Regarding Public Health in Brazil

Developing Country and Health: Enhancing public health in Brazil In Brazil, public health issues are similar to those in other developing and developed countries. For instance, just as obesity and diabetes is a problem of epidemic proportions in the U.S., so too is it in Brazil. Brazil's health care structure, however, is significantly different, with free health care for all citizens being available (the finer details of this policy are not as alluring as they may seem on the surface, as long wait times for health care can often be the result) (Fleury,… Continue Reading...

Hiv Aids Infrastructures Around the World

/ AIDS epidemic began as a regional problem but gradually became a global public health issue by the closing decade of the 20th century (Powers, 2016). The same forces that have driven globalization are believed to account for this growth in HIV / AIDS cases, and researchers have since termed the epidemic as "a disease of the global system" (Powers, 2016, p. 239). This paper reviews the relevant peer-reviewed literature as well as nongovernmental organizational resources to evaluate the adequacy of the public infrastructure developed in response to this global problem and a discussion concerning the most important needs… Continue Reading...

Qualitative and Quantitative Data Analysis

violence in the home: Exposure and experiences among married women, residing in urban Karachi, Pakistan. Ph.D. Dissertation Department Of public health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Ammons, S. K. & Edgell, P. (2007). Religious Influences on Work -- Family Trade-Offs. Journal of Family Issues, 28(6). 794-826. Ansari, S. A. (2011). Gender difference: Work and family conflicts and family-work conflicts. Pakistan Business Review, 13(2). 315-331. Anthias, F. (2013). Intersectional what? Social divisions, intersectionality and levels of analysis. Ethnicities, 13(1). 3-19. Anwar, M. & Shahzad, K. (2011). Impact of Work-Life Conflict on Perceived Employee Performance: Evidence from Pakistan. European Journal of… Continue Reading...

Crisis Situations

stake. FEMA may be subject to greater public pressure, leading to internal reorganization and even dismissal of some officials. public health and Safety In February 2016, Johnson & Johnson, a multinational firm involved in manufacturing medical devices as well as pharmaceutical and consumer packaged products, attracted the attention of the public following the verdict of a case involving one of its products with talcum powder. The judiciary ordered the firm was to pay $72 million in damages to the family of a woman whose death was linked to ovarian cancer caused by the powder. Following intense condemnation on social media,… Continue Reading...

Pornography Child Abuse and Coersion

depending on the situation. Treatment may need to focus on prevention in some situations, which is why public health officials can treat abuse as a public health issue and not as a private health issue alone. After all, child trafficking is as much a matter of public health concern as it is a matter of law enforcement. Pornography is also a public health issue, and should be legalized in order to shift its jurisdiction to the mental health industry instead of the criminal justice department. When children become involved in high risk sexual activity -- because they were coerced… Continue Reading...

Generalized Statement Of Purpose for Masters

My studies stimulated my desire to work in global public health, and soon it became apparent that my real passion is for the field of epidemiology. Epidemiology motivates me more than other fields because of the way it applies to the global and macro issues that are so important for public health management and policy. Although I have not yet determined if there is a specific disease or geographic area that I might be interested in researching, but I am keenly aware of health disparities worldwide and am interested in perhaps one day alleviating those health disparities in some… Continue Reading...

How Hong Kong Responds to Fitness Clubs

diverse population. References Adab, P., Macfarlane, D (1998) Exercise and Health -- New Imperatives for public health Policy in Hong Kong, Hong Kong Medical Journal, 4(4), 389-393. Cederstrom, C., Spicer, A (2015) The Wellness Syndrome, MA: Polity Pres. Chan, A (2014) Hong Kong Needs . . . Australasian Leisure Management, 104, 40-41. Chan, K (2017) Social Issue of Advertising, Hong Kong, City University of Hong Kong Press. Cheung, R., Woo, M (2016) Determinants of Perceived Service Quality: An Empirical Investigation of Fitness and Recreational Facilities, Contemporary Management Research, 12(3), 363-370. Clason, D. L., Dormody, T. J. (1994). Analyzing data measured by… Continue Reading...

Managing Quality Safety and Individual Performance in Healthcare

and implementation: developing a framework for TQM implementation in a healthcare setup. Science Journal of public health, 4(4), 271 Inamdar, N., Kaplan, R., & Bower, M. (2002). Applying the balanced scorecard in healthcare provider organizations. Journal of Healthcare Management, 47(3), 195-196. Janicak, C. (2010). Safety metrics: tools and techniques for measuring safety performance. 2nd ed. London: Government Institutes. Kaynak, E., & Rogers, R. (2013). Implementation of total quality management. 3rd ed. New York: Routledge. Niven, P. (2006). Balanced scorecard step-by-step: maximizing performance and maintaining results. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons. Continue Reading...

Aurora Colorado Theater Shooting After Action Report

Caldwell, S., Finklea, K., & McCallion, G. (2013). Public mass shootings in the United States: selected implications for federal public health and safety policy. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from http://journalistsresource.org/wp- content/uploads/2013/03/MassShootings_CongResServ.pdf Garrett, R. (2012). Lessons learned from Aurora. Retrieved from http://www.policemag.com/channel/swat/articles/2012/08/lessons-learned-from- aurora.aspx Kinsey, R. (2012). Lessons from Colorado: how mass shootings have changed police response and what citizens can learn. Retrieved from http://www.annarbor.com/news/crime/lessons-from-colorado/ Osher, C., Illescas, C., & Brown, J. (2014, October 8). Aurora theatre shooting report: breakdown between police and fire caused chaos. The Denver Post. Retrieved from http://www.denverpost.com/news/ci_26686299/aurora-theater-shooting-report-gives- 80-recommendations TriData Division. (2014). Aurora Century 16 Theatre Shooting:… Continue Reading...

Non Credit Programs on Workforce Education

During the Great Recession and Beyond, 2013). Research, Methodology and Results An investigation which placed a focus on general public health training requirements of regional public health staff and a more restricted array of proficiencies associated with training requirements in community health education was carried out by (Kies & Loos, 2013). The subcategory of public health workers who educate the community on health-related issues are referred to as community health educators. Other names used to refer to them are: "health educators" or "community health educators." Various settings in which they work include: K-12 school districts, public health departments, and health care… Continue Reading...

Federalism and States Rights Regarding Drugs

model shows that a federal decriminalization policy may be far better for public health and safety outcomes. A state-by-state decriminalization process is better than drug prohibition, but the federal war on drugs perpetuates social injustices. The war on drugs has directly caused mass incarceration and what Alexander (2012) calls the new Jim Crow because of racial disparities in enforcing drug laws nationwide. Drug prohibition undermines constitutional rights to privacy and freedom. Because legalized drugs allows for federal oversight, drug quality testing, and diversion of funds for public health, the Canadian policy is far more sensible than the states' rights… Continue Reading...

Community Contribution to Solving Existing Problem

deprived economically and disproportionately. There is no doubt that it is a great threat to public health. Multi-sector and multilevel prevention and management strategies are the best touted for resolving the problem (Taveras, et al., 2015). Obesity and overweight rates among black and Latino girls in high school and women in Boston are alarmingly high. Black men have been reported to indicate the highest rates of obesity. Although there is no data on the number of children affected in Boston, the national statistics show that Latino and black children show significantly high rates at a relatively early age. It… Continue Reading...

Veterans Mental Health Services

substance abuse. Indeed, approximately 22 veterans commit suicide every day (American public health Association [APHA], 2014). This paper focuses on this social justice problem, specifically highlighting the oppression faced by veterans with regards to access to mental healthcare, the ethical dilemmas associated with the problem, and policies enacted to address the problem. For Veterans, access to mental healthcare remains a major challenge, with veterans in rural areas as well as those facing financial difficulties being the most affected. For instance, reports indicate that 56-87% of military service members undergoing psychological distress following deployment do not get psychological help (APHA,… Continue Reading...

Ibm Operations Forecasting Technique

Goodman, M. (2013). Multivariate or Multivariable Regression? American Journal of public health, 103(1), 39-40. doi:10.2105/ajph.2012.300897 Statista (2016). Revenue of IBM worldwide from 1999 to 2015 (in billion U.S. dollars) Statista Inc. Continue Reading...

The Impact Of Legislation on Violence

One of the most comprehensive web sources available for firearms-related research is the site hosted by Sydney School of public health at the University of Sydney -- GunPolicy.org. The aim of this site has been to compile thousands of pages of data, charts and news related to firearms law, violence and guidance while promoting "the public health model of firearm injury prevention, as adopted by the World Health Organization's Global Campaign for Violence Prevention and the United Nations Programme of Action on small arms" (Alpers, 2017). The University of Sydney has, in this pursuit partnered with various organizations --… Continue Reading...

Young Drivers Speeding Intentions and Behaviors

The Theory of Planned Behavior. Retrieved from Boston University School of public health website: http://sphweb.bumc.bu.edu/otlt/MPH-Modules/SB/BehavioralChangeTheories/BehavioralChangeTheories3.html Sela-Shayovitz, R. (2008). Young Drivers' Perceptions of Peer Pressure, Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol and Drugs, and Involvement in Road Accidents. Criminal Justice Studies, 21(1), 3 -- 14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786010801972639. Simons-Morton, B. G., Ouimet, M. C., Zhang, Z., Klauer, S. E., Lee, S. E., Wang, J., et al. (2011). The Effect of Passengers and Risk-taking Friends on Risky Driving and Crashes/Near Crashes Among Novice Teenagers. The Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, 49(6), 587 -- 593. Continue Reading...

The American Prohibition Era

prohibition. Those that supported it saw the act as a victory for public health and ethics. Nonetheless, what may have seemed like a huge victory for morality, turned into a dangerous means of advancing and increasing the power of street gangs. "By eliminating legitimate suppliers of a commodity in high public demand, the state created a monopoly for illegitimate entrepreneurs. It was Prohibition that converted small, localized gangs into large, powerful, and wealthy regional and even national organized criminal syndicates." (Hagan 32) Street gangs produced and sold bootleg liquor that would then turn huge profits as customers bought regardless… Continue Reading...

