Religion Essays


Cultural Identity Essay (Free Example Completed in 2018)

  Abstract This paper discusses all the facets and considerations inherent to cultural identity. Namely, the paper describes the importance of cultural identity, the definition of cultural identity, and examples of cultural identity—both theoretical and literal examples in the world today. This essay seeks to show how one’s cultural identity is so much more than just a melee of one’s race, environment and heritage. Cultural identity is made up of so many factors and influences, both positive and negative, and both direct and covert. This paper sheds light on how one’s cultural identity manifests and how the cultural identity of Continue Reading...

Covenantal Nomism

represents when he says "Judaism was not and is not a religion where acceptance with God is earned through the merit of righteousness based on works." In other words, no one can do good deeds as a means to become part of God's people, as mentioned before. Hagner goes a bit further when saying that the subject of "justification by faith" was seen as a way to "facilitate" and help the mission of the Gentiles. Hagner touches on the same vexing question that was brought up before and that was how Saul the Pharisee and Paul the Christian can… Continue Reading...

The Book Of Tobit Review

the precepts and lessons of the Catholic Church and of Judaism. People are increasingly turning away from religion as a source of how to live their life and be a good person. However, there are plenty of other people that are pushing back on that movement and the results and outcomes of such an impure society are starting to rear their heads in vigorous and vicious fashion. Bibliography Bible Odyssey. "Second Temple Judaism." Bibleodyssey.Org. Last modified 2016. Accessed August 26, 2016. http://www.bibleodyssey.org/tools/timeline-gallery/s/second-temple-judaism.aspx. Toy, Crawford Howell. "TOBIT, BOOK OF - Jewishencyclopedia.Com." Jewishencyclopedia.Com. Last modified 2016. Accessed August 26, 2016. http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/14422-tobit-book-of. Continue Reading...

Social Bonding Theory

measured in terms of religiosity or how far a person displays a sincere respect for his/her religion, and its practices and values (Durkin et al., 1999; Chriss, 2007). Involvement is the third social bonding component; it deals with the time an individual devotes to conforming activities, like taking part in sports or clubs, or completing school work. Social bonding theory claims that those who devote their time to conformist activities will simply lack the time to involve themselves in deviant activities. In case of college students, involvement indicators include the quantity of time they devote to studying or engaging… Continue Reading...

Australian Curriculum

space for all cultures and peoples within the Australian space rather than giving favor to any certain culture, religion or group of people as part of establishing any sort of national identity or dominant culture. A linchpin of this plan is to impart upon students that they supposed to take responsibility for what they make of this world. Rather than just life pass them by or not be aware and cognizant of what is going on in the world around them, ACARA is requesting and beckoning students to be an active and accepting member of society so as to… Continue Reading...

Employment Laws in the United Kingdom

These include age, disability, gender reassignment, marriage and/or civil partnership status, race, religion/beliefs, gender and sexual orientation. The prohibited conduct as mentioned in the law is fairly specific and is covered in the second chapter of the key concepts section. These include direct discrimination, combined discrimination, discrimination that comes from disability, discrimination arising from gender reassignment and time away from work for the same, discrimination related to pregnancy or maternity in general, adjustments (or lack thereof) for people that are disabled, how discrimination can be identified based on comparisons and similarities and prohibited conduct such as harassment and victimization… Continue Reading...

Lecture Xx by William James

the same duties" (487). According to him, every person believes and sees religion from his "peculiar angle of observation" (487) and deals with it on his own unique way. James explains the presence of an unseen order of some kind in that has the riddles of the natural order. Here, we either have a blind faith in traditional religious answers, or we presume some future state whereby this "unseen world" will be discovered and verified by science. Presently, we might say that these answers are represented by either fundamentalists who dogmatically assert the ultimate truth of their religious beliefs… Continue Reading...

Ethnicity

individuals in a certain geographical expanse taking into account their customs, language, religion and birthright. In order to be deemed a member of an ethnic group, one must conform to either all or a number of such aforementioned practices. Describe the differences between ethnicity and race It is imperative to note that there is a difference between race and ethnicity. A key difference lies in the fact that ethnicity is tied to cultural aspects of an individual or group of people whereas race is tied to their biological aspects. On one hand, with respect to race, individuals can be… Continue Reading...

Sophia Tannis

obstacles tantamount with working in the southern states, consisting of gender, culture, nationality and religion, Tannis was able to substantially deliver and form an accomplished team to maintain the changes instigated (Blanchard, 2013). Change and Acceptance For starters, change is an element that is inexorable for not only individuals, but also organizations. Change management together with alteration have come to be longstanding constituents for organizations in the present day. Change determinations are time and again unsuccessful as a result of the fact that change agents operate with a constrained viewpoint. They make solicitation of solely one or two lenses… Continue Reading...

Strategic Resource Management Hewlett Packard Enterprise

in its organization and organizational system the way other people have faith in the religion they follow (Stadtler, 2015; Feitzinger & Lee, 1997). HP's leaders collaborate with other businesses for ensuring the organization has the right individuals, possessing the right skills, assigned the right job. HP is improving its growth capacity via strategic personnel strategies, merger and acquisition support, and providing emerging markets with reasonably-priced infrastructure. For remaining at the top of the market, the organization optimizes all operating strategy aspects -- increasing returns, investing wisely and being efficient. Role of HRM in HP Employees form the key to… Continue Reading...

Renaissance and Rise Of Humanism in Painting

Masaccio, Fra Angelico, and Filippino Lippi The Renaissance was a dynamic time in which religion, artwork, and new styles, thoughts and concepts regarding perspective and expression intertwined and impacted one another. The effect was an explosion of new talent, new advancements in painting, and new horizons achieved. This paper will show how this was achieved by examining three works from three influential Renaissance painters -- Masaccio, Fra Angelico and Filippino Lippi. Masaccio Masaccio's The Tribute Money (ca. 1420) is a perfect illustration of the complex formula of Renaissance religious symbolism and naturalistic beauty that characterized… Continue Reading...

Civil Rights and Religion

a level of stability that can accommodate many difference ideologies. Federalism and Religious Freedoms A Federalist design works to protect religion and religious leaders by allowing them to operate freely without any state intervention. Main Point • Although religions receive many protections, there are many issues that put the church and state at odds when the religious ideology conflicts with the secular freedoms which have been present since the founding in varying forms and degrees; obvious examples in today's society could be illustrated by abortion and stem-cell research. • Contrary to a general misconception, however, the Puritans also made lasting contributions… Continue Reading...

Patient Named Eliza

to the treatment)  - Psychiatric history  - Present legal or forensic issues  - Social condition (housing status, family, religion, cultural background, finances)  - Abuse or violence (including incidents of abuse or violence related to any kids in the care of the individual, together with knowledge of reporting obligation) - The MSE or Mental Status Examination – an unbiased evaluation of behavioral, emotional, and cognitive aspects)  - Current functioning level  - Substance use  - Assessment of suicide risk I would carry out a preliminary standard Level 01 CCM (Crosscutting Measure) for ascertaining whether or not any extra problem areas emerge, which require dealing… Continue Reading...

Enlightenment

Age, environmental awareness and globalisation. It is during this period that a paradigm shift from faith ( religion) to reason as the principal source of legitimacy and authority occurred (Badger). The shift occurred against the backdrop of ideals such as science, tolerance, liberty, democracy, secularism, free will and humanism. However, the period is also scared with false starts and failures, violent schisms, world wars, imperialism, terrorism, irrational nationalism, extreme religious war, information overload, pollution and the threat of nuclear annihilation that indicate failure of the rational model promised by the Enlightenment. On the premise of this dichotomy of hope and… Continue Reading...

Dome Of St Peters Basilica

doors first -- and thus giving them to the world via the mechanism of religion. Indeed, it was a suitable vehicle. The Church was at its height, its apogee -- and would soon be rendered a serious shock to its system in the coming Protestant Reformation. But for now, it was in control and it exerted power and influence over all Europe. This dominance could be captured and illustrated best by using the same forms and architectural concepts that the ancient world of antiquity had mastered: the glories of Rome and Greece -- the two mammoths of artistic feat… Continue Reading...

Transference and Countertransference

they also need to keep the proper boundaries and distance. Whether it be past experiences, feelings about religion, feelings about politics or other such things, these professionals have to be mindful of how they react and how they care for their patients. The mental health game is not a playing field for people that cannot or will not control their responses to such stimuli. References Hughes, P. & Kerr, I. (2000). Transference and countertransference in communication between doctor and patient. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 6(1), 57-64. Retrieved from http://apt.rcpsych.org/content/6/1/57.full#SEC7 Continue Reading...

Byzantine Art from the Middle Ages

the stylized woodwork all indicated in elaborate and grand ways the glory of God. Yet, as art, religion, society, politics and travel began to increase and grow at this time, the mendicant orders appeared like a salve -- a reminder of the need for Christian society to be humble, to be charitable, to be Christ-like and simple. The new style and format for art that emerged during the 1200s and 1300s were infused with the teachings and ideas of the mendicant orders, which swept the continent as a result of their bold simplicity and greatness of spirit. This paper… Continue Reading...

Diversity Management

all levels -- from racial and gender background to age, religion, political affiliation, sexual orientation, geographic origin, disability, social status, and personality. The importance of an inclusive workplace is informed by the fact organizations now exist in communities with diverse populations, all which require proportionate representation in the workplace. By creating an inclusive workplace, an organization benefits from diversity of ideas and perspectives (Yang & Konrad, 2011). In a constantly evolving world, organizations must be willing to take advantage of different ideas, skills, capabilities, and experiences. An inclusive workplace provides a valuable way through which this can be achieved.… Continue Reading...

Klemperers Diaries and National Socialism

an ideology which embraced a concept of citizenship based upon individualism, not upon a particular allegiance to a religion and which also supported economic free choice. He still held true for many years to the ideology which had been the foundation of his life before the Nazis came to power, namely the belief that Germany could be a place for all human beings, so long as they showed loyalty to the state. Klemperer, as a result of his experiences, never lost faith in the idea of a German state which could represent the interests of all people, which is… Continue Reading...