Overall Health in Fargo North Dakota

nutrients contribute to malnutrition Ex. All infants and children seen at the local public health Clinic are referred to the nutritionist because of poor diets (X.Y. personal communication, date). Of infants measured, 60% were in the lower percent for their weight/height (X report, date). *These are factors that contribute to problem and outcomes. + Refer to appropriate sections of the database and relevant research of the findings in current literature. Data in the third column could be local, state, or national statistics. 3. Community Health Nursing Diagnoses: Based on your subjective and objective assessment findings above for both Weeks 1… Continue Reading...

External Business Environment from 3 Squares Restaurant

the effects of government intervention on the micro and macroeconomic environments. Significant political factors affecting include: public health policies are evolving especially in need to increase awareness towards discouraging the consumption of fast foods. Increased concerns about the calorie content of each food mean the restaurant has to shy away from high-calorie foods. Employment laws relating to employees safety and rights: The adoption of the Affordable Care Act means that the restaurant will have to provide health benefits to full-time employees; failure to this adoption risks the restaurant a $2,000 fine. Others include EEO, the right to work, wage and… Continue Reading...

Veterans’ Mental Health Problems and the Affordable Care Act

scare resources in case soldiers aren't ready for deployment (American public health Association, 2014). Therefore, commanders are coerced into pushing their subordinates to deploy, despite them lacking complete physical or psychological wellbeing. Such incentive systems play a role in maintaining the armed forces culture's current situation. Stigma leads to unwillingness to look for and accept assistance, together with a fear of being faced with negative societal repercussions. The aforementioned obstacles to care are recognized as graver than the VA system's innate institutional obstacles. Only four out of ten veterans suffering from psychological ailments avail themselves of mental healthcare facilities;… Continue Reading...

School Violence Essay

violent incidents in the United States has focused increasing attention on the causes of this public health threat and what types of response are most appropriate. The debate over the most appropriate responses to increased violence in American society has also extended to the nation’s schools. Although it has always been present to some extent, violence has become a major problem in the nation’s schools in recent years (Kelly, 2010; Killam & Roland, 2014). While the potential for enhanced awareness of the problem and improved reporting mechanisms may account for some of the reported increase in school violence in… Continue Reading...

The Benefits Of Crowdsourcing Medicine

medical blogs that ask for peer input (Sanghavi 1). Professional organizations and the government have effectively crowdsourced to create public health and public service publications that outline diagnoses and treatment for some diseases (Sanghavi 1). In fact, crowdsourcing may also be more effective at treatment interventions. Recent research has shown “groups of doctors outperform individuals not only in diagnosing problems but also in treating them,” (Sanghavi 1). Plurality breeds accuracy. Crowdsourcing medicine is the first step, after which the patient has the ability to take action armed with the knowledge received online. One of the benefits of crowdsourcing medicine… Continue Reading...

Improving Health Care for Native Americans

to insurance is also a barrier. Some tribes have decided to take control over their public health care delivery systems by contracting the functions of IHS, which has allowed some larger tribes to develop their own public health departments, becoming more mobile and able to meet the needs of their constituents more readily (Allison, Rivers & Fottler, 2007). A final recommendation is to focus more attention on preventative services. There are high costs associated with services to cure illness and injury – taking steps to improve health outcomes earlier in life, and reduce the incidence of things like substance… Continue Reading...

Why Parents Should Be Liable for Their Children's Bullying

that holding parents liable for their children’s bullying behaviors is the first realistic step in addressing this public health threat. Works Cited Darden, Edwin C. “Courts Join Crackdown on School Bullies: Bullying Has Proven Resistant to School Efforts to End the Practice; Now, the Courts Are Joining the Fight.” 2015, April. Phi Delta Kappan, vol. 96, no. 7, p. 76. “Facts about bullying.” U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2017, https://www.stopbullying.gov/media/facts/index.html. Issac, Matthew. “Ten additional Penn State students charged in hazing death of pledge.” The New York Times. 2017, November 13. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/11/13/us/penn-state-fraternity-hazing.html. Shaugnessy, Mary A. “Bullying: Definition and… Continue Reading...

Confidentiality Breaches & Informed Consent when Testing New Drugs

concerns on public welfare, and government’s need to protect the public health. While the medical fraternity believes that this landmark case took a toll on the mental health profession, it is important to acknowledge the nature of the current society and the essentiality of re-evaluating laws to ensure they remain relevant. People who are living with HIV/AIDS struggle in the current society marred with stigmatization. They mostly fight to psychological battles including fighting against friends and families discovering their HIV status and fighting against medical professionals who they entrust their confidential information regarding their health (Dapaah and Senah 42).… Continue Reading...

Public Health Officials Using Computers to Manage Outbreaks

sources collect data, they do not, do so, with public health objectives in focus (Denecke, 2017). The past few decades have seen tremendous changes in the world. There have been many and varied threats; from bioterrorism, influenza pandemics and the emergence of infectious diseases. There is also the issue of unforeseen population mobility which is among the reasons that triggered the development of public health surveillance systems. Such systems are invaluable tools in the detection and response to infectious disease outbreaks. However, the systems frequently fail to avail the required lead time promptly to enable response for the best… Continue Reading...

Assessments Of Personality Types and Careers

larger earnings potentials. Actuaries need a strong background in statistics, because their job is to analyze statistical data related to public health, mortality rates, accident rates, and any other variable that might be related to insurance or public policy. Goals include risk forecasting, or projections of liability costs. However, being an actuary is more than crunching numbers. Actuaries are responsible for making clear judgments based on the data, and need to think critically about the material. Actuaries’ judgments and decisions matter, which is another reason why this career field appeals to me. It is not just about generating numbers and… Continue Reading...

Healthcare Transcultural and the Amish Community

A largely insular community since their initial settlement in the United States, the Amish community presents unique challenges for healthcare workers. The Amish eschew modern technology, including many of the tools and techniques used in modern medicine. In fact, the Amish community also forbids higher education (Adams & Leverland, 1986). Misconceptions and misunderstandings about the Amish further complicate healthcare decisions and relationships between healthcare providers and Amish patients. For example, it is commonly assumed that the Amish “lack the preventive practices of immunizations and prenatal care,” (Adams & Leverland, 1986, p. 58). While the rates of immunizations are relatively low… Continue Reading...

Sexually Transmitted Diseases and How Automated Disease Diagnosis and Monitoring Can Help

ailments like gonorrhoea, granuloma, chlamydia, chancroid, syphilis, lymphopathia venereum and inguinale ( public health Law Research, 2014). Established by the California Department of public health (CDPH), the California Regulations and Reportable Disease Information Exchange refer to a safe system used for automated disease diagnosis and monitoring. A number of certain conditions and diseases are authorized by State regulations and rules to be stated by laboratories and healthcare providers to the state healthcare agencies. The mission CPDH pursues is the enhancement of the efficacy of surveillance exercises as well as the quick identification of health occurrences amid public via the gathering… Continue Reading...

The Us Grant Programs for Emergencies

efficient human and health services and promoting strong, constant scientific advancements to aid public health, social and medical services (Grants.Gov, n.d). ASPR (the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response) The ASPR Office under the HHS was established as part of the Pandemic and All Hazards Preparedness Act subsequent to Hurricane Katrina. The objective was to lead America in prevention, preparedness and response activities in relation to public health crises’ adverse health impacts (Lurie, 2015). Its focus includes: planning, preparedness, and response; development of federal crisis medical operation capacity; grants for reinforcing healthcare structure and healthcare organizational capacity in case… Continue Reading...

Suicide Among Psychiatric Patients

services (C)? This is an important avenue of research for evidence-based practice in the community, helpful from a public health perspective. However, methodologically such interventions are less feasible. 5. Does mindfulness meditation (I) reduce long-term risk factors and suicidal behaviors (O) among high risk psychiatric patients (P) versus those who do not participate in the meditation programs (C)? As with question three, this is a suitable line of inquiry, which could actually lead to evidence-based practice guidelines for psychiatric institutions. Therefore, I will select this PICO question for the remainder of my research. PICO Question: Does mindfulness meditation (I)… Continue Reading...

Obama’s First Year in Office

bring about increased attention among the public on the dangers of cigarettes to public health. Obama supported new ethics and transparency policies and made the Supreme Court more diverse by appointing a left-leaning Hispanic female judge to the bench (Antle, Loewe). Finally, what shows the extent to which Obama was truly viewed as a proponent of change in the White House is the fact that he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize on October 9th, 2009. While many Americans thought that Obama had not done anything yet to deserve this award, its reception indicated that the Nobel Committee viewed… Continue Reading...

Fracking Policy Analysis

Making decisions relating to the extent of extraction of natural gas regulation must incorporate safety, public health, the need for more energy and regulation bureaucracy. Research shows that, hydraulic fracturing; horizontal drilling and shale-gas extraction would gain from: 1. better scientific study and coordination; 2. reviewing possible health consequences of methane and similar hydrocarbons found in water for drinking; 3. Industry guided approaches for the development of safer and consistent technologies for extraction, and 4. Possible strengthening of federal and state regulation. Other related areas of interest not discussed in this paper, but would gain from further research include… Continue Reading...

The Ethical Issues Of Criminal Justice

Dawkins, N., & Cotton, D. (2010). Evaluability Assessment to Improve public health Policies, Programs, and Practices. Annual Review of public health, 31(1), 213–233. Lipsey, M., Petrie, C., Weisburd, D., & Gottfredson, D. (2006). Improving evaluation of anti- crime programs: Summary of a National Research Council report. In Journal of Experimental Criminology (Vol. 2, pp. 271–307). Mehta, A., Malley, B., & Walkey, A. (2016). Formulating the research question. In Secondary Analysis of Electronic Health Records (pp. 81–92). Springer International Publishing.  National Research Council (U.S.). & National Research Council (U.S.). (2005). Improving evaluation of anticrime programs. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press. Rossi, P. H., Lipsey, M. W., &… Continue Reading...

Health Concern Database Query Report

of HIV infection by the categories highlighted above for the year 2015: Implications for public health Intervention or Involvement The fact that new infection rates in the demographic group under consideration remained constant is an indication that there is more that needs to be done to combat HIV infections amongst gay and bisexual men. It demonstrates that the strategies that have been implemented within the last 6 years have not been very successful. Some of the tools that have been implemented in the past in the fight against HIV include, but they are not limited to, the promotion of abstinence,… Continue Reading...

How Obesity Affects Epidemiology

well as micro environmental obesogenic aspects (Drucquer, 2007). References Drucquer, N. (2007). Theory and Research in Promoting public health?Edited by Sarah Earle, Cathy E. Lloyd, Moyra Sidell and Sue Spurr and Health Promotion Practice: Building Empowered Communities?By Glenn Laverack. Health & Social Care in the Community, 15(6), 605-606. Egger, G., Swinburn, B., & Rossner, S. (2003). Dusting off the epidemiological triad: could it work with obesity?. Obesity reviews, 4(2), 115-119. Hu, F. (2008). Obesity epidemiology. Oxford University Press. Korbonits, M. (2008). Obesity and metabolism. Basel: Karger. Mela, D (2005). Food, diet and obesity. Elsevier. Continue Reading...

Preventing an Influenza Pandemic

Introduction While public health emergencies crop up from time to time, it is critical that public health stakeholders be prepared to address emergency situations whenever they occur. The spread of influenza is one such public health emergency that stakeholders should be ready to address. Addressing these situations requires a number of steps to be taken: communication must be instrumental in conveying the urgency of the situation among medical personnel, researchers, governmental authorities, and so on, so that everyone is abreast of the situation and… Continue Reading...

Childhood Obesity Prevention

obesity cases. The challenge of obesity has been ranked as a public health threat due to the number of children with obesity in the US and the increasing numbers. Among children of between the ages of 6 and 11 years, it has been observed that the rates of obesity have more than tripled over the last three decades. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) in their 2011:1 report indicates that 20% of all American children are obese, even before they begin school. The biggest worry in these statistics is the daily reality in the community that more children experience illnesses… Continue Reading...

The Impact Of Using Bilingual Call Compared to Family Interpreters Research Paper

Diabetes Risk Among Mexican Americans: The Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging. American Journal Of public health, 103(5), e45-e52. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2012.300969 Bethea, D. (2018). Use a Professional Interpreter Instead of Bilingual Family or Staff. Blog.languageline.com. Retrieved 26 January 2018, from http://blog.languageline.com/why-you-should-use-a-professional-interpreter-instead-of-bilingual-family-or-staff de Moissac, D., & Bowen, S. (2017). Impact of language barriers on access to healthcare for official language minority Francophones in Canada. Healthcare Management Forum, 30(4), 207-212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0840470417706378 Hsieh, E. (2010). Provider–interpreter collaboration in bilingual health care: Competitions of control over interpreter-mediated interactions. Patient Education And Counseling, 78(2), 154-159. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2009.02.017 Hu, J., Wallace, D., McCoy, T., & Amirehsani, K. (2013). A Family-Based Diabetes Intervention for Hispanic Adults… Continue Reading...

Georgia Environmental Quality Departments

and other types of animals. According to the Georgia Department of public health (GDPH) any reports of infected horses or birds in Georgia or the presence of large mosquito numbers could be an indication of greater risks of getting infected as well (Georgia.Gov, 2017). Georgia residents are advised to take protective measures aimed at alleviating the chances of getting bitten by a mosquito (Georgia.Gov, 2017). The risks are even higher when mosquito breed viruses are identified in an area. Protective measures The people of Georgia are actively advised by GDPH to prefer products that have been certified by the… Continue Reading...

Effect That Changes in Society Has Had on the Curriculum

who are conscious of their environments thus making rational decisions on public health and environmental issues (Brown, 2014). The programs are incorporated from the kindergarten through to the twelfth grade. The educators are as well prepared with the competency in environmental science knowledge. It is also their responsibility and renders the services to employees making it possible for the organizations to meet the challenges and organizational commitment. The New York school district has taken significant steps towards aligning the curriculum with changes in the society. Technology, as established, has been become an integral facet of social interactions and facilitating… Continue Reading...

California's Congressional Senators

Introduction California State (capital: Sacramento) is America’s third biggest state after Texas and Alaska, with a population of thirty-seven million according to 2010 statistics. The state boasts the nation’s largest economy, having made it first to the trillion-dollar gross state product milestone. By the year 2012, the state became the 9th largest global economy. Its several million acres of agricultural land makes California a largely rural state. It ranks as national leader in crop production. Further, California houses several world-famous national parks and cultural institutions such as Disneyland, Hollywood, Angel Island, Alcatraz, Golden Gate Bridge and Yosemite National Park. Its… Continue Reading...

Mixed Methods Research and Pros and Cons

separate studies at once, which does require more resources and time. Commonly used in the social sciences and in public health research, mixed methods should be employed when it is feasible and warranted (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2013). Researchers should always endeavor to approach a problem from as many angles as possible, and consider the way their choice research methods might impact interpretation of a problem and more importantly, impact public policy. Mixed methods extend understanding of a research problem in several ways. Case studies and other qualitative methods offer an in-depth and also personalized, humanized insight… Continue Reading...

Environmentalism and Some Positive and Negative Trends

of environmental degradation aside, pollution at the local level is impacting public health and lowering quality of life. Adebobola (n.d.) notes that urban centers are not the only places impacted by pollution. Water pollution can affect not just areas with high population densities but also rural regions. Polluted water can also impact the integrity of food sources, as agriculture requires access to clean water. Food shortages are not, however, localized to the regions experiencing water pollution or drought. As Adebobla (n.d.) points out, the international food trade has led to interdependence among nations. Africa and Asia, for example, depend… Continue Reading...

Meaningful Usage Of Health Information Technology Hit

stakeholders (hospital systems, physician practices, community health clinics, patients, payers and public health systems), thereby facilitating ongoing public debates and discussions relating to healthcare issues requiring more advanced technology approaches. Health IT initiatives demonstrate the ability to initiate unexpected partnerships and collaborations, with 85% of stakeholders (Pennic, 2012) joining hands to acquire new skills and knowledge from one another, deploy novel technologies, and map the way to an integrated health community founded on cooperation, communication, access and transparency. HIT acceptance and implementation necessitates substantial state support, robust federal support, and an alliance between state governors, Medicaid officers, and state… Continue Reading...

Advance Practice Nursing Ethics Disclosure

(2013). Medical error disclosure and patient safety. Journal of public health Research 2(3): e31. Jenkins, R.H. & Vaida, A.J. (2007). Simple strategies to avoid medication errors. FPM 14(2): 41-47. Leone, D., Lamiani, G., Vegni, E., et al (2015). Error disclosure and family members’ reactions: Does the type of error really matter? Patient Education and Counseling 98(4): 446-452. McLennan, S.R., Diebold, M., Rich, L.E. et al (2016). Nurses’ perspectives regarding the disclosure of errors to patients: A qualitative study. International Journal of Nursing Studies 54(2016): 16-22. Sorrell, J.M., (March 7, 2017) "Ethics: Ethical Issues with Medical Errors: Shaping a Culture… Continue Reading...

Lyme Disease and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

the country fits the definition of a prevalent and significant health threat. Notably, Alabama’s Department of public health recently declared Lyme disease endemic to seven counties (Thompson, 2016). Lyme disease in particular has become more dangerous than certain types of cancers regarding number of cases and complications. Although cases in Alabama for example, are low in number, the growing number of not just Lyme, but RMSF have become cause for concern within the state. “The Alabama Department of public health reports that several common tick-borne illnesses have been on the rise in Alabama in recent years, even illnesses thought… Continue Reading...

Anti Obesity Programs and Policies

Few other public health issues have drawn as much attention, and garnered as much support for policy and programming as obesity. Obesity programs have been initiated and implemented at the federal and state levels, and all fifty states currently have early childhood education physical activity and healthy eating regulations and policies (The State of Obesity, 2018). All the major national public health research organizations, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health likewise inform and promote obesity-related policies and programs. Government… Continue Reading...

Zika Virus Essay

through monitoring for yellow fever, the primarily mosquito-borne Zika virus has since become a global public health threat, with outbreaks occurred in the far corners of the world including the Island of Yap as well as heavily populated areas such as Brazil. Although the symptoms of the Zika virus are relatively mild for most people, pregnant women are at risk due to a growing body of scientific evidence that indicates a link with microcephaly and a trigger for Guillain-Barre syndrome. This evidence resulted in the World Health Organization classifying the Zika virus as a public health Emergency of International… Continue Reading...

Obesity and Nursing Rates Of Care Community

care and treatment options also determine disease outcomes. Therefore, this paper will also address the core factors involved in public health strategies and health policy. Pathophysiology Defined clinically as “an exaggeration of normal adiposity,” obesity is the condition of being excessively overweight based on quantitative measures like body mass index (BMI) (Redinger, 2007, p. 856). However, the pathophysiology of obesity is also linked to ancillary factors like metabolic and immune dysfunction. BMI alone is not a reliable assessment measure either, due to individual differences (Li & Cheung, 2009). The biggest health-related problem with obesity is its comorbidity with a… Continue Reading...

Obesity Childhood Prenatal Conclusion

health problems mitigated, it is important to raise awareness and have a comprehensive public health intervention plan. This research contributes to the growing body of evidence on the importance of public health interventions and especially for preventative care. Health literacy and other preventative methods can be applied in culturally appropriate ways to tackle the problem of obesity. To be culturally appropriate, public health interventions also need to take into account variables like gender, ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic class: all of which have an influence on how health information is communicated but also on diet and lifestyle norms. An integrated… Continue Reading...

Healthcare Management for Eldercare Advocacy Organization

Planned change in the eldercare advocacy organization In the coming years, many countries will experience a dramatic shift in healthcare infrastructure due to an expanding elderly population size. However, the changes may vary across countries depending on many factors such as the kind of social welfare available in each country, the political environment which determine policies, the level of healthcare available and individual expectations in each country. Due to this wide variance, the innovations within this space will also vary greatly. What this means to the healthcare manager is that managing innovations becomes very hard (Shlutz, Andre & Sjovold, 2015… Continue Reading...

Quantitative and Qualitative Data Analysis Essay

among married women, residing in urban Karachi, Pakistan. Ph.D. Dissertation Department Of public health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Ammons, S. K. & Edgell, P. (2007). Religious Influences on Work–Family Trade-Offs. Journal of Family Issues, 28(6). 794-826. Ansari, S. A. (2011). Gender difference: Work and family conflicts and family-work conflicts. Pakistan Business Review, 13(2). 315-331. Anthias, F. (2013). Intersectional what? Social divisions, intersectionality and levels of analysis. Ethnicities, 13(1). 3-19. Anwar, M. & Shahzad, K. (2011). Impact of Work-Life Conflict on Perceived Employee Performance: Evidence from Pakistan. European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences, 13(2011). 82-86. Arif, N.… Continue Reading...