Orthodoxy Of Abrahamic Religions

the cross. Regardless, it is clear that not even everyone under the Abrahamic religion envelope was in lockstep behind Jesus when he merged just after the CE years that we remain within (Tabor, James) (STR). Next up in term of chronological order is the time and orders of Mohammed. Coming to prominence in the 600's CE, it was clear that while Mohammed did not reject the words and beliefs of the Jews and the Christians outright, he clearly wanted to take a different path and he very much did not hold those other two Abrahamic religions in a very… Continue Reading...

When Work Disappears

it includes not only culture, but also other aspects such as gender, disability, geographic origin, and religion. Developing countries should pay greater attention to these aspects. Question 4 With shifts in workforce demographics, developed countries face a significant dilemma -- whether to grow the labor force via immigrants or via employing more traditional workers. Whereas there may be no straightforward answer to this dilemma, it appears that more and more developed countries are growing the labor force through employing more non-traditional workers (short-term contract workers, freelancers, virtual assistants, independent workers, and other types of non-permanent workers). Most developed countries… Continue Reading...

Role Of Women in Developing Culture in Nigeria

destroyed these age-old local institutions, replacing them with the 'alien' institutions of formal education, religion, etc. Women of most ethnic communities in the nation, especially the Igbo, Yoruba and Hausa, featured prominently in local and national politics, holding key positions. The women of the country have "broken even," and are currently a strong party in Nigeria's developmental processes (OGUNJEMILUA & FAMILUGBA, 2016). The nation's second republic (between 1979 and 1983) saw its first woman senator -- France Afegbua. An improvement was observed in its fourth republic (between 1999 and 2004), with 3 female Senators and 15 female House of… Continue Reading...

Psychology, Financial Decision-making, and Household Management

debts have an adversely impact. Other variables such as religion, age, and also being Dutch have a constructive impact on financial management. What is more, financial management is influenced positively by long-term orientation, while short-term influences it negatively. Lastly, having financial knowledge and understanding of financial products have a positively impact whereas the lack thereof has a negative impact. Conclusion Mental budgeting seems to be extensively practiced in the Netherlands and numerous preceding findings in the literature regarding the determining factors of mental budgeting are reproduced. One of the inferences made is that higher education is linked with lower… Continue Reading...

‘araby’ by James Joyce

on the oppression people are facing in the name of religion which causes them to have a very false perspective of reality. Description of the setting Araby is set in Dublin, Ireland and the story locale is a North Richmond Street that is depicted as 'blind' and quiet. The word blind is chosen to imply 'without a vision' or 'a dead end.' The house of the narrator is described as 'enclosed' and 'musty;' however the narrator in his youth was unaware of the staleness that surrounds him. All of his attention was fixed on Mangan's sister whose presence helped… Continue Reading...

Terrorism in Africa Study Design

to explain behavior or outcomes. Such variables might include "sex, race, religion, nationality, geographical region, etc." (Uriel, 2013, p. 1). Regression analysis and other multivariate techniques are useful for describing the relationships among variables. When a dependent variable or outcome is assessed according to how it relates to various qualitative variables (such as the ones identified above), multivariate techniques such as regression can be useful in assessing that relationship. In the case of a study addressing terrorism in African (Boko-Haram specifically), regression may be used because of the qualitative study's assessment of the relationship among the various qualitative variables… Continue Reading...

Soren Aabye Kierkegaard

-transformation. In case of Soren, unique existence manifested itself in a moment of disagreement between religion and ethics. If acting according to the will of God brings meaning to a particular individual's life, how is this conceived by philosophy? At this point, drawing on the German philosopher, Hegel, as symbolic of the whole tradition, Soren's work Fear and Trembling reveals that the author finds meaning in life by raising himself "to the universal," bringing his natural tendencies and wants under ethical law, which reflects what he should be (i.e., his "telos") (Obinyan, 2014). Hence, existence denotes attaining self-possession within spiritually… Continue Reading...

Godbeers Salem Witch Trials

century the 1692 Salem Witch hunt showed just how much religion and religious belief permeated society. Several were accused and executed for witchcraft in Salem. While many of the accused were just victims of an overzealous society, the Salem Witch Trials remain as part of an unforgettable part of American history. Richard Godbeer's Escaping Salem: The Other Witch Hunt of 1692, take another look at the events of 1692 Salem, but from a different, refreshing perspective. The book notes of the dramatic change in early New England's legal system because of the witch trials. The people's faith-based beliefs came… Continue Reading...

Treatment Modalities for Act and Ipt

would be able to "sell" the practice best by drawing a connection between the patient's religion and the tools and techniques of ACT. I might need some time compiling my "pitch," but I would eventually be able to convince a noncompliant, rigid minded patient that their religious values and beliefs are not threatened by the type of therapy they use. In fact, ACT is multifaceted and is built on a framework of openness and exploration (Hayes, n.d.). As respectfully as possible, I would try to urge the patient to consider whether their religion is actually serving them or not.… Continue Reading...

Persuasive Speech

from Mexico and Latin America, and are Catholics in terms of religion. Therefore, it is wrong to link them to acts of terrorism. In addition, border crossing cannot be linked to terrorism as such attacks have been designed by legal individuals on work, study or tourist visas (Open Borders). Negative Economic Effects Another need for having stronger limits on immigration encompasses the fact that it has an adverse impact on the United States economy. Undocumented workers and illegal immigrants have undercut the wages and taken up employment opportunities that would otherwise be handed to Americans. Owing to the increase… Continue Reading...

East Asian History Questions

of Heaven and Tradition." European Journal for Philosophy of religion 8:1 (2016), 143-162. 2. Explain what was at issue in the "Four-Seven" debate among Korean Confucian thinkers. The Four-Seven debate is pivotal for Korean Confucian history and knowledge. It stems from Zhu Xi, actually, whose teachings made a tremendous and lasting impact on Choson-era Korea. The four-seven debate refers first to the more esoteric and symbolic concepts of the "four beginnings" and the "seven feelings," stemming from I and ki, respectively (Cua 104). Because Zhu Xi left many of the issues surrounding the emanations of the beginnings and feelings… Continue Reading...

Aztec and Pre Aztec and Inca Civilization

embedded in the form and function of both Machu Picchu and Teotihuacan. religion informs design and architecture in all cultures, and is particularly evident in the planning and construction of Teotihuacan near modern-day Mexico City and Machu Picchu in modern day Peru in the highlands of the Amazon rainforest near Bolivia. The religious beliefs that dominated pre-Aztec civilizations in Mexico informed the design and layout of Teotihuacan, a complex and multilayered site that is aligned with sun, moon, and stars. Similarly, Machu Picchu is designed strategically for cosmic alignment but it is more critically planned in accordance with the need… Continue Reading...

Difference Between Shinto and Buddhism

Shinto, the indigenous religion of Japan, emphasizes nature to a considerable degree, a distinguishing feature of the faith. Buddhism offers a far more cerebral and philosophical approach, as well as pathways for personal psychological development. Unlike Shinto, Buddhism is not indigenous to Japan and is in fact a foreign religion that simply became entrenched there. In Japan, the two religions often fuse and their temples are found in close proximity to one another. They are not considered mutually exclusive or conflicting; they are both integral to Japanese… Continue Reading...

Islam Developing Trade Routes in Africa and Asia

Spread of Islam in Africa and Asia Along Trade Routes The Islam religion spread in Asia and Africa mainly due to trade of such goods as spices, gold, as also due to slaves. The advantages of proximity with the greatly profitable and powerful traders of the Islam religion triggered the conversions of merchants and rulers' into Muslims. Islam spread slowly; it took centuries, but in most places where the conversion took place, people still hold on to the religion (Debrouse). This paper explores the reasons of spread of Islam religion along Asian… Continue Reading...

Joseph Andrews Novel by Henry Fielding

extreme way, showing that the author is making fun of religion as well as its artificial morality. The fact that the Christian religion mandates no sex before marriage is something that the author seems interested in critiquing. In some ways the author comes across as being cynical, as it is nice to think about a man who is so fully devoted to a woman that nothing can veer him from his commitment to her. Yet Joseph is not as much committed to Fanny as to the idea of chastity. The author uses comedic phrasing, as when he has Joseph… Continue Reading...

An Indepth Analysis Of Diversity Management

of different individuals; differences between them are on account of numerous variables including race/ethnicity, sex, religion, political beliefs, socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, disability and ideologies (Rice, 2010). Companies capable of formulating and implementing requisite processes and strategies in this regard will enjoy a competitive edge over rivals, in addition to increased efficacy. Private sector models of competition are not exactly perfectly suited to public sector institutions as the latter lack a profit motive for existence. Nevertheless, public sector organizations ought to strive towards drawing in, hiring and retaining the cream of the labor force to accomplish their statutory goals,… Continue Reading...

Marx, Weber, Bourdieu, and Gramsci

it is received (Bourdieu "Symbolic Power and the Political Field" 166). Thus, politics, religion and social groups all have the ability to construct their symbolic power structures. In the age of the Internet, wherein power is decentralized and individualized, the classical theories of cultural power have varying degrees of application. The Marxist theory still applies in some form because it is only thanks to the individual efforts of laborers who disseminate information on the Internet that a new media has been able to be achieved: the collective efforts of users of the Internet have given it a basis of… Continue Reading...

Hindu Life Cycle Experience and Way Of Life

people for further rebirth till they attain moksha. Applying supporting principles The religion of Hinduism acknowledges a total of 4 life goals, which were properly applied in the aforementioned narrative (Bhsaskarananda, 2010): 1. Kama -- fulfilling sensual desires. 2. Artha -- acquiring material wealth and possessions. 3. Dharma -- performing religious obligations. 4. Moksha -- attaining liberation via God-realization. References Bhsaskarananda, Swami. The Hindu Way of Life. September 13, 2010. http://www.vedanta-seattle.org/articles/the-hindu-way-of-life/. Editors of Hinduism Today Magazine. What is Hinduism. Hawaii: Himalayan Academy, 2007. Continue Reading...