Interdisciplinary Health Services in Rural America

with restricted chances to partnerships, based on their general public health objectives and institutional priorities. Of further significance is the fact that developing relationships amid local health divisions (LHDs), neighborhood health facilities, health agencies, workplaces of countryside health, medical centers, non-profit institutions, as well as the private marketplace is important to meet the requirements of countryside neighborhoods. Efficient local relationships create the place for properly-synchronized tactical preparation that both enhances resources and motivates innovative methods to consistent general public health issues. By combining knowledge, money, and employees time, partners located in rural towns can determine common interests, rise above… Continue Reading...

Health Public Policy Analysis

of the Healthy Communities/ Healthy Cities approach include reducing public health risks including obesity, and promoting healthy lifestyles, public safety, and health equity. The success of Healthy Cities programs and policies directly depends on the empowerment of nurses at all levels of practice, including community-based nurses. Because each community presents different needs, goals, and challenges, nurses in each community can collaborate with partners and stakeholders to promote and reach realistic public health goals. Healthy Communities: Relevance to the Nursing Profession The Healthy Communities/Healthy Cities approach is based on the ecological model of public health and nursing, which is systemic… Continue Reading...

Colonialism in Higher Education Indigenous

the world. In fact, epidemiologists are starting to study the adverse effects of colonialism in higher education. public health data shows that the “forced acculturation imposed on Aboriginal peoples” around the world, through European higher learning institutions, contributes to the well-known health disparities for indigenous peoples (Bourassa, McKay-McNabb & Hampton, n.d., p. 23). Those health disparities include lower life expectancy, elevated morbidity, elevated suicide rates, and higher rates of many diseases. Viewed in light of real, measurable outcomes, colonialism in higher education can be construed as being categorically unethical. Colonialism in higher education is bad for everyone. Colonialism in… Continue Reading...

Antimicrobial Agents

is their level of importance overall in human medicine, which pragmatic implications for public policy, public health policy, and healthcare procurement and logistics (“Categorization of Antimicrobial Drugs Based on Importance in Human Medicine,” 2009). Antimicrobials can also be classified based on their antibacterial activity, referring to features like mechanisms of resistance, sensitivity, and predicted spectrum (Purdue Research Foundation, 1996). In fact, antimicrobials can also be classified according to their source: as they are typically derived from at least three sources including molds or fungi, bacteria themselves, or from synthetic analysis (Purdue Research Foundation, 1996). The broadest means by which… Continue Reading...

The Impact Of Chronic Disease

root of the chronic disease situation. References Institute of Medicine (U.S.). (2012). Living well with chronic illness: A call for public health action. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. NCOA. (2017, June 1). Chronic Disease Facts | NCOA. Retrieved from https://www.ncoa.org/news/resources-for-reporters/get-the-facts/chronic-disease-facts/ Continue Reading...

Using Evidence Based Practice to Resolve a Nursing Issue

intensive care unit in Kuwait: Effect on central line-associated bloodstream infections. Journal of infection and public health, 9(1), 34-41. Scatliffe, K., Davis, A., Wang-Kocik, C., Villanueva, N. M., Espiritu-fuller, M., Larang, R., . . . Murillo, J. (2015). The Reduction of Catheter-Related Blood Stream Infections through the Implementation of an Interdisciplinary Healthcare Team. Journal of Critical Care Medicine, 2015. Shimoyama, Y., Umegaki, O., Agui, T., Kadono, N., Komasawa, N., & Minami, T. (2017). An educational program for decreasing catheter-related bloodstream infections in intensive care units: a pre-and post-intervention observational study. JA Clinical Reports, 3(1), 23. Continue Reading...

Hospital Organizational Change Nurse Consultation

infant mortality. Immunization numbers have also been on a decline, with resulting public health concerns (Miami-Dade County, 2011). Substance abuse and alcohol-related problems are also major issues of concern, as are high rates of sexually transmitted diseases. Rates of HIV/AIDS have also been increasing, and remain twice the Florida average (Miami-Dade County, 2011). Rates of cancer in the area have actually been decreasing, according to the Miami-Dade County (2011) report. As the largest and leading healthcare organization in Miami-Dade County, Jackson Health System is on the front lines of public health services and has a distinct role to play… Continue Reading...

Impact Of Culture on Ptsd in the Middle East

PTSD and other trauma-related mental health conditions are expected to become public health crisis in the Arab world (Suto, 2016). Therefore, public health professionals in the Middle East face the need to develop appropriate measures for diagnosis and treatment of PTSD and other trauma-related disorders. However, the treatment of this condition and other traumatic mental health disorders is significantly affected by culture. This paper examines how culture in the Middle East affect diagnosis and treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Prevalence of PTSD in the Middle East The Middle East in one of the regions in the world that has… Continue Reading...

Disparities and Diabetes Among Latinos

dilemmas in Latino health care and implementation of the Affordable Care Act. Annual review of public health, 36, 525-544. Spanakis, E. K., & Golden, S. H. (2013). Race/Ethnic Difference in Diabetes and Diabetic Complications. Current Diabetes Reports, 13(6), 10.1007/s11892–013–0421–9. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11892-013-0421-9   Continue Reading...

Urban Air Pollution Ethical Dilemmas

for citizens. It also does justice to the environment. Hence, city professionals in public health, in recreation, in ecology, in planning and in all other areas should work together to ensure that if it a must for some form of development to occur, it is done safely without adversely affecting air quality or any other part of the environment. References Jennings, V., Yun, J., & Larson, L. (2016, August). Finding common ground: environmental ethics, social justice, and a sustainable path for nature-based health promotion. In Healthcare (Vol. 4, No. 3, p. 61). Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute. Liu, X., Zhu, H., Hu,… Continue Reading...

Social Problem and Human Services

be made an entitlement program, covering all in need. It is no overstatement if public health workers claim their zip code has been dying as their neighborhood’s children, impoverished individuals and individuals from minority communities may be plagued with premature deaths. It is social workers’ mission to look at the big picture which isn’t shown by rankings and advocate for the needy to make a difference for future generations (Sheikh et al., 2015). References Bowen, H. (2018). Investment in learning: The individual and social value of American higher education. Routledge. DuMont, K., & James-Brown, C. (2015). Special Foreword: Making Research… Continue Reading...

Healthcare Informatics

overall patient experiences. Because of their abundant benefits, these technologies need to be embraced and promoted through effective public health policies. Otherwise, disparities will continue to threaten to exacerbate the already significant social determinants of health. Patient Portals Online portals are rapidly becoming the main point of contact and communication between patients and the healthcare system. Patient portals allow patients to access their own medical history and medication records, learn more about their conditions and information related to prevention and self care, and also manage their billing. The technology is “becoming more widely used and are expected to promote… Continue Reading...

Assessing the Benefits Of Marijuana

the substance (DPA). Organizations like the American Nurses Association, American public health Association, Leukemia and Lymphoma Society, National Association of People with AIDS, AIDS Action Council, American Academy of HIV Medicine, and Lymphoma Foundation of America have supported medical marijuana access. Moreover, the American Medical Association, in the year 2009, adopted its resolution demanding governmental reconsideration of its marijuana classification, for facilitating the performance of additional studies on marijuana’s medicinal applications (DPA). Thesis Statement The plant, marijuana, has been considered damaging and even potentially fatal to human beings; however, on the basis of its medicinal advantages and economic value,… Continue Reading...

Benchmarking for a National Hospital Assessment

birth weight and infant mortality. Immunization numbers have also been on a decline, with resulting public health concerns. Substance abuse and alcohol-related problems are also major issues of concern, as are high rates of sexually transmitted diseases. As the largest and leading healthcare organization in area, Baptist Health Care system is on the front lines of public health services and has a distinct role to play in improving county health outcomes. Nurse Leader’s Role This consultation depended on the help of a nurse leader within the Baptist Health Care system, Assistant Chief Nursing Officer (ACNO). The nurse leader worked… Continue Reading...

Self Management in Nursing

427-438. Grady, P. A., & Gough, L. L. (2014). Self-management: a comprehensive approach to management of chronic conditions. American Journal of public health, 104(8), e25-e31. Green, A. C. (2014). A Concept Analysis of Self-Management Behavior and its Implications in Research and Policy. Lorig, K. R., Sobel, D. S., Stewart, A. L., Brown Jr, B. W., Bandura, A., Ritter, P., ... & Holman, H. R. (1999). Evidence suggesting that a chronic disease self-management program can improve health status while reducing hospitalization: a randomized trial. Medical Care, 37(1), 5-14. Lorig, K. R., Sobel, D. S., Ritter, P. L., Laurent, D., & Hobbs, M. (2001). Effect of… Continue Reading...

Differences in Competencies Between the Adn Versus the Bsn Nurse

place a greater emphasis on topics like research and informatics. They include clinical rotations in community and public health settings. A BSN typically does not get more clinical experience carrying out assessments and procedures in an acute care setting. Students will likely exit no more adept at wielding needles and tubes, but be better prepared for hospital employment nonetheless” (Nursinglicensure.org). As a result of the fact that the BSN nurse is more prepared with clinical experience, this graduate might have an easier time adjusting to employment as an actual nurse, as the high stakes and ultra fast-paced world of… Continue Reading...

Healthcare Delivery System Model

stakeholders is likely to constitute patient based outcome improvements that can be measured and public health improvements. Each of the stakeholders has a chance to make a significant contribution, based on their main competencies, to the shared vision. Some of the competencies associated with the hospital are the facility to facility funding opportunity, improvement of the quality of the institution, identity and strategic planning. Hospitals usually have identities that are distinct from medical training schools and the doctors, although the relationships are invaluable (Cowen, et al., 2008, p. 410). The need to provide better incentives for change of behavior… Continue Reading...

Cow’s Milk and Human Consumption

milk as being a problematic substance that only helps to create issues for personal and public health—from cancer to calcium deficits. Recommendations Some experts have argued that the problem isn’t with humans consuming cow’s milk, exactly, but that the problem has to do with the way that cow’s milk is prepared. More and more animal activists are pushing for new regulations within the dairy industry that protect the cows and that give them better and healthier lives, so that they can produce better milk. Removing corruption and unhealthy dairy processes is the goal of so many non-governmental organizations at… Continue Reading...