Buddhist Versus Hindu Architecture

as monks to obtain Enlightenment. In contrast, Hinduism is a distinctly Indian religion. Both religions embrace the concept of reincarnation, although it is Hinduism who uses this idea to justify a caste system, or the notion that the social class into which someone is born justifies the existence of a stratified society. This paper will argue that Buddhist art similarly reflects the religion's concept of the non-existence of a central self as well as a veneration of the Buddha and its teachings, versus Hinduism which reflects an anthropomorphic understanding of god as well as the religion's embrace of a… Continue Reading...

Thomas More’s Utopia

their unjust and evil practices, rather than one that depicts a perfect or positive world. With regard to religion, while the author was extremely firm on his Roman Catholic beliefs, in a perfect world, he desired religion in a better, "purer" form, as defined by him in the story. His thinking was definitely advanced, as evidenced by his communist ideas. The novel challenges the status quo, urging the British public to raise questions and criticize their current society instead of acquiescing and living in poverty. Therefore, Thomas More's tale is a description of two faces of the very same… Continue Reading...

African Slave Trade

change in the meaning of racism and race. African nations didn't exactly separate politics from religion, and kings' conversion had mixed motives: sincerity and efficiency were compatible, in both age-old African religions and the Iberian Catholic Church. In the area of sex and business, African kings contributed significantly to forming and strengthening relationships with European colonialists, and were usually led to believe they were enjoying the better part of the bargain. Northrup has concentrated on particular areas like textiles, metals, guns, politics, inland trade, spirits and tobacco in Sierra Leone; slavery only served to form new African identities. (Northrup, 2002).… Continue Reading...

Reflection on Positive Psychology Trends

its tenets can be adapted for different cultures and lifestyles. It is not incompatible with psychiatric practices nor with religion. Gratitude, welcoming a simpler life instead of incessant striving for material gains, recognizing the impact our actions have on the lives of others, and valuing challenges as a source of growth can all help people flourish in a complex world. Continue Reading...

Vietnamese History Throughout the Centuries

in Vietnam. The poets tried to help by showing that unity reflected the cosmic order. Philosophy and religion The mid 16th century Le Dynasty showed that Buddhism was not important officially but was important informally, as when drought conditions inspired Buddhist ritual for rain. Le Thai Tong decided to adopt the Ming rituals and music for Vietnamese court, and that style of ritual and music persists today The Temple of Literature was established, under guidance of Than Phu Tien, to create a continuity of thought in the Confucian tradition Many of the rituals continued until 20th century, highlighting the centrality… Continue Reading...

Issues in Developmental Psychology

to disregard of limits established by her parents and religion. Poor career choice could be addressed through developing her competence during schooling years. Poor choices in relationships could be addressed through communicating the significance of good choices in relationships and dangers of bad ones. Poor educational achievement could be addressed through constant reminders of the value of education and providing necessary educational resources for better academic achievements. Since learning is a social process as shown by Vygotsky, these changes would change outcomes by providing necessary social support that enables Mila to make right choices despite having greater independence. Generally,… Continue Reading...

Book Review Of Bethany Moreton’s “to Serve God and Walmart

so doing, she has explicitly clarified the relationship between contemporary American business, governance, and religion. The book is an indepth report on free market and evangelical doctrines' mainstreaming, and will help readers comprehend how the company won America's hearts and wallets. The Central Theme What is the reason behind the rise of modern consumerism's leading entity in the Arkansan Ozark Mountains situated so far from America's industrial cities, financial hubs, and age-old transportation hubs? After all, prior to Walmart, this region was hardly considered to be the birthplace of a modern corporate giant. Moreton studies the advantages Walmart's rural… Continue Reading...

Todays Strategic Human Resource Management

discharge, pay, fringe benefits, job training, classification, referral, and other aspects of employment, on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin. Other acts have been passed, building on the framework of Title VII. These include the Americans with Disabilities Act, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, providing protections against discrimination for the disabled and for those over 40 as well. All of these are enforcement by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC.gov, 2003). The CRA applies to employers with over 15 employees, or that have employees across multiple states. This means it does not… Continue Reading...

Investigative Psychology

let him interact more with his fellow prisoners. Dahmer learnt religion from photos and books he received from his father. The Correctional Institution of Columbia even allowed him to go through baptism; it was done by a pastor from that area. In 1994, November 28, with regard to his participation in routine work details, he was allocated to work together with two of his fellow convicted murderers, Christopher Scaver and Jesse Anderson. When the three were left to work, Scaver attacked Dahmer and Jesse. By the time the guards came back, he had ruthlessly beaten them using a piece… Continue Reading...

Exegesis Of Revelation 3: 14-22

is without the Spirit's fruit -- Jesus's true nature. It implies hypocritical religion. Brief for a non-theologically trained audience The world and the devil try to make us feel our good life suffices and is everything we require and desire. We watch "Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous," game shows, and other reality TV episodes in which people are winning large sums of money. We follow raffles and wish for such luck for ourselves. This implies a belief that a good life can be purchased with money, which is actually untrue[footnoteRef:13]. [13: Supra, note 8.] Materialism represents a vicious… Continue Reading...

Biblical Prophetic Literature and Hosea

bringing upon the wrath of God. Specifically, the adoption of the Canaanite religion is condemned and the exile from God anticipates Israel's later, real, physical exile.[footnoteRef:4] [3: Ibid.] [4: Stuart, 162] Literary Context As a work of prophetic literature, Hosea has a strong apocalyptic tone, forecasting the doom of Israel and a harsh judgement because of its idolatry. Hosea does not offer a suggestion to the Israelites on how to avoid their fate, however, rather he simply tells them what will happen. "A graphic description of the helplessness of the king completes the verse...Hosea's announcement of divine retribution ends… Continue Reading...

Personal Statement for Law School

.....family comes from a Middle Eastern culture, very conservative and traditional. I was born in the United States, sent to American schools, and yet expected to hold tight to my parents' cultural values and traditions. The turning point of my teenage years came around age fourteen during an interaction with my uncle. He held a 9-millimeter pistol to my head and stated, "I as a male have the freedom to have relations with as many women as I please, whereas you with a single touch of the opposite sex can ruin the entire families' reputation." The encounter came after I… Continue Reading...

Text Sets for a Multicultural Topic

from multicultural communities and societies that are characterized by people from different religions, nationalities, ethnicities, religion, and races. One of the social factors that are evident in these students' lives is the multicultural environment where they are brought up in and learn. Similar to their communities, these students are in a learning environment with people from different races, religions, and ethnicities. Consequently, they have different lifestyles because of the influence of social and cultural factors in their upbringing. Additionally, these students come from different family backgrounds that include single parent families and families with both parents. Some of these… Continue Reading...

Boko Haram and Nigerian Terrorism

its historical, social, and political context. It is appealing to the poor and disenfranchised, using religion as a direct means of social and political control. Suggestions for state responses include ongoing negotiations, albeit while embedding counterterrorism measures. Counterterrorism should be less about force and more about addressing the root causes such as socioeconomic inequalities and creating a normative culture in which radicalization no longer takes place. Agbiboa, D.E. (2013b). Why Boko Haram Exists: The Relative Deprivation Perspective. African Conflict and Peacebuilding Review 3(1): 144-157. Boko Haram did not emerge from a vacuum. Radical Islam has existed in Nigeria for… Continue Reading...

Islam and the Turkish State

the state was founded. While Islam was the state religion of modern Turkey's precursor, the Ottoman Empire, it was not long after the Republic of Turkey was founded that Islam was removed as the state religion in favor of the secular approach of the country's founder, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. But there have always been tensions between Islam and the state since that point. Turkey's demographics -- split between a handful of large, secular cities and a more rural, religious majority population, and Turkey's vision as a balance of power between east and west, are among the chief causes of… Continue Reading...

Ramayana Mahabharata Divine Incarnation

particularly the patriarchal order. Works Cited Halligan, Fredrica R., n.d., "Avatar." Encyclopedia of Psychology and religion, pp. 89-90. Jones, Naamleela Free, 2015, "From Gods To Gamers: The Manifestation of the Avatar Throughout Religious History and Postmodern Culture." Berkeley Undergraduate Journal 28(2). Available: http://escholarship.org/uc/item/4mn5k202 Woods, Julian F., 2014, Destiny and Human Initiative in the Mahabharata. SUNY Pres. Continue Reading...

Qualitative and Quantitative Data Analysis

experience of women with reference to Pakistan context. The uniqueness of the Pakistan is their interplay between family structure religion, culture, and class, which affects their reconciliation of family roles and works among Pakistani women. The study uses the in-depth semi-structured interview to investigate the experience of Pakistani women with reference to work-family conflict. The study uses the qualitative data analysis to enhance data reliability and validity. The analysis is carried out by reading the texts to understand the entire context of the interviews. The outcome of the analysis produces several themes. The first theme produced from the interview… Continue Reading...

Death and Meaning Of Life in Tuesdays with Morrie

.....deathbed, Morrie reflects on his life, and relays several messages about the meaning or purpose of life. Ironically, one of the main messages of the story is that life does not necessarily have a greater or cosmic meaning. Meaning is found in what is immediately before us, in the day-to-day existence and especially in relationships with others. Life's meaning is found in accepting life for what it is rather than wishing it could be something else. The meaning of life can therefore be best understood by appreciating what we have now instead of wishing we were different or that things… Continue Reading...

Social Shift from Religion to Spirituality

religion and Spirituality in a Broad Sense Spirituality and religion are two terms that have rather unstable, historically changing definitions, characterized by numerous implied and explicit theological considerations. Further, the general contention is that these definitions are either overly specific or overly generic. A more astonishing fact is, possibly, these researches' level of concurrence that spirituality represents a private, budding, personal and emotional sphere, whilst religion is more public, group-based and fairly stable. Interviews and questionnaire tools arising out of these definitions characteristically undertake measurements… Continue Reading...

Pacific Island and Aboriginal Art 1980

Art, ritual, and religion are inseparable in the aboriginal societies of Oceania. Aboriginal myths of creation and the Dreamtime are rendered in art and permeate the various types of art found throughout indigenous Australia from bark and rock paintings to the modern renditions on canvas. Similarly, the art of Pacific Islands before 1980 is inseparable from their cultural contexts. The concept of art is different in the Pacific Islands than it is for the Europeans who colonized the region. Therefore, it is important to understand both aboriginal and… Continue Reading...

Discrimination and Harassment at the Workplace

the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, and religion." The Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) prohibits age discrimination (above 40 years) and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) urge "reasonable accommodations" for the disabled. The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) tell that employees must not be discriminated with personal or medical needs. Failure to implement these directives, discrimination can lead to employees filing discrimination lawsuits against the company. Such court cases are really expensive and the company can lose money if the judgment is in favor of the employee (Nayab, 2010). Nayab (2010) explains that the… Continue Reading...

Coming Of Age with Bisexuality

religion and Family on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Children in a Cup of Water Under My Bed: A Memoir by Daisy Hernandez (2015) In her memoir, A Cup of Water Under My Bed, Daisy Hernandez describes her first-hand experiences growing up in the United States as the daughter of Latin American parents from two different countries. Although Hernandez provides a number of salient examples of how cross-cultural issues affect her life, perhaps the most poignant issue explored in her memoirs… Continue Reading...

Japan and Confucianism in Art and Society

helped to forge. Hideyoshi was mainly inspired by Buddhist sentiments, so his religious feeling was offended by the new religion as well. He was not as impacted by the Confucian revival, otherwise he might have had more tolerance for the missionaries, seeing a common bond between them. Because he was more concerned about the unity in Japan than philosophical discussions, he ordered a ban against the missionaries and ended the influx of Catholic religion into Japan (Elisonas 27). This began a closing off of Japan to outside influences that lasted for many years. In one regard, the concept of… Continue Reading...

How Confucianism Impacted China

exemplary figure (Ames 39). Confucianism Confucianism is not a formalized creed, as one might find in a religion: its tenets are essentially philosophical and broadly based on the traditional mores of ancient Chinese customs. Some in China view it as a religion because Confucius did touch upon spiritual matters such as the wisdom of following astrological signs, which come from Heaven to guide men. Others view it as a basic philosophy that can be used as a foundation for forming one's character. As Hu Shih point outs, "the Chinese people are the least religious among the civilized races...Chinese philosophy has been… Continue Reading...

Muslim Youth Identity in Biculturalism America

to focus on adolescence and young adulthood when investigating biculturality among Muslim American youth. religion and culture are both significant features and factors of identity construction. At times there may be significant nodes of intersection between national, ethnic, and religious identities, leading to multiple and interlinked identity constructions. Gender can also factor in, as can socio-economic or status class differences. For example, South Asian Muslims share a Muslim identity with their Arabian counterparts, but also share a common identity with their Hindu South Asian counterparts (Mohammad-Arif, 2000). Theories of identity formation are often culturally constrained themselves, revealing biases in the… Continue Reading...

The Eucharist and the Laity

Eucharistic Meal There is no greater religious food in the Catholic religion than the Eucharistic Supper that is given at Mass when the priest consecrates the bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ. This act is called transubstantiation, and for Catholics it is a religious miracle because while the Body and Blood retain the appearance of bread and wine, their substance is believed to contain the body, blood, soul and divinity of Jesus Christ. Those who receive the Eucharistic during Mass and said to consume the Body of Jesus Christ. The… Continue Reading...

Violence, Sex and Other Things

information on the subject," not information that has been filtered through their religion or any other distorted views. In fact, Garsd (2015) shows that a sex education program taught throughout primary school enhances the child's ability to recognize that there are multiple attitudes and viewpoints, not to "contradict" what is taught at home or in the place of worship. References De Melker, S. (2015). The case for starting sex education in kindergarten. PBS Newshour. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/spring-fever/ Garsd, J. (2015). Beyond The Birds And The Bees: Surviving Sex Ed Today. NPR. Retrieved online: http://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2015/06/01/406988245/beyond-the-birds-and-the-bees-surviving-sex-ed-today Continue Reading...

Relationship Of Food and Ritual in India

the traditional Latin Mass there. Aunty wanted to raise the orphans in her care in the religion of the Church and wanted the traditional sacraments to be available to them. Stalin and Bibiana were not orphans, but both attended the school that the priests had set up for the orphans in Tamil. The priests welcomed locals into the school. Stalin was a border with the orphan boys who stayed at the priests' rectory. The girls stayed at the ashram with Aunty. Currently, classes were being held at the ashram and the boys would bus over to the ashram where… Continue Reading...

Educational Psychology

psychologists, especially Freudians, considered experiences undergone at the tender, early childhood age to be crucial to social, psychological and mental growth. Newer studies reveal that even late-childhood experiences are influential, capable of altering a child's developmental course. A majority of contemporary psychologists discuss sensitive, rather than critical, phases, which are phases when an individual is found to be particularly reactive towards or equipped to handle particular experiences. Hence, while childhood is deemed to be the ideal age to independently learn any second language (i.e., without direct teaching on others' part), adults also can and have effectively learnt second languages (Woolfolk… Continue Reading...

Hobby Lobby and First Amendment

for contraceptives in insurances covers would violate the right of speech and religion of the people in the American society. One of the cases that have been decided by The Supreme Court of the USA is Virginia vs. Black (2003). This was a case related to hate speech in the USA. The issue before the court was related to cross burning that had led to the three defendants in the case guilty of causing harm to others using the cross burning act. The court found that the Virginia Statute that that was against cross burning to be unconstitutional although… Continue Reading...

English Protestant Clergy in Literature

Adams, Primrose and Yorick: A Comparison of 18th Century Church of England Clergymen One of the clearest features shared by Fielding's Adams in Joseph Andrews, Goldsmith's Primrose in The Vicar of Wakefield, and Sterne's Yorick in A Sentimental Journey through France and Italy is relentlessness that the characters demonstrate, as though by sheer force of will they may manage affairs to a happy conclusion. In spite of their sometimes obtuse qualities, their evident pride in themselves, their naivete, their innocence, their ability to bungle their way into all manner of episodic conundrums, their resolute good humor through it all ensures… Continue Reading...

Personal Versus Professional Values

spiritual but not overly religious while her parents are both devoid of a religion when it comes to their beliefs. Perhaps the lack of a religious bias helps predict that both Eboni's mother wants the pregnancy terminated. Incidentally, her boyfriend wants the pregnancy terminated as well. There are also the concerns about the roommates at the house. The social worker should only include religion and spirituality to the extent that it is present and a factor in the life of Eboni. Meaning, Eboni needs to make up her own mind based on the circumstances and details in play. To… Continue Reading...

Role Of Faith in Healthcare

Religious Sensitivity Everyone on the planet Earth has their own concept of religion, spirituality and what they believe when it comes to both. Of course, those mindsets and perceptions evolve and change over time. They are influenced by life events, exposure to religion exposure to others when it comes to religion and so forth. However, most situations and applications do not call for religion to even be brought up or discussed. Even so, healthcare is absolutely an exception to the norm given that many people rely and lean on their faith, whatever it may be, when they face their mortality… Continue Reading...

Self Identity

identity because individuals from this ethnic background do not have a common language, material attributes, religion and culture. While most of the existing assessments of this ethnic identity have been carried out in Thailand, it is largely influenced by historical and social conditions in the Union of Myanmar. Based on a review of contemporary Myanmar, people of Karen identity are seemingly virtuous, illiterate (uneducated), and oppressed. Many aspects relating to this identity appear to emphasize inferiority and subordination mostly because of mythology and modifications by the elite. Similar to the Union of Myanmar, Karen identity was brought by political… Continue Reading...

Chesapeake Middle Colonies Georgia and the Carolinas

of colonial governments to work peacefully using Quaker principles and at demonstrating that religion is capable of thriving with total liberty of conscience, even in the absence of governmental support. However, with time, they began struggling with maintaining harmony and at one point, Pennsylvania saw 6 Governors (Tindall and Emory Shi 92). Till end-1500s, Delaware belonged to the Pennsylvania colony. Even during the former half of the eighteenth century, when the formation of a new state occurred, the same individual governed over both. The practice of slavery was rife in Maryland and Virginia (Chesapeake colonies). For instance, by the… Continue Reading...

College Student Development

manifest along the lines of race, ethnicity, gender, age, sexual orientation, religion, political inclination, personality, and so forth. Understanding these identities is particularly crucial as colleges increasingly enrol students from diverse backgrounds. In college, it is not uncommon to notice social identities. Students will often group themselves in categories of shared background and characteristics. For instance, an apparent illustration is the inclination of African-American students to socialise more with their African-American peers than other social groupings. A community counsellor must understand these identities if they are to effectively execute their roles and responsibilities (Patton et al., 2016). Whereas CSDT… Continue Reading...

How Democracy Leads to Tyranny

and control. They did not welcome open discussion on ideas or the nature of truth, religion, sexuality, war, nature, etc. They dictated terms and expected them to be observed -- or else the individual who failed to do so would be cast out. Hawthorne's Scarlett Letter depicts just such a scenario -- and it is representative of the American ethos, the Puritanism that shaped its character, and the reason why democracy in general was doomed to fail in the U.S. It was not based on the truth sought by Plato's philosopher-king but rather on control and the desire to… Continue Reading...

Comparing Different Cultural Views on Aging

that it is especially important to respect and venerate one's elders and ancestors. Confucianism is not so much a religion as a philosophy or way of life, and while there is a spiritual aspect to its underpinnings, one of the main tenets of the belief system is that younger persons should respect older persons (Parker, 2001). For this reason, as people age in Chinese culture, it is expected and understood that the younger family members will look after the older. In modern times, this belief and practice may not be as popular -- but the basic ideas are still… Continue Reading...