Physical Education and the Zpd

of Education, 110(2), pp.108-146. Hills, A.P., Dengel, D.R. and Lubans, D.R., 2015. Supporting public health priorities: recommendations for physical education and physical activity promotion in schools. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 57(4), pp.368-374. Jensen, J.L., Kummer, T.A. and Godoy, P.D.D.M., 2015. Improvements from a flipped classroom may simply be the fruits of active learning. CBE—Life Sciences Education, 14(1), p.ar5. Mozaffarian, D., 2016. Dietary and policy priorities for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity: a comprehensive review. Circulation, 133(2), pp.187-225. Pinantoan, A., 2013. Instructional scaffolding: A definitive guide. Accessed Aug 1, 2018 at: https://www.opencolleges.edu.au/informed/teacher-resources/scaffolding-in-education-a-definitive-guide/ Todd, A.S., Street, S.J., Ziviani, J., Byrne, N.M. and Hills, A.P., 2015. Overweight and obese adolescent… Continue Reading...

Vaccinations Autism and the Argument over Mandatory

p. 1302). The reason why the anti-vaccination hysteria is considered a major public health crisis is because of the potential death toll that could arise from an unvaccinated public exposed to communicable diseases like measles and mumps. An unvaccinated person has a 90% chance of becoming infected with measles; the most recent outbreak in France led to 5000 patients being hospitalized and ten deaths (Pierik, 2016, p. 2). In fact, out of every 1000 infected children, one or two will die and as many as fifty will contract pneumonia as a result (Pierik, 2016, p. 2). Unfortunately, “the rate… Continue Reading...

Haiti Health Marketing Plan

in health care. According to the report, the annual per capita public health spending in Haiti is $13, compared with $781 in nearby Cuba and $180 in the Dominican Republic, Haiti’s neighbor on the island of Hispaniola. Public investment in health care has plummeted from 16.6 percent of the total Haitian government budget in 2004, showing the path to better healthcare has declined rather than improved. It is not surprising that poverty leads to poor health in a nation. But looking closely, the effects of poverty are multi-layered, creating a spiral that is difficult to get out of. People cannot… Continue Reading...

Lending Institutions Human Capital and Health Care

both the centre government and state government placed together spent on public health. There are no less than two major healthcare programs in India. To begin with, there is the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), which is the country’s central government’s endeavor to develop delivery of services in public facilities in addition to public-health and preventive interventions, shepherded by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Secondly, there is another healthcare program referred to as the Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY), which is a health insurance program shepherded by the Ministry of Labour and Employment (Center for Global Development,… Continue Reading...

Obesity Randomized Control Trial

randomised controlled trial for overweight and obese parents to prevent childhood obesity-Early STOPP (STockholm Obesity Prevention Program). BMC public health, 11(1), 336. Johansson, E., Mei, H., Xiu, L., Svensson, V., Xiong, Y., Marcus, C., ... & Hagströmer, M. (2016). Physical activity in young children and their parents–An Early STOPP Sweden–China comparison study. Scientific reports, 6, 29595.   Continue Reading...

Cdc Measure Of Associations

per 1000 persons-years = 0.07) Rate ration = 0.19/0.07 = 2.71 3. What are the public health implications of these findings? Based on the calculation above, it is evident that the rate of lung cancer incidences among smokers is way too high, 18 times, as compared to nonsmokers. This leads to the conclusion that, smoking is a factor contributing to the risk of lung cancer. This conclusion is further evidenced by the fact that, rate ration of lung cancer among those who quit smoking after 20 years as compared to nonsmokers is significantly less, approximately 3 times (CDC, 2006). This finding points… Continue Reading...

Mission-based Management

nonprofit organizations. The University of Pennsylvania (graduation) and Tulane University (post-graduate degree in the public health Administration) alumnus swears by the principle that nonprofit firms are mission-based in nature; their business is: to carry out their mission. Ever since 1982, when he established his own consulting company, Corporate Alternatives, Brinckerhoff has aided innumerable firms in increasing their mission-capability (Brinckerhoff, 2009, xv-xiv). His award-winning works include Mission-Based Marketing, Second Edition; Mission-Based Management, Third Edition; Faith-Based Management; and Social Entrepreneurship. Mission-based management: Leading your nonprofit in the 21st century is targeted at nonprofit charitable firms’ leaders. The author aims at offering a different perspective of… Continue Reading...

Corruption Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility

we can unearth research that shows that five feet is sufficient to promote public health and safety, then we should present those findings to the health department and request that the rule be changed. Doing so would also help other small businesses and promote a rational and evidence-based legal framework rather than one based on arbitrary regulations. As Sherman (2003) points out, “laws, rules, and regulations set enforceable limits beyond which personal choice is not permitted,” (p. 1). If our research does yield the conclusion that five feet does prevent health hazards, then we will need to obey the… Continue Reading...

Difference Between Transaction and Transfer Donation

to recognize the ultimate need to solicit contributions for important social justice, environmental, or public health causes. References Chapman, C. (2016). Philanthropy trends. https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/philanthropy-trends-transactional-vs-transformative-chapman-cfre/ Keating, B., Pitts, R. & Appel, D. (1981). United Way contributions. Southern Economic Journal 47(3): 816-823. “The New Philanthropists: More Sophisticated, More Demanding — and Younger,” (2013). Wharton. http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/the-new-philanthropists-more-sophisticated-more-demanding-and-younger/ Continue Reading...

Obesity Epidemic

of Key Results Results of this research highlight the need for a comprehensive approach to addressing the public health concern of obesity. Although obesity and its defining features like BMI are causally related to lifestyle factors like diet and activity levels, the research shows that the situation is more complex than that. There is a range of socioeconomic, ethnic, cultural, and political variables that also affect the prevalence of the disease. Identifying these outlying variables may be the key to resolving the obesity epidemic. The obesity ecological model (OEM) has proven to be one of the most effective strategies for… Continue Reading...

Veterans with Ptsd

the military (Kang et al., 2015). Policies Impacting the Population The American public health Association (2014) is committed to improving “access to mental health care, particularly for vulnerable populations.” Many policy statements need to be updated, however, as the Association points out. For that reason, the organization has updated its statements on suicide prevention among veterans suffering from PTSD, accountability and nondiscrimination. The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have prompted the organization to update its policies because of hundreds of thousands of new veterans are returning home with PTSD. One of the problems that the Association points out is that in… Continue Reading...

Health Concerns Related to Fukushima

aftereffects depends upon the extent to which the epidemiologists have done their work, identified the public health threats that might flow from a disaster, and shown what steps can be taken to protect the public from these threats. Emergency preparedness measures should be based on the epidemiological considerations and should be implemented with alacrity in the event of a disaster occurring—even beforehand in terms of safety regulations that should be followed by stakeholders to prevent massive public health exposure in the first place in the event of a disaster. With the Fukushima Nuclear Plant meltdown, the risk of exposing… Continue Reading...

Discussion Of Different Logical Fallacies

fact science has not proven these things to be unhealthy. To strengthen the arguments for public health and safety, it would be best to simply cite meta-analyses of scientific evidence. Assignment 2 I am unfortunately guilty of using a number of different logical fallacies, but the one I use the most might be begging the question, combined with an appeal to emotion. The reason why I revert to begging the question and to emotional appeals is simple: it is easier to use tautologies and appeal to emotion than it is to do the research and discover the factual evidence… Continue Reading...

Personal Statement Admissions Essay Nursing

roles: as healer, as advocate, as leader, and as visionary dedicated to improving public health as well as promoting individual patient outcomes. Entering the nursing profession opens up doorways and new paths that were previously unknown to me, offering me the chance to explore different areas of specialization and ancillary career options including the chance to work abroad or to enter the realm of public policy analysis. The profession has also been expanding at an unprecedented rate. As many new nursing students commence their program of study worldwide, the nursing shortage remains a critical area of concern. We need… Continue Reading...

Public Health Models and Sdoh in Childhood Obesity

Health Education Public/population health standards place the conventional medical individual care model within several determinants of health. Currently, various public health models exist and are available for a huge range of purposes such as the Health Belief Model. These various health models exist to provide an improved understanding of the dynamics relating to the health and wellbeing of populations. In addition, there are social determinants of health (SDOH), which basically refer to the political, social and economic factors that impact the health of individuals and populations. The social determinants of health also refer to the ecological model and place significant… Continue Reading...

Policy Of Choice Patient Safety

Abuse and Addiction in the Criminal Justice System: Improving public health and Safety. Journal- American Medical Association, 301, 2, 183-190. Kingdon, J. W. (2011). Agendas, alternatives, and public policies. Boston: Longman. Nova Recovery Center (2016). Rethinking Prison for Drug Offenders: Alternatives to Incarceration. Retrieved 9, September, 2018 from https://novarecoverycenter.com/addiction/rethinking-prison-for-drug-offenders- alternatives-to-incarceration-2/ Osaka University Hospital (n.d.). Hospital Policy for Patient Safety and Quality of Care. Retrieved 9, September, 2018 from http://www.hosp.med.osaka- u.ac.jp/english/outline/basicpolicy.html PSQH. (2014). Policies and Procedures for Healthcare Organizations: A Risk Management Perspective, Patient Safety and Quality HealthCare. Retrieved 9, September, 2018 from https://www.psqh.com/analysis/policies-and-procedures-for-healthcare-organizations-a- risk-management-perspective/ The Leapfrog Group (2018). What is Patient Safety? Retrieved… Continue Reading...

Parkinson's Disease

& Barron, J. (2017). Age-Related Diseases and Clinical and public health Implications for the 85 Years Old and Over Population. Frontiers in public health, 5, 335. Kleiner-Fisman, G., Gryfe, P., & Naglie, G. (2013). A patient-based needs assessment for living well with Parkinson disease: implementation via nominal group technique. Parkinson’s disease, 2013. Kowal, S. L., Dall, T. M., Chakrabarti, R., Storm, M. V., & Jain, A. (2013). The current and projected economic burden of Parkinson's disease in the United States. Movement Disorders, 28(3), 311-318. McCormack, A. L., Thiruchelvam, M., Manning-Bog, A. B., Thiffault, C., Langston, J. W., Cory-Slechta, D. A., & Di Monte, D. A.… Continue Reading...

Trends Benefits and Implementation Challenges Open Data

mainstream by pioneering researchers, with added pressure from funders, medicine regulatory authorities, public health agencies, and medical journals” (Pisani et al., 2016). According to the authors, this is more so the case given that data sharing in the health sector has been associated with improved patient outcomes. The privacy concerns raised in this case continue to be addressed via the adoption of a variety of measures. Some of the data sharing examples that have been listed by Pisani et al. (2016) include, but they are not limited to, the Yale University Open Data Access and the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance… Continue Reading...

Organizations That Mandate Knowledge Based Healthcare

areas of expertise. For example, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the United States public health Service oversee knowledge-based healthcare service delivery related to infectious diseases and other public health concerns, whereas Medicare covers knowledge-based healthcare services for the senior population nationwide (Institute of Medicine Committee on Assuring the Health of the Public in the 21st Century, 2005). Professional organizations like the American Medical Association and the American Dental Association are also dedicated to the provision of knowledge-based healthcare services under their practice rubrics. Each organization that mandates knowledge-based healthcare delivery influences healthcare, mainly by changing the… Continue Reading...

How to Store Prescription Drugs Safety

cost-effective. If web-based information is helpful in changing patient behaviors, then public health administrators, policymakers, and healthcare workers can easily and quickly use such methods to reduce harm. As promising as the results of this study are, there are several limitations due to internal and external validity. One study limitation is that no random assignment was used, and there was no control group. Future research should use a more robust experimental research design. Second, the researchers rely only on self-reports for opioid misuse behaviors and measure those behaviors using parameters like stockpiling and lending pills. Self-reports are not necessarily… Continue Reading...

How Modern Medicine Was Developed

the townspeople (Warner and Tighe). With the increase in disease transmission, there was a need for the establishment of public health boards, new research projects aimed at uncovering the infectious diseases, and clinical teaching. The need for the development of better medical practices also resulted in physicians having to undergo further training. Prewar physicians were not trained on the French clinical method for disease investigation and they found it hard to treat diseases. This led to them losing patients’ and without the knowledge for conducting autopsies they could not learn more regarding the ailment the patient was suffering. Physicians… Continue Reading...

Community or Public Health Nurse Role Interview

community health operations than on the budgets and management of private institutions. Lawrence noted, for example, that “expands public health and prevention programs to support communities and individuals,” (“public health Nurse,” n.d., p. 1). Moreover, Lawrence has seen shifts in attitudes towards the role that public health nurses play. The career is increasingly data-driven, and community health nurses now need more professional competencies in information technologies. When Lawrence first started working as a community health nurse, she focused more on program planning and budgeting. Now, she is much more involved in epidemiology and public relations. She still focuses a… Continue Reading...

Why Americans Should Get More Paid Maternity Leave

labor law, as it promotes long-term economic growth and fulfills public health goals. The United States ranks last among developed nations in terms of how it treats workers, particularly new moms. Those who need paid maternity leave the most receive the least support, which exacerbates income disparity and cleavages of race, class, and gender. Mandatory long-term paid maternity leave is beneficial for all Americans. Works Cited England, Charlotte. “Paid Maternity Leave.” Independent, March 1, 2017, https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/paid-maternity-leave-us-worst-countres-world-donald-trump-family-leave-plan-women-republican-social-a7606036.html Froese, Monica. “Maternity Leave in the United States: Facts You Need to Know.” Oct 19, 2016, Healthline. https://www.healthline.com/health/pregnancy/united-states-maternity-leave-facts#1 Graham, Jennifer. Interview. July 17,… Continue Reading...

Effects Of Lead Exposures Among Children Under 12 Years Of Age

Flint Drinking Water Crisis: A Spatial Analysis of Risk and public health Response.” American Journal of public health, vol. 106 no. 2, 2016, pp. 283-290. doi:10.2105/ajph.2015.303003 Levin, R., Brown, M. J., Kashtock, M. E., Jacobs, D. E., Whelan, E. A., Rodman, J., Sinks, T. “Lead Exposures in U.S. Children, 2008: Implications for Prevention.” Environ Health Perspect Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 116 no. 10, 2008, pp. 1285-1293. doi:10.1289/ehp.11241 Massey, Anne R., and Janet E. Steele. “Lead in Drinking Water: Sampling in Primary Schools and Preschools in South Central Kansas.” Journal of Environmental Health, vol. 74, no. 7, 2012, pp. 16–21.… Continue Reading...

Why Vaccinations Should Be Compulsory

compulsory for children because they are essential for the maintenance of public health and the prevention of future epidemics. Example: The eradication of polio is a good example of a disease that harmed or killed tens of thousands of Americans within living memory (Five important reasons to vaccinate your child, 2018). Statistics: According to the U.S. government, during the first half of the 20th century, polio represented one of the most feared diseases in the country, accounting for tens of thousands of cases of paralysis and accelerated death (Five reasons to vaccinate your child, 2018). Result: Since the introduction… Continue Reading...

New Jim Crow Mass Incarceration War on Drugs

lifelong penalties associated with being a felon do nothing to improve public health, public safety, or quality of life in the nation. [3: Michelle Alexander, The New Jim Crow, New York: The New York Press, 2010, p. 2). ] Based on the extensive impact the War on Drugs has on American lives, mass incarceration is a civil rights issue, and a human rights issue. Mass incarceration is not at all a response to increased rates of crime; the notion that crime automatically drives incarceration rates is a myth. Alexander notes that “especially black incarceration rates have soared regardless of… Continue Reading...

The Local State and Federal Levels Of Disaster Management

could entail mobilizing local police forces, offering critical communication or transportation services, conducting search and rescue, or providing for public health and safety needs (FEMA, 2018b). Finally, recovery refers to social/humanitarian as well as economic and infrastructural needs. Because the FEMA mission is complex and all encompassing, it is sufficient for handling a large nation’s emergency management operations. More importantly, FEMA recognizes the need for states to remain full partners in disaster prevention, mitigation, management, and recovery. States play an integral role in the disaster management process as it is overseen by FEMA. In many ways, states serve as… Continue Reading...

Reliability Credibility and Validity

we there yet? Data saturation in qualitative research. TQR, 20(9), 1. Gentry, S., Milden, L., & Kelly, M. (2017). How can researchers generate meaningful public health policy impact? A meta-ethnography of case studies. The Lancet, 390, S39. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(17)32974-4 Kallio, H., Pietilä, A., Johnson, M., & Kangasniemi, M. (2016). Systematic methodological review: developing a framework for a qualitative semi-structured interview guide. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 72(12), 2954-2965. doi:10.1111/jan.13031 Korstjens, I., & Moser, A. (2017). Series: Practical guidance to qualitative research. Part 4: Trustworthiness and publishing. European Journal of General Practice, 24(1), 120-124. doi:10.1080/13814788.2017.1375092 Nelson, J. (2016). Using conceptual depth criteria: addressing the challenge of reaching saturation in qualitative research. Qualitative Research, 17(5), 554-570. doi:10.1177/1468794116679873 Newman, D. S., & Clare, M. M. (2016). School Psychology as… Continue Reading...

Healthcare Research Quantitative Methods

Quantitative Research Healthcare relies on quantitative research for evidence-based practice in nursing, for organizational structure, design, and marketing, for public health and value-based purchasing issues, safety, and a practically unlimited array of other uses. Using quantitative research methods generates numerical data: data that can be used to generate statistics, to track patterns reliably using metrics, and to make fairly accurate predictions based on quantitative modeling. The research methods used in quantitative studies are often scrutinized carefully, ensuring consistency, reliability, and validity. Therefore, effective healthcare service delivery and operations depend on quantitative research. Implications for Knowledge Generation in Healthcare Both… Continue Reading...

Lgbt Youth Social Ecology and Homeless

levels of analysis. For instance, Stokols (2018) outlines the macro level preventative strategies and approaches of public health and epidemiology integrated with micro level individual approaches obtained from medicine. Furthermore, these two can be employed using a wide range of methods including questionnaires, behavioral observations and medical examinations. There is the significance of interdisciplinary research in the field of health promotion to facilitate the development of wide ranging and extensive programs. These create the linkage of the perspectives of public health, medicine and social sciences and behavioral sciences (Stokols, 1998). In accordance to Kloos et al. (2012) it is… Continue Reading...

Development Of an Health Advocacy Campaign

are involved instead of basically altering the behaviors of one person at a time. Progressively more, the public health community is advocating for a systems-based method to obesity preclusion that distinguishes the policy, environmental, and individual level factors that impact behavior and outcomes. Target Population: Obesity and Adults in West Virginia The rates of obesity and overweightness amongst children and adults in the United States have risen more than threefold in the past 30 years. West Virginia has a population of more than 1.8 million people. In accordance to data from a recent survey conducted by Behavioral Risk Factor… Continue Reading...

Salmonella Infection

in eggs. By that time, however, it had already been a topic of scientific and public health focus for more than a hundred years. Previously linked to animal foods, phage typing’s introduction during the 1940s started revealing the complex nature of its associations with its environment (Hardy, 2004). Epidemiological Triangle The Agent The salmonella bacterium resides in living beings’ intestines. A majority of individuals contract salmonella infection after consuming feces-contaminated foods. Salmonella is an umbrella term referring to the cluster of bacteria giving rise to salmonellosis or salmonella infection within the intestinal tract. Different forms of salmonellosis include typhoid… Continue Reading...

Vaccines and the Smallpox Epidemic

pursuing the common good is applied, mandating vaccinations is perfectly reasonable as it can be shown to preserve public health and safety in the face of a crushing epidemic like smallpox. Most individuals who trust the government and the medical community will side with the latter; others, who have their own personal fears, experiences and philosophical perspectives will side with the former—and there is little that can be done to dissuade them. In conclusion, the reason opposition to vaccination against smallpox would grow even though the vaccine worked and helped eradicate the disease is simple: individuals are informed by… Continue Reading...