John Stuart Mill’s on Liberty

religious dictates. "It is, in the first place, an offence against their religion . . . that peculiar character, resembling an instinctive antipathy, which [is] the idea of uncleanness . . . "[footnoteRef:8] For Mill, the prohibition of pork is solely rooted in religious prejudice and thus cannot be defensible. The result is merely the restriction of liberty and harm is done to others and there is no rational benefit accrued to the majority. It is analogous to the Puritans banning the practice of the theater. "Wherever the Puritans have been sufficiently powerful . . . they have endeavored,… Continue Reading...

How Hong Kong Responds to Fitness Clubs

in the East, one's values are expressed through one's adherence to social norms, duties, religion, work, industry, and obedience (Kirkland, 2003; Parker, 2001). As Stearns (2002) shows, the fitness industry in America was supported and cultivated on several fronts: the advertising agencies played a fundamental role in establishing, nurturing and developing a cultural desire for the so-called health craze; the business sectors were instrumental in manufacturing and/or providing products and services for consumers related to the cultural aims suggested in the advertising realm. Celebrities played a large role in depicting the kind of health/fitness projection that Westerners could emulate.… Continue Reading...

Global Comparisons in Workplace Discrimination

in terms of conditions of employment based on color, sex, race, national origin, religion and age. Discrimination is also prohibited against individuals with disabilities world. For instance, based on the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), employers are obligated to make practical and evenhanded accommodations to facilitate disabled persons to attain accessibility to buildings and workplace functionality. Moreover, based on the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), employers are not allowed to discriminate against personnel taking care of personal or family medical necessities. Globally, there are numerous other federal and state laws that challenge workplace discrimination. It is through these… Continue Reading...

Constructivism Theory in International Politics

Moreover, the theory offers an effective way of understanding how ethnicity, religion, race, and sexuality account of the understanding of global politics. The constructivism provides a new dimension in understanding how ideas and social norms affect the international politics while rejecting power politics and materialistic approach to understanding global politics and security. Conclusion The collapse of former Soviet Union and fall of Berlin Wall leads to a development constructivism as a new theory in the international relations. By challenging the realists and liberalists theories, constructivism provides a new approach to international politics by pointing out that the security, conflict… Continue Reading...

Incompatibility Between Islam and Human Rights

the guiding principles of the UDHR is Article 18 that provides the freedom of religion, conscience and thought. The Article 2 also states that everyone is entitled to freedoms and rights to language, political and religion. Despite the stated principles of the UDHR, Islam does not recognize the absolute equality between men and women. After the ratification of UDHR in 1948, Saudi Arabia abstained themselves from ratifying the Declaration claiming that it violated the Sharia law. Entails, (1996) argues that Muslim countries have voiced their objections by pointing out that the international community cannot hold them responsible for the… Continue Reading...

Impact Of Immigration on Religious Beliefs

in the United States than in other highly developed nations. The likelihood of an American professing a religion and regularly attending services is high. Religious participation was a critical component of the process of people becoming Americans as churches were an important pillar in the social structure. Churches support and sustain communities while also facilitating inter-ethnic marriage within the three most significant religious groups: Jews, Catholics and Protestants (Massey and Higgins). Not many immigrants arrive in America expecting to alter the religion they are affiliated to. Their focus is often achieving a respectable financial standing in the society and… Continue Reading...

Religion Of Ancient Rome

honor of a deity who they depended on to guarantee success in the war ( religion in ancient Rome) (Roman mythology). How Ancient Rome Practiced religion Ancient Romans recognized and offered prayer too many gods and goddesses. Some of the gods were of Roman origin but many more were imported. Worship was conducted in both public occasions and in the privacy of their homes (Carlos). Sacrifice and prayer was the main form of worship. They made sacrifices to both personal gods and those dedicated to public wellness by offering sacrifices at altars or in hearth. The sacrifices mainly constituted drink… Continue Reading...

Main Themes in the Film Yentl

the Yeshiva Boy, Yentl's shocking double betrayal, both of religion and of nature, leads to her downfall. She ends up living the life of an alienated person, full of suffering, isolation, and reprehensible dishonesty. Following the failure of her marriage to Hadass, Yentl gets permanently trapped in the false image she devised for herself. She cannot find deliverance from her callous denunciation of the perfect life she once lived -- akin to the Wandering Jew (Fernley &Maloof, 1985; Whitefield, 1999). However, in the movie by Streisand, Yentl's rebelliousness and rejection of definition and expectation, also a dismissal of male… Continue Reading...

World Religions and Is Confucianism a Religion

Character of the Confucian Traditions' • Confucianism calls into question the definition of religion. • Confucianism is commonly treated differently from other religious traditions, because it is more about social harmony, ethics, and comportment than about theology. • All religions address ethics, morality, and social codes, and so does Confucianism. Then why is Confucianism not called a religion? • The main reason is that Confucianism "lacks a concept of the transcendent," (p. 80) • Is a concept of the transcendent a necessary part of the definition of a religion? No. • It is a "western" assumption that a religion is… Continue Reading...

Justice Ethics and Political Philosophy Rawls

distance itself from universalism, especially given that justice is presented as an ethical goal. religion and other sources of rigid moral codes have been common bases for law and order in non-democratic, non-secular societies. In constitutional democracies, individual differences are acknowledged and avowed but those differences do not preclude universal consideration based on humanitarian aims. Identity is connected more with personhood than with ethnicity, religion, or personal beliefs. To further clarify the essential nature and identity of people, Rawls distinguishes between private and public selves. The public self, the individual in the eye of the society, has access to and… Continue Reading...

The Human Condition and Its Diversity

perspectives.  Some of the major perspectives that have dominated evaluation of the human condition include religion, history, literature, philosophy, art, psychology, anthropology, and biology.  The use of these different perspectives to examine and help understand the human condition is attributable to the fact that human beings are diverse.  In essence, a suitable understanding of the human condition requires an exploration of the diversity of a human being. The human condition is basically defined as the major attributes, events, and circumstances that generate the essentials of human existence.  Some of these essentials include birth, growth and development, mortality, and emotionality.… Continue Reading...

Communicating Qualitative Research Analysis

are considered suitable in identifying intangible factors through a scientific inquiry such as socioeconomic status, religion, social norms, and ethnicity (College of Computer and Information Science, n.d.). In this regard, there are several aspects that distinguish qualitative research writing, which are brought by specific designs, steps of analysis, and data collection procedures. An understanding of these aspects of qualitative research writing helps in enhancing the effectiveness of the research process and research findings. Salient Aspects of Qualitative Research Writing In his discussion on qualitative research procedures, Creswell (2014) proposes ten aspects that differentiate qualitative research writing from other research… Continue Reading...

Ethnic Self Identity

minority development process from a dominant perspective. He points out that many blacks place a high value on religion, culture and race. Identity Development in Karen Ethnic Community The Karen are highly persecuted in Burma. Approximately 2000 villages have been destroyed since 1990. The Karen people have been subjected to a myriad of oppressive treatment and discrimination. They have been victims of forced labor and other forms of oppression. Some of the treatment is sheer brutality, an extremely inhuman act. There are reports that in 2006, about 26 000 people had been displaced because of violence in the eastern… Continue Reading...

Exclusivity and Inclusivity in the Church

what sets the Jews apart: the alone have received revelation directly from God -- thus the religion they practice is exclusive by definition. However, it is not exclusive in terms of persons but just in terms of faith. Only those who have faith can partake in the exclusivity, as the Passover itself signifies (their faith is what saves them). When it comes to persons, on the other, the religion is inclusive because it bars no one based on personal background; the only condition for admittance is faith. Thus, Isaiah focuses on inclusivity to stress this other fundamental part of… Continue Reading...

Religion in Ancient Greece

in the ancient world. With roots in Minoan culture, West Asian beliefs, and Central Asian gods, religion permeated virtually every aspect of Greeks' life -- from politics and culture to family, morals, agriculture, festivals, games, as well as beliefs about nature and the origin of life (Carr). The Greeks strongly believed that there were invisible, all-powerful gods and goddesses that controlled every occurrence. As a society, therefore, it was important to maintain a good relationship with the gods through prayer, sacrifice, and leading a good (morally upright) life. The prayers and sacrifices were made in sacred sites and temples… Continue Reading...

Democracy and Pluralism

and other ideals aren't considered. Persecution, whether based on nationality, sex, race, social status, religion or any other grounds traditionally segregating societies, remains obscured. Emerging opposing parties are now enjoying a stronger political presence, which is a clear shift from prior deviancy or dependency on their part, with rationales varying in accordance. Useful policy typically develops directly from court rulings which force statutory action. Justifications for policy are founded upon statements regarding rights, due legal process, access to equal opportunities, etc. For instance, the Clinton government's decisions to allow homosexual individuals entry into the FBI and the American army… Continue Reading...

The Book Of Daniel and Apocalyptic Literature

prophetic visions and apocalyptic writings and experiences that lay the groundwork for Christianity, but Daniel incorporates politics and religion in ways that create a "completely different genre" of scripture, according to Brueggeman (2003, p. 353). With visions and a sense of persecution, as well as the romanticizing of martyrdom, Daniel shows exactly how and why Christianity came to be. Daniel's visions "gather together historical memories and present awareness into a massive act of theological imagination whereby present time, present circumstance, and present generation are identified as a break point in human history," (Brueggeman, 2003, p. 353). Ultimately, the authors… Continue Reading...

Athenian Women, Politics, and Plays

society away from nomos towards physis and nomos became something antiquated: economics, politics, society and religion were all impacted. The West became secular (as it was once Christian for many centuries); the politics went from monarchic to democratic to somewhat kleptocratic; society became fractured to a large extent, which fragmentation illustrated by poets like T. S. Eliot. Ancient Athenian trial differed from the modern jury equivalent in the sense that women were not allowed on juries (it was a civic duty reserved for men). The jury courts were also much larger, with hundreds of jurors, and that is how… Continue Reading...

Confucian Virtues and Gender

followers of Confucianism and its status as a state religion, it would be a stretch to say that it spelled the end of this religion, or ideology, and that it was completely eradicated. Although the followers of Confucianism today represent only a small fraction of the world's total religious community, there are millions of individuals who still follow and practice the teachings of Confucius today. However, with that being said, an argument could be made that before sometime before this period marked the peak of the Confucianism influence in China and its influence plateaued before falling out of favor… Continue Reading...

Introduction to Global Business

Values are also imperative as they are the basic beliefs that are prevalent within a society. Other elements include religion, attitude, education, manners and customs. Hofstede and Tropenaars propose different cultural dimensions. Hofstede proposes dimensions such as individualism vs. collectivism, time orientation, power distance and masculine vs. feminine. On the other hand, Trompenaars proposes universalism vs. particularism, specific vs. diffuse, neutral vs. emotional and achievement vs. ascription. There are various cultural dimensions of doing business in different regions of the world. For instance, in Japan, a slight bow and hand shake are fitting. It is imperative not to look… Continue Reading...

Comparative Analysis Of Egoism or Altruism

Altruism, Fact or Fiction?: An Exploration of Altruism and Egoism in the Context of religion and Service Learning. Parkland College. Salter, F. (2008). Westermarck's Altruism: Charity Releasers, Moral Emotions, and the Welfare Ethic. Politics and the Life Sciences, 27(2): 28-46. Williams, L. R., & Russell, S. T. (2013). Shared Social and Emotional Activities Within Adolescent Romantic and Non-Romantic Sexual Relationships. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 42(4), 649-658. Continue Reading...

Restorative Justice

factors that may moderate the relationship between restorative justice and recidivism include gender, racial background, religion, nature of crime committed, as well as public attitudes towards crime (Dzur, 2003; Elis, 2005; Stamatakis & Vandeviver, 2013). These factors may affect the offender's or victim's willingness to participate in restorative dialogue and the extent to which the victim views the wrongful act as one in which justice can be served through dialogue. Overall, while restorative justice has increasingly become prominent in the criminal justice field, there is still scarcity of research focusing on the impact of restorative on recidivism, warranting further… Continue Reading...

Multinational Companies

UK have even enacted robust legislations prohibiting workplace discrimination on the basis of characteristics such as gender, racial background, religion, and sexual orientation. Nonetheless, workplace diversity remains largely a strange or an unpopular concept in conservative countries like Saudi Arabia. What this means for a British MNC such as GSK is that the pressure to implement HRM strategies that promote workplace diversity would be greater in the U.S. than in Saudi Arabia. In other words, GSK would be less concerned about workplace diversity when operating in Saudi Arabia. Though it is common for MNCs to localise their HRM strategy,… Continue Reading...

Book Strangers in Their Own Land

their choices are fully conscious, but their ideas are overtly irrational. religion is more important than education, and each person she speaks with remains proud of the cognitive schemas. Bubbling to the surface like the well-disguised guilt they carry around, the knowledge that they are shooting themselves in the foot is being suppressed and numbed by familiarity: the church, guns, and a commitment to a constructed social identity that has become more oppositional than constructive. Although Hochschild bases the ethnographic research in Lake Charles, which is half black, race does not feature prominently enough in Strangers in Their Own… Continue Reading...

Compare and Contrast Nozick and Socrates

there are certain moral and values-based question that transcend religion and all other commonly spat-worthy subjects but people nowadays are too busy playing ideological and similar games. Nozick seem to keep with the spirit, more or less, of what Socrates was saying. However, he seems to have veered a little too far away from the most important part of meaning and value. This is because too many people's concept of the same is less than moral or right. Works Cited Kemerling, Garth. "Socrates: Philosophical Life." Philosophypages.com. N.p., 2017. Web. 27 Apr. 2017. Lander. "The Ethics Of Socrates." philosophy.lander.edu. N.p.,… Continue Reading...

New Testament and Christianity

the Edict of Thessalonica. During this time, Emperor Theodosius I made the religion as the sole authorized religion in the empire. Q10 Augustine was a Christian and an early theologian besides a philosopher. He made many theological and philosophical writings that influenced many Christians in the early development of the western Christianity. Augustine viewed the church and the state as two different entities that would never be the same as they had different givers of powers and pursued different issues. Q11 Monasticism is a religious way of life where a person renounces the pursuit of the world things in… Continue Reading...

Camden New Jersey and Corruption Exploitation

describe the ways African-Americans have created solidarity through either Christianity or Islam, either way using religion as a means of generating collective resources to rally against corruption and also as a means of remaining as psychologically and socially healthy as humanly possible within their devastating surrounds. One of the key elements related to wanton destruction, alienation, and exploitation is how the urban landscape of Camden has changed over the years. What was once a fairly wealthy town due to the presence of Campbell's soup and thriving shipyards now runs on two of shadiest businesses imaginable: illicit drugs (controlled by… Continue Reading...

Fundamentalism and Evolution at the Scopes Trial

World ideology and the New -- or, in other words, the extent to which the Christian religion had a place in modern America. As Thomas Dixon points out, "Bryan was a defender of the newly formed movement for Christian 'fundamentalism'" (86). Bryan set himself up as the spokesman for the Old World ideology -- the fundamental tenets of Christian culture and beliefs, based on the teachings of the Bible. The Scopes Trial was of interest to Bryan because, being a famous public speaker (mostly remembered today for his "Cross of Gold" speech in the 1896 presidential race), he saw… Continue Reading...

Biculturalism and How to Create Multiple Identities

of a stronger Muslim versus American identity was strong religiosity, which is understandable given the role of religion in shaping identity in general (Sirin, Bikmen, Mir, et al., 2008). Similarly, given the tendency for many American communities to promote secular values, a strong religious identity within a secular community might lead to the individual forming a stronger connection with their religion than with a secular American culture. In another survey of Muslim-Americans aged 18 to 25 years old, Elashi, Mills & Grant (2009) found that "although some integrate their Muslim and American identities, about 40% of Muslim-Americans aged 18… Continue Reading...

Byzantium and the Roman Empire

similar as well. Yet, as Constantine made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire, the architecture began to reflect this new religious direction. The churches were based on the needs of the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass and the Byzantine architects brought in their own flavor of art and architectural technique that lasted for many centuries. The aqueducts were also important to Rome's society as they brought water great distances and were an emblem of Roman efficiency and architectural cunning. The Empire's use of concrete continued in its many orchestrations and the overall character of Roman society was… Continue Reading...

Temporary Reassignment, Scope Of Practice, and Patients Rights in Nursing

that the patients are provided with the right access to care without discrimination based on sex, race or religion. Moreover, the nurse is supposed to ensure that he or she gets an informed consent from the patients during care. This prevents doing a procedure that the patient does not want. One may be sued in a court of law when such as case occurs. Besides, many patients value the confidentiality of information regarding their health. Patient rights are protected by law and it is the mandate of the nurse to ensure that they are upheld at all times. Observing… Continue Reading...

African American Culture

attitudes and decisions regarding healthcare. For example, they noted religion's part in African-American interaction with health care. Some in the population use home remedies because they distrust the government and remain health illiterate. "The authors identify key influences, including the legacy of slavery, Jim Crow discrimination, the Tuskegee syphilis study, religion's interaction with health care, the use of home remedies, distrust, racial concordance and discordance, and health literacy" (Eiser & Ellis, 2007, p. 176). This article shows the need to enhance understanding of African-American culture to deliver better and higher standards of patient care. Census Data: African-Americans African-American people… Continue Reading...

Film Culture and Its Impact on Civil and Social Rights

or social organizations. Civil rights movements protect people from discrimination on the ground of gender, race, color, age, religion, and political affiliation. Moreover, civil right movement fights for the fundamental human rights that include freedom of speech, religion, and movement. However, many people do not know their rights especially the minorities. Films and social media have become the powerful vehicles that propel people to demand their rights. [1: The Role of Film in Society.] Throughout the 20th century, African-Americans were treated as second-class citizens because of their historical antecedents with the general beliefs that they were forcibly brought from… Continue Reading...

Impact Of the Rise and Spread Of Christianity

Rise and Spread of Christianity on the Classical World It's often assumed that the religion of Christianity perhaps greatly and generously impacted the classical age; after all, it was in this period that its foundations were established and it ultimately became the formal religion of the classical age. But corroborating this understandable supposition isn't easy. One might realize the fact that Jesus's religion was a considerable progress from the paganism followed since ancient times. The eventual success of Christianity proved to be a blessing for humanity. Nevertheless, revealing the precise level and nature of its… Continue Reading...

Hegel, Heidegger, and Nietzsche on Philosophy

and realities proposed by the old world philosophy and religion. He himself states in the Preface: "The beautiful, the holy, the eternal, religion, love -- these are the bait required to awaken the desire to bite: not the notion, but ecstasy, not the march of cold necessity in the subject-matter, but ferment and enthusiasm -- these are to be the ways by which the wealth of the concrete substance is to be stored and increasingly extended."[footnoteRef:2] The ideals of Western philosophy articulated by Socrates and affirmed by the Christian teachings were here by Hegel renounced, described as "bait" to… Continue Reading...

Relationship Between Church and State

before his rise to power. Constantine edged more towards entrenching Christianity as the official empire or state religion. This was done in systematic and systemic manner, not an instant overhaul to the new system. It was incremental. First it was made clear that it was Christianity that had prevailed in the battle and not any other religion or superstitious beliefs. By the end of the 4th Century, Christianity had been made the authorized faith of the Roman Empire. It was at this time and with such a drastic change that the political centers and powers that existed became significantly… Continue Reading...

Filipinos and the Catholic Church

arrival of the Spanish 500 years ago. They are the ones who brought the religion of the West to the Philippines. The Spanish ruled the region for nearly 3 centuries, introducing European art and architecture, churches, schools, and ways of life to the islands. A predominant Spanish style is still very much evident in the daily life and structures of the Philippines. The Spanish-Catholic culture in the Philippines started with the arrival Magellan, the famous explorer who sailed East for the Spanish crown. The ruler of Cebu converted to the religion of Magellan, prompting wars among the natives. More… Continue Reading...