Intervening to Prevent Diabetes

practice and research design. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 12(5), 248-251. Nutbeam, D. (2000). Health literacy as a public health goal: a challenge for contemporary health education and communication strategies into the 21st century. Health promotion international, 15(3), 259-267. Rubin, A. (2011). Teaching EBP in social work: Retrospective and prospective. Journal of Social Work, 11(1), 64-79. Schillinger, D., Grumbach, K., Piette, J., Wang, F., Osmond, D., Daher, C., ... & Bindman, A. B. (2002). Association of health literacy with diabetes outcomes. Jama, 288(4), 475-482. Continue Reading...

What Is Critical Infrastructure

consisting of, “the assets of the United States essential to the nation's security, public health and safety, economic vitality, and way of life,” including “power grids and water filtration plants; national monuments and government facilities; telecommunications and transportation systems; chemical facilities” (“CIKR,” 2009, par.1). Although the majority of CIKR is privately owned, according to DHS, the government still has a vital protective role to ensure it works correctly. Cybersecurity Although the Internet was still in a relatively primitive stage when DHS was first established, the online element of the nation’s critical infrastructure cannot be underestimated and has seismically grown… Continue Reading...

Key Resources Critical Infrastructure

& Parfomak, 2004). The continuity and protection of CIKR is fundamental for national security, safety, vitality, lifestyle and public health. Critical infrastructure can be understood as the systems, networks and assets, virtual or physical (Fisher & Norman 2010). Critical infrastructure is quite fundamental to a nation to the extent that their destruction or incapacitation may cause a devastating impact on public health, national security, safety, or a combination of all (Moteff & Parfomak 2004). Critical infrastructure sectors include: Food and Agriculture: This sector can be understood as the national animals, feeds, and feeds supply chain as well as the… Continue Reading...

The Importance Of Communications As a Critical Infrastructure

multifaceted concern that spans all industries, agencies, and sectors. Commercial activity, information sharing, and public health and safety all depend on secure and reliable communications infrastructure. Therefore, all stakeholders have a responsibility to maintain their own network integrity, to remain committed to information sharing and honesty, and also to overall interconnectedness and collaboration with key partners (Wortzel, 2003). Because so much of the telecommunications landscape is privately owned and operated, the National Strategy outlines the roles and responsibilities of the private sector to homeland security. The National Strategy takes a systems approach to homeland security by showing that all… Continue Reading...

Heart Disease and Stress

cross-sectional study of a random sample of the Swedish working population. American Journal of public health 78(10): 1336-1342. Some studies on the connection between heart disease and stress use experimental designs to show how specific types of stress impact physiological changes correlated with heart disease. Stress is a relatively generic term that should be qualified better in good research designs. For example, not all people react to the same situations in the same way. Some people perceive a situation as being stressful, a situation that others would not find stressful and vice-versa. It is important to classify the types… Continue Reading...

Implementation Of Continuous Quality Improvement

include the American Lung Association and American Cancer Society, which influence public health through financing research projects, supporting patients and coming up with academic programs. Johnson & Johnson, and similar pharmaceutical and medical supply corporations, manufacture and supply the myriad of medicines, instruments and other supplies, used by other healthcare organizations for providing patient care. GE and other corporations make MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scanners, robotic surgical systems and other high-tech clinical equipment. Further, less complex equipment, intravenous solutions, antibiotics, catheters, bandages, wheelchairs, and other items are manufactured and sold by other firms. The Blue Cross and similar health… Continue Reading...

Flint Water Crisis

a direct, intentional role to play in the lead contamination and violation of state and federal environmental and public health policies. The Flint water crisis represents the intersection of socioeconomic class and racial variables impacting access to clean drinking water: what could and should be viewed as a basic human right. History and Background Although the Flint water crisis came to a head in 2014, it had been brewing long before that. The history of the water crisis and the sociological variables associated with it can be traced back to the founding of the city and its earliest attempts… Continue Reading...

Health and Poor Populations

the need to identify local values and find ways to align them with public health policy so that this community is better supported. Another consideration that should be made is the problem of fragmentation among the community: many low income adults have poor support systems, poor education, and poor health. Their values are not always adequately defined because they have not fully reached a level of self-actualization. According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, the top level of development is where values begin to take shape—but for many low income adults, they are still trying to fulfill lower level needs—such… Continue Reading...

Community Psychology Diversity and Social Action Research

lives but also to improve the overall health and wellness in the community, promote public health and safety, and change social norms and values to promote social justice and human rights. Community psychology is also based on evidence and empiricism. Yet research is purposeful and action-driven, and may involve tangible results in terms of public policy outcomes, building community resilience, or changing practices in the workplace or educational environments. Understanding and Embracing Diversity As a central value in community psychology, diversity is the cornerstone of healthy communities and the cultivation of strong personal identities. However, respect for diversity does… Continue Reading...

Nursing Shortage Essay

filled (Oulton, 2006). Nurses are needed in Africa to effectively intervene on a number of preventable public health issues including the prevention of infectious diseases.  The biggest disparity between supply and demand in the United States is in California, followed by Texas and New Jersey. In these states, demand far outweighs supply. Some states are not hit as bad by the nursing shortage. For example, Florida, Ohio, and Virginia have been able to meet the demand for nurses (“The States with the Largest Nursing Shortages,” n.d.). Statistics of turnover rates in the nursing profession are also surprising but vary… Continue Reading...

Racism and Discrimination Impact on Civil Rights and Student Rights

ways to make sense of the world. Discrimination usually stems from misunderstanding and fear. It is a public health issue that can lead to stress. An American survey was conducted in the year 2015; it found out that people who face racial discrimination experience increase in stress levels than those who never experienced any form of discrimination. A variety of mental and physical health problems are associated with chronic stress. Martin Luther King Jr. quotes, “The question is not if we will be extremists, but what kind of extremists we will be. The nation and the world are in… Continue Reading...

Effects Of Potable Water on Nutrition

the need for potable water. Using this as a public health measure resulted in the reduction in malnutrition rates. Therefore, it is clear that with clean water three is a possibility of improving the nutrition of individuals. There are vital nutrients in the water and this is reduced if the water is contaminated. Lower mortality rates are also associated with potable water. This indicates that the nutritional benefits of potable water are beneficial for the body and offer the body the opportunity to fight off diseases (Anderson, 1981). Lacking water also causes dehydration and this can lead to heat… Continue Reading...

Treatment and Therapy Of Cholera

less widespread, and cholera, although widely accepted as a serious threat to public health, was still controversial in its ascribed origin. The hero of cholera research is John Snow, who, through the use of city mapping was able to trace an 1854 London epidemic to a single water pump and even was able to identify the microbe that had caused it, using an ordinary microscope. Such particles were not found in other pumps far away from the disease outbreak. Before Snow, such as during the 1832 epidemic, many physicians ascribed the spread of cholera to bad air, or miasma,… Continue Reading...

Policy Implementation Dietary Guidelines

Dietary Guidelines: Policy Implementation As noted by the Robert Woods Johnson Foundation (RWJF), the dietary guidelines for Americans (last issued in 2015), have tremendous influence upon public policy and how Americans eat, as well as public healthcare. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans issued by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA) are used in setting the standards for the National School Lunch Program, on which many children are dependent for their main source of nutritional calories for the day at low or reduced cost. Physicians are influenced by its guidelines, and ordinary Americans… Continue Reading...

Social Psychology

of social psychology is bullying. Bullying can be studied from a public health perspective, showing how the external variables such as how a school is designed and the leadership and organizational culture of the school affects risk factors implicated in bullying behaviors or victimization patterns. Alternatively, bullying can be examined from a purely psychological perspective to reveal the factors implicated in aggressive physical or verbal behaviors or alternatively, to study victim characteristics or why some bystanders refuse to step in when they observe bullying behaviors. This latter issue links in with the social psychology approach. The social psychology of… Continue Reading...

Chronic Kidney Disease

2018). These numbers indicate that this issue is incredibly important and deserves more attention from public health officials, who are, to a large extent, informed by the health literacy that is spread their way by environmental public professionals. They are the ones who can relay the facts of a disease to those who set policy and can make a difference in the lives of those in a community. Additionally, there are some known risk factors that pertain to chronic kidney disease: these include stress (hypertension), heart disease, diabetes and genetics. These issues are, moreover, impacted by other variables—such as… Continue Reading...

Elder Abuse Among Patients

geriatric patients as their study found elder-abuse to be an under-reported public health issue. Alone it costs billions of dollars in treatment and care and can lead to injuries that require emergency room visits and hospitalization. In the geriatric service line, care providers have to be able to understand the signs and symptoms of elder abuse so that they can treat the underlying issues and prevent problems from arising in the future. The problem, as Evans et al. (2017) show, is that there is too little understood about how elder abuse is identified and diagnosed in hospital settings. Care… Continue Reading...

Doctors Without Borders and Clean Water Crisis

sanitation (Water.Org). Imperatively, safe and easily accessible water is significant for public health, whether it is utilized for drinking, domestic use, food production or leisure purposes. Better-quality water supply and sanitation, in addition to better management of water resources, can increase nations’ economic growth and can add greatly to poverty alleviation. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), water that is contaminated in tandem with poor sanitation are associated with the transmission of diseases, for instance, diarrhea, cholera, typhoid, dysentery, and polio. Missing, insufficient, or unsuitably managed water and sanitation services leads to the exposure of persons to preventable… Continue Reading...

Business Ethics Practices Compliance Auditing

firms. Similarly, organizations that pollute directly are adversely impacting public health in their communities. Environmental concerns like poor air quality and poor water quality are evident almost everywhere in the world, but especially in countries with poor regulatory environments and poor governance, including the United States, China, India, and Brazil. Generally, any nation with a robust manufacturing base will reveal underlying culprits contributing to environmental degradation, climate change, as well as to deleterious public health outcomes. Organizations in those countries are also in a position to intervene, changing their business practices to become more aligned with ethical principles. The… Continue Reading...

Population Health Management

explore the issue of population health management. They argue emphatically that disease management is not the solution to public health issues. By tackling disease on the level of the individual, that person already has the disease. First, when looking at statistics, outcomes don't change much once a person has something, other than when treatment is improved. Advances in treatment, however, are typically diffused across the developed world quickly, so the United States cannot gain much advantage statistically by innovating treatments. The only true way to improve health outcomes on a broad level, they argue, is by tackling behaviors and… Continue Reading...