Child Adolescent Development

and weaknesses, and vocational direction. The contextual factors that can promote a teenager's identity development include ethnicity, race, religion, social interactions and relations, and relationship with parents. Unit 9 -- Culture and Childhood and Adolescent Disorders Culture is a term that refers to the sets of values, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors that are shared between a group of individuals and are transferred from one generation to another. Culture influences a child's development through influencing/affecting some major domains or aspects of a person's growth and development. One of the aspects of child or adolescent development that is affected by culture… Continue Reading...

Social Control As Displayed in the Handmaid's Tale by Margaret Atwood

dominated society and the main tool used is the newly introduced Christian religion. The novel is centered on the freedoms of women, the women lives, procreation and the rights over their own bodies (Wisker G.). In the novel, the Gilead society, a new republic, is described herein in the perspective and narration of a woman called Offred, one of the so referred to as Handmaids who are seen as breeding tools for the Republic. The tenets of the Christian republic are expressed through the first person narrative of Offred with a few flashbacks of the society before the Gilead… Continue Reading...

Judaism Religion Teachings and Festivals

Judaism religion Rabbinic Judaism is the main form of Judaism that has existed from the 6th Century to date. From this form of Judaism, three different forms of Judaism have been established which are conservative, Orthodox and reform. Covenant -- Torahic teachings defines it as an agreement that the people had with God. An Arch of Covenant as highlighted in the books of Samuel and Kings symbolized the agreement between God and the people before heading to Canaan. Halakhah defines the entire structure of the Jewish Laws as they are… Continue Reading...

China and Confucianism Society

basics. For example the "bonus chapter" talks about the three main elements of Confucianism, which are Confucianism as a religion, Confucianism as a philosophy, and Confucianism as legalism. The first chapter of the book focuses on the philosophy of Confucianism and how it might be applied outside of Asia to the Western world and especially to the United States. For example, the authors talk about President Johnson's concept of a "Great Society," as well as the Civil Rights Act to show that these are essentially based on Confucian ideals. The authors even point out the connections between Johnson's "Great… Continue Reading...

Slp Module 3

upon entering. A. true B. false Answer: B 2. [1/1] What is the official religion in Pakistan? A. Sikhism B. Hinduism C. Buddhism D. Islam Answer: D 3. [1/1] The capital city of Pakistan is: A. Islamabad B. Lahore C. Delhi D. Karachi Answer: A 4. [0/0] In which year did Pakistan gain independence? A. 1945 B. 1947 C. 1953 D. 1938 Answer: B 5. [1/1] The official language of Pakistan is: A. Urdu B. English C. Arabic D. Hindi Answer: A 6. [0/0] Pakistan is a very hierarchical society. A. true B. false Answer: A 7. [1/1] What does 'Pakistan' mean? A.… Continue Reading...

The American Prohibition Era

moral stance against alcohol consumption. The movement behind national Prohibition demonstrated the power of religion and organizations in the United States and how these organizations could fuel drastic change within a few, short decades. The consequences of Prohibition are a remind that American citizens can have the power to promote change in the government if certain conditions are met. Conclusion In conclusion, what set off a national banning of alcohol sales and consumption was a call to morality. Social Progressives of the times sought to make alcohol illegal because they felt it was a reason for moral decay in… Continue Reading...

Overall Health in Fargo North Dakota

public school is a few blocks southwest of the library. • Religions What signs of religion do you see? Discuss the types of churches, mosques, temples? What services are offered by these churches, for example, Day Care, Mother's Day Out, Summer Camps, Languages Classes, Citizenship Classes, Food Banks, Clothing, other. There are numerous Protestant and non-denominational churches. There are a few Catholic churches, too. There are a couple day cares. The churches offer some counseling for mental health. Business & Industry Describe stores and shops available in the community, e.g., grocery stores, gas stations, department stores. What type of business climate… Continue Reading...

Cultural Interaction and American Revolution

could not understand the importance of such religious values as part of our culture. The Christian religion was an important part of our culture, and every child had to be initiated into the religion (Best, 2001). I always tried to avoid going to church every Sunday. I found several excuses not to attend the church every Sunday. However, the persistence of my parents forced is to adapt to this cultural practices and values. Over time, this practice has become part of my life. I now attend church and do other Christian practices voluntarily and without compulsion. UNIT 7 DISCUSSION… Continue Reading...

Morality then and Now

cultural explanation about the practice that could be deemed acceptable. Even if religion and the subjugation of women has a firm nexus and intersection within religions of all stripes over the last several millennia, that does not mean it is or was morally acceptable to have that in place. One could make similar arguments about the verses and beliefs about LGBT people. Even if one believes that those scriptures were inspired by God, they were still written by people with sometimes flawed moral compasses (Phillips). Another clear example of how moral decay or moral duty does not change over… Continue Reading...

History and Context Of the Tao De Ching Lao Tzu

surrendering all claims to absolute knowledge. The Tao de Ching is not a religious text, although religion has sprouted up around Taoism over the two millennia since the text was first written. One of the reasons why Taoism may be mistakenly perceived of as a religious tradition is the legends surrounding its author and origin, as Lao Tzu has been endowed with mystical and even supernatural powers as a sage born old and wise. However, Taoism is not about God or even about cosmology. Rather, the Taoist philosophy is about the benefits of self-mastery, of becoming more aware of and… Continue Reading...

World and Native Music

not viewed as being something that is distinct from religion and society. Even when musical traditions are deep, historical, and sophisticated, the methods used to analyze music do have Western components. Therefore, it may be important to consider different ways of analyzing musical features, concepts, and structures. In this article, the author presents a definition of music divided into five parts. The first is that "all music is sound," and yet ironically, music also has elements of no-sound or silence as with the John Cage example. The periods of no-sound or silence can be used strategically to punctuate sound… Continue Reading...

Labor Laws and Employment Contracts

several categories of protections under both state and federal laws. These include race, gender, religion, the status of the family, disability, sexual orientation, nationality and age among other factors (Butsch & Kleiner, 2011). These statutory exemptions limit the ability of an employer to fire an employee unless such an employer can demonstrate that such firing in no way related to any form of discrimination. Therefore, this protection limits the employer's ability to fire an employee that the doctrine of employment at will gives such an employer. Implied contracts also form a basis for exemptions for the employment at will… Continue Reading...

Police Community Relations

the Constitution's Bill of Rights. WHY? Amendment I safeguards the five most fundamental freedoms: speech, religion, assembly, press and the right of petitioning governmental bodies for righting any wrongs. The above safeguards were missed most by Antifederalists within the novel Constitution (Feinberg, 1987). Is our justice system better or worse than other systems around the world today? Accessible reports and scholarly works reveal that the American justice system is neither the most effective nor the most unsuccessful justice system of all. Some nations (e.g., Scandinavian nations) enjoy a more superior system while others (e.g., Middle Eastern countries) enjoy swift justice delivery.… Continue Reading...

Ip Man the Grandmaster and Women in Kung Fu

martial arts. In other words, the study of martial arts in the East was like the study of religion in the West during the Middle Ages -- it would have been something that both men and women took part in. While the martial arts would have been primarily used in the beginning as a defense against intruders or enemies, by the 19th century, the arts had taken on a different aspect, as society became less unstable. Women were educated in the martial arts just as women in the East might be sent to finishing school. It was a cultural… Continue Reading...

Two Greatest and Two Worst Presidents in Us History

House of Representatives passed Health Care reform. What is the next step in the legislative process before it goes to the President to be signed? Do you think it will be signed by the President in its present form or will it die before it gets to him, and why? A bill is first introduced into the House by one of its members, who becomes the bill's sponsor. Fellow house members may join him/her as bill advocates or cosponsors. The presence of several cosponsors or congressional heads signing onto the bill may elevate prospects of the bill successfully being passed… Continue Reading...

Gun Fu and Hong Kong Cinema

and the higher, loftier perches gotten to by way of religion and philosophy. If swordplay was an ancient art that required discipline to master, gun fu was a new art for a modern warrior. It was a way to achieve resolution when resolution seemed least possible. Better Tomorrow's ending may be sloppy and contrived, but gun fu enables brothers and friends to prove themselves and bad guys to pay a price. Gun fu, for both Eastern and Western audiences, was exactly what audiences at the end of the 20th century wanted: a ballet-like form supplanted on an old and… Continue Reading...

Holistic Victim Restitution Plan

social and economic factors which could increase one's criminal tendencies like religion or cultural beliefs, sex (young men have quite higher criminal tendencies than others), age, ease of acquiring fire arms and the societal problem of drug-related events. In conclusion on this, the complexity of criminality is such that it is has strong links and it is much influenced by a large number of socioeconomic factors which have to be studied to determine their link with crime so as to conceptualize and establish effectual and sufficient laws towards reducing criminal acts (Buonanmo, 2003). Records of the networks between and… Continue Reading...

Torture and Interrogation Essay

treated humanely, without any adverse distinction founded on race, colour, religion or faith, sex, birth or wealth, or any other similar criteria. To this end, the following acts are and shall remain prohibited at any time and in any place whatsoever with respect to the above-mentioned persons:     (a) violence to life and person, in particular murder of all kinds, mutilation, cruel treatment and torture;     (b) taking of hostages;     *c) outrages upon personal dignity, in particular humiliating and degrading treatment; and,     (d) the passing of sentences and the carrying out of executions without previous judgment pronounced… Continue Reading...

Religious Revolution

connecting the religious revolution to other revolutions in history and showing that they are all related because religion is such an important factor in society at its most basic level. Continue Reading...

A Good Man Is Hard to Find Flannery O\'connor

main them of pessimism is related to the uselessness of religion for inspiring human beings to rise above their base instincts. religion has never ensured human beings will be good. Furthermore, people like the grandmother use religion as a shield instead of genuinely working on their own behaviors to become better people. religion symbolizes human ignorance and hypocrisy in “A Good Man is Hard to Find.” For example, the grandmother never once mentions God, religion, or her faith until she meets The Misfit, suggesting that the old woman is hypocritical in nature. When the grandmother meets the Misfit, she… Continue Reading...