Drug Addiction

B. W., & Volkow, N. D. (2009). Treating drug abuse and addiction in the criminal justice system: Improving public health and safety. JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association. https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/21/25/255504 Clark, L., & Limbrick-Oldfield, E. H. (2013). Disordered gambling: A behavioral addiction. Current Opinion in Neurobiology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2013.01.004 Dell, M. (2015). Trafficking networks and the Mexican drug war. American Economic Review. American Economic Association. https://doi.org/10.1257/aer.20121637 Goldstein, R. Z., & Volkow, N. D. (2011). Dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex in addiction: Neuroimaging findings and clinical implications. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn3119 Koob, G. F., Arends, M. A., & Le, M. M. (2014). Drugs, addiction, and the… Continue Reading...

Diabetes and Self Care

a strong case for health education and promotion. BMC public health, 13, 1124. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-1124 Lee, A. A., Piette, J. D., Heisler, M., & Rosland, A. M. (2018). Diabetes Distress and Glycemic Control: The Buffering Effect of Autonomy Support from Important Family Members and Friends. Diabetes care, dc172396. Shuttleworth, M. (2008). Validity and Reliability. Retrieved Jan 28, 2019 from Explorable.com: https://explorable.com/validity-and-reliability Preacher, K. J., Curran, P. J., & Bauer, D. J. (2006). Computational tools for probing interactions in multiple linear regression, multilevel modelling, and latent curve analysis. Journal of educational and behavioural statistics, 31(4), 437-448. Continue Reading...

Positive and Negative Stress in the Workplace

A. & Lamontagne, A. D. 2009. Job Strain Exposures vs. Stress-Related Workers' Compensation Claims in Victoria, Australia: Developing a public health Response to Job Stress. Journal of public health Policy, 30, 17-39. Khamisa, N., Oldenburg, B., Peltzer, K., & Ilic, D. (2015). Work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses. International journal of environmental research and public health, 12(1), 652-666. Kurland, H., & Hasson-Gilad, D. R. (2015). Organizational learning and extra effort: The mediating effect of job satisfaction. Teaching and Teacher Education, 49, 56-67. Landstrom, H. 2008. Entrepreneurship, Sustainable Growth and Performance. UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited. Landy F and… Continue Reading...

Public Health Advocacy Outreach and Information

American public health Association The “only organization that influences federal policy,” the American public health Association (APHA) addresses every aspect of public health, from violence to disease epidemics. Goals of the organization include raising awareness and changing public policy in ways that promote public health and safety. For example, the organization advocates for alterations in public infrastructure or practices that might promote the use of vaccinations. Specific topics and issues that the APHA focuses on include climate change, environmental health, gun violence, health equity, health reform, tobacco and… Continue Reading...

How to Achieve Environmental Health

describe how this source of air pollution impacts environmental health, public health and communities. It will explain the types of surveillance needed for this environmental problem and discuss how various stakeholders can help to prevent this problem from occurring in the future. Airport Air Pollution Airport air pollution needs surveillance because it impacts the lives of so many travelers and creates a concentration of pollution in an area near where many people live. Aircraft release a lot of pollution into the air, including carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrocarbons—all of which make the air unfit to… Continue Reading...

Gender Status Impact Access to Social Political and Economic Resources

care initiatives have been developed in certain settings where demands aren’t adequately met by public health service entities (Fitriani, 4). Thus, policies must recognize and deal with this care economy, rendering support to unpaid as well as paid care providers to make sure they are able to enjoy economic security and social rights. Considering female prevalence within this sector, these policies may aid in increasing females’ social and economic security and societal gender equality. A need has been identified for an empirical basis for capturing care works’ extent. Time use questionnaires increasingly being utilized by developing nations may facilitate… Continue Reading...

Economic Disadvantages and Respiratory Issues

for anyone with asthma and also to deal with the intersection of healthcare and public health via financing national organizations and state programs, promoting the quality measures of asthma and enlightening policy makers about the asthma burden (National Center for Environmental Health, 2009). · The Florida Asthma Coalition includes volunteers from different parts of the state who are strongly committed to decreasing the burden of asthma among Floridians. This coalition group promotes asthma awareness at the community level and strives to improve and expand the quality of asthma management, services and awareness via policy and system changes (Florida Health,… Continue Reading...

The Traditional and Nutritional Values Of the Chinese Cultural Diet

changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have large impacts in terms of public health, food safety and the environment” Ramsing (2018). Thich has resulted in obesity, cancer and other life-threatening health problems mentioned above. It will instead be advisable that the country found its root back to her ancient eating habits which were more natural and healthier. In sum, the Chinese cultural influences behavioral nutrition remains one of the most unique globally which has found its way into other cultures around the world. Their value attached to nutrition and healthy communal relationship as being derived from food will always… Continue Reading...

Impact Of Nurses on Health Care Policy

social determinants of health: It’s time to consider the causes of the causes. public health Reports. Vol. 129 (2014 Supplement 2) 19-31. Carpenter, D., Esterling, K. & Lazer, D. (1998) The strength of weak ties in lobbying networks: Evidence from health-care politics in the United States. Journal of Theoretical Politics. Vol. 10 (4) 417-444. Lantz, P., House, J. & Lepkowski, J. (1998) Socioeconomic factors, health behaviors and mortality. JAMA. Vol. 279 (21) 1703-1708. Landers, S. & Sehgal, A. (2004) Health care lobbying in the United States. The American Journal of Medicine. Vol. 116 (7) 474-477. Patel, K. & Rashefsky,… Continue Reading...

Stopping Of Female Genital Mutilation

Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C). Place of publication not identified: Knowledge Centre for the Health Services at The Norwegian Institute of public health (NIPH. WHO. (2019). Health risks of female genital mutilation (FGM), Sexual and Reproductive Health. Retrieved 27 February, 2019 from https://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/topics/fgm/health_consequences_fgm/en/ WHO. (2018). Female genital mutilation, World Health Organization. Retrieved 27 February, 2019 from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/female-genital-mutilation Continue Reading...

Developing an Annex for an Emergency

the inter-agency collaboration. County Sheriff and Police—will coordinate with County EM. Emergency Medical Services—will coordinate with FD. public health—will coordinate with Public Works, FD and County EM to evaluate risk level to local population and environment; should be minimal for Level 1 response. Railroad Operations—will be contacted by FD or local police dispatch. For Level 2 Incident—add the following: Fire District and State Fire Marshal—will assume command until State Office arrives. State Office of Emergency Management—will coordinate with Hazmat and assume jurisdictional lead. Hazmat—will oversee clean-up of chemical spill. For Level 3 Incident—add the following: State Department of Environmental Quality—will coordinate with… Continue Reading...

Globalization and Major Programmes

137-168. di Notarbartolo Villarosa, F. (2005). Information, management and participation: a new approach from public health in Brazil. New York: Routledge. Gittinger, J. P. (1972). Economic analysis of agricultural projects (No. Edn 2). John Hopkins University Press. Hirschman, A. O. (1967). Development projects observed. Brookings Institution Press. Reinert, E. S., Ghosh, J., & Kattel, R. (Eds.). (2016). Handbook of alternative theories of economic development. Edward Elgar Publishing. Rodwin, L., & Schön, D. A. (1994). Rethinking the Development Experience: Essays provoked by the work of Albert O. Hirschman. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. Rondinelli, D. A. (1976). International assistance policy and development project administration: the impact of imperious… Continue Reading...

Heart Disease and Saturated Fats

concerning their influence on sponsorship of research on risks and benefits of their products. The public health community has been provided with an understanding of the tactics, motives, strategies and data meant to secure companies from prosecution and control through accessing some of their documents which are not designed for public consumption. According to Kealms, Schmidt & Glantz, (1682) investigations done using these documents are able to give information to the healthy community about ways to go against any industry’s plans to hide information concerning serious effects of fats and sugar. Works Cited Kearns, Cristin E., Laura A. Schmidt,… Continue Reading...

Long Term Care Administration

from https://www.scu.edu/ethics/focus-areas/bioethics/resources/healthcare-decisions-for- incapacitated-patients/ Schroder-Back, P., Duncan, P., Sherlaw, W., Brall, C., & Czabanowska, K. (2014). Teaching seven principles for public health ethics: Towards a curriculum for a short course on ethics in public health programs. BMC Medical Ethics. BioMed Central Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6939-15-73 Shulman, R. (2016). Consent for Treatment and Conflicts between Substitute Decision Makers: Options for Resolution. Retrieved 21 March, 2019 from https://www.allaboutestates.ca/conflicts-substitute-decision-makers/ Thorns, A. (2010). Ethical and legal issues in end-of-life care. Clinical Medicine, Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London. Royal College of Physicians. https://doi.org/10.7861/clinmedicine.10-3-282   Continue Reading...

Maintaining the Health Of Patients

for a third of HAIs among patients in hospital settings (Iowa Department of public health). The challenge, then, is in agreeing to the emphasis placed on CAUTI within the organization, and taking adequate risk management measures to prevent this condition from occurring. Still, the very nature of this challenge presents opportunities for the aforementioned organization to engage in preventative action to preclude the occurrence of CAUTI as much as possible. Specifically, this organization should implement a number of strategies to help CAUTI from affecting patients in clinical environments. These strategies are readily stratified into two components: early prevention, necessary,… Continue Reading...

Argument for Universal Healthcare United States

stands strongly in favor of universal health care and equitable access to healthcare. Likewise, the American public health Association (1995) advocates for universal health care. Both the AMA (2018) and the American public health Association (1995) base their claims not just on ethical arguments but also on financial imperatives. Moreover, the AMA (2018) and the American public health Association (1995) show how universal coverage would promote the ultimate goal of health care: which is actually improving health outcomes. Unfortunately, health care policy is driven less by sound ethical principles or data-driven analytics and more by special interests in retaining… Continue Reading...

Opioid Crisis in the United States

Opioid Crisis in the United States Today? Introduction Today, a veritable public health crisis exists with respect to the widespread use of prescription and illicit opioids such as heroin, pain relievers and synthetic opioids such as fentanyl by American consumers. In fact, opioid overdoses claim more than 130 Americans each day, and there are no signs this ugly trend will reverse itself in the foreseeable future (Opioid overdose crisis, 2019). Moreover, the social and economic costs that are related to the tens of millions of people who are currently addicted to opioids is estimated to exceed $78.5 billion annually, a figure… Continue Reading...