Conflict in the Story Soldier’s Home

resorts to a life of seclusion, alienating himself from love, ambition, societal relationships, and religion (LAGGC). Several circumstances combine and give rise to the conflicts outlined in the story. But three elements, in particular, contribute significantly to Krebs’ conflict: the failure of Krebs’ hometown inhabitants to welcome him back like a hero; Krebs’ family’s failure to comprehend his woes and struggles; and Krebs’ very own nature and values which pose a challenge to his adapting to society (Temper). Society contributes greatly to the conflict witnessed in the tale. The townsfolk regard Krebs’ exceedingly late return from battle peculiar. Krebs… Continue Reading...

Gospel Of John Vs Synoptic Gospels

Introduction While the Gospel of John bears some similarities to the Synoptic Gospels, as Barrett (1974) points out, it also sets itself apart in several unique ways by focusing on the mystical nature of Christ and the importance of the Church. Even the Synoptic Gospels offer differing details of the life and teachings of Christ, and in many instances, John agrees or is more in line with Mark, while Mark differs from Matthew and Luke. Still, Barrett (1974) affirms that “John’s aim was not literal accuracy, and he therefore cannot be expected to show detailed respect for the wording of… Continue Reading...

The Right to Privacy

privacy is implicit in this part of the constitution. For instance, the first amendment enables the free exercise of religion and freedom of speech. Without privacy, these rights are meaningless. If everyone were privy to everything one said, people would have to considerably limit their speech to keep from offending others or incurring their disfavor. Thus, there is an element of privacy involved in the freedom of speech, as well as in the freedom to practice religion. The fact that the constitution specifically outlines these civil rights roots means that the right to privacy is foundational to the constitution… Continue Reading...

Kant and the Question Of Murder

of, as it informs his own critical thinking, behavior, and understanding of right and wrong (“Kant’s Philosophy of religion”). Indeed, Kant “sought to locate the concept of God within a systematically ordered set of basic philosophical principles that account for the order and structure of world” (“Kant’s Philosophy of religion”). Into this order and structure would fall questions such as, “Is murder immoral?” Kant’s system was not stagnant, however; it developed over time and evolved into something where subtle distinctions emerged to raise new questions about how right and wrong could ultimately be determined. To what extent did moral… Continue Reading...

Conflict Resolution Leadership and Teams

allow telecommuting temporarily. Preferred Solutions Although the conflict between Darius and Harpreet has overtones of culture, religion, and gender, it is also important to view the situation from the perspective of interpersonal conflict. It is important to recognize that Darius and Harpreet might simply not like each other, their animosity less motivated by the superficial dimensions of cultural conflict and more with simple personality clashes. Even if cultural conflict is the underlying cause for the disruption, it is possible to apply interpersonal conflict resolution strategies within a collaborative leadership framework. A collaborative strategy fosters team harmony by leveraging the power of… Continue Reading...

National Security Impact Of Immigration Policy

threat, so long as migrants give rise to identity challenges within the destination nation on account of their different religion, language, or culture. Migration’s perceived threat to a society’s security is subjective, and not objective or ubiquitous, in nature; it is contingent on how destination countries define themselves.5 A few nations, for example, do not welcome the idea of multiculturalism whereas others might consider cultural diversity a great asset for the nation. Layton-Henry and Heisler (1993) explain that post- WWII, a majority of European countries underwent shifts from their original, relatively homogeneous nature (when the population was largely united… Continue Reading...

Job and Eliphaz the Lord Message

Lord to Eliphaz: Job 42:7 The Lord rebukes Eliphaz for having misinterpreted His will and Job’s disposition. God is angered by the false rationales given by Eliphaz and the others regarding the ills that have befallen Job. He does not appreciate their attempts, born out of vanity and pride, to assert themselves as interpreters of the will of God. After dealing with Job, He turns his attention to Job’s friends and pronounces judgment upon them—just as they have done towards Job. The Lord also distinguishes between Eliphaz and his friends and Job, whom the Lord calls “his servant”—the insinuation, of… Continue Reading...

Confidentiality Breaches & Informed Consent when Testing New Drugs

health. Health disparities are systematic, avoidable health differences according to socioeconomic status, religion, skin color, race/ethnicity, political affiliation etcetera. Disparities in health and its determinants present the metrics for evaluating health equity, which is social justice in health. Healthcare providers are always faced with legal and ethical dilemmas whenever faced with scarce medical resources. The overall rule regarding the provision of healthcare services in an environment of reduced medical resources remains that the ethical guidelines of the healthcare professions cannot be compromised. It the responsibility of healthcare providers to uphold their ethical standards even when in a setting that… Continue Reading...

The Influence Of William Shakespeare and Robert Burns

patriotism, gender roles, sexuality, romance, class inequality, cultural identity, hardship, religion, and nature. Essentially, Burns’ writings focused on the everyday struggles of ordinary people. Romance was especially one of his favourite themes. Indeed, Burns’ legacy of romance-themed poetry is unparalleled (Hogg, 2008). His preference for romantic poetry has been attributed to his love for women. Though he died at a relatively young age, he was father to 12 children – eight with his wife and four with other women. Burns’ love for women was simply extraordinary. Nonetheless, Burns was not always a womaniser – he had respect for women… Continue Reading...

Death Anxiety and Fear

and will only lead to a more complete spirit. Reincarnation is something people of the Hindu religion believe in and they also believe in karma. So for those that are afraid of death and believe in reincarnation, I would advise them that this is a never-ending journey and that the next life will bring new experiences and adventures. This may ease how they feel about death. If however, the person believes death is the end of existence, I would say, at least now it can bring peace. Life itself is a very painful process. From learning to growing, to developing,… Continue Reading...

Political Systems in Ireland and Britain

are wholly unique and reflect the fusion of Irish religion, language, culture, and values with the need to participate in the global market economy. The procedural politics are totally different in Ireland versus the United Kingdom, especially with regards to the methods of voting and Ireland’s PR-STV method. Irish political institutions have emulated those in England, especially with regards to a fused legislative and executive branch and a higher but weaker house comprised of non-democratically elected officials. Yet Britain’s model is majoritarian, and Ireland’s is not, reflecting the vastly different political cultures in the two neighboring countries. The greatest… Continue Reading...

The Gospel Of Matthew and Anti Semitism

as irrelevant and even sacrilegious. Christ’s Church superseded the Jewish religion. Therefore, denying Christ is effectively denying God, from Matthew’s point of view. In this sense, Matthew is more evangelical and radical than he is specifically anti-Semitic. Yet Matthew does direct his wrath towards the Jewish religion and the social and political structures that defined it in his time. Matthew’s audience would have responded in different ways, depending on their backgrounds. For those who followed Christ, they would have found political solace in the anti-establishment views. The parable of the vineyard is clearly political, even more than it is… Continue Reading...

Gospel Of Matthew 23 and Hypocrisy

negative campaign ads to lure disciples away from the established Jewish religion towards his own redefinition of faith. As Harrington (1991) puts it, “Matthew uses the scribes and Pharisees as negative examples to define true Christian leadership,” (p. 323). From the opening of Matthew 23, readers learn that the Pharisees, who can symbolize all people in positions of authority or power, often fail to practice what they preach. The core theme of Matthew 23 is hypocrisy. Interestingly, Harrington (1991) also notes that Jesus exhibits a “resistance to hierarchically structured roles,” and an “emphasis on equality,” issues that could easily… Continue Reading...

An Explanation Of the Definition Of Science

rational, intelligent, and knowledge-based society. Science is a way of knowing that is inherently shared. Unlike religion or philosophy, science can actually be used to generate shared knowledge about the world. Any time a phenomenon seems anomalous, a scientist can perform tests and observations that can help lead to deeper understandings. Other ways of knowing can be valid for entertainment or personal belief systems, but lack the credibility and verifiability of science. References Union of Concerned Scientists (2017). Science, evolution, and intelligent design. Retrieved online: http://www.ucsusa.org/scientific_integrity/what_you_can_do/science-as-a-way-of-knowing.html#.Wd5A5BNSyRs Continue Reading...

Antwone Fisher

most certainly influence behaviors. The lack of protective elements like religion and parenting gravely threatens developmental trajectory. Early adverse experiences may have wide-ranging consequences (Ebert, 2002). The issue of prior experience and its impact on current behavior is explained explicitly in the film, Antwone Fisher. Fisher's childhood experiences of physical, sexual and emotional abuse, besides other adverse experiences, lead to the development of a violent, volatile personality as he ages. He cannot control his anger and small misunderstandings quickly exacerbate into violent eruptions. He frequently quarrels with peers and his defensive, disruptive nature forces his commanding officer to take… Continue Reading...

How European Views Of the Ottomans Changed

itself was in a period of transition: politics had changed, religion had changed, and society had changed (thanks to technological advancements). Germany was a state that had been divided by the Protestant Rebellion, with strong presences of both Protestant and Catholic cultures present and asserting themselves in the 16th century. Into this climate came a new attitude with regard to the Ottomans that sought to better understand the people: the “exotic” dress and style of the Turks was emphasized for many Germans, who were desirous of satisfying their curiosity about these different people. They were tired of the fighting,… Continue Reading...

My Neighbor Totoro Ghibli Film

My Neighbor Totoro includes several references to Japanese folk culture and especially to Shinto religion and lore. The broad meaning of the film is rooted in a Shinto animistic worldview, in which nature is imbued with a spiritual dimension. Animism suggests that the entire world, even stones and wood, are imbued with life. The animistic worldview teaches respect for nature. The filmmaker shows how the spiritual dimension of nature can be perceived by humans but mainly when humans are in their most innocent or pure state: namely children. Including the real world references also anchors the supernatural with the… Continue Reading...

Globalization Is Not Americanization

Canada created an amalgamated society in which language, heritage, religion, race, and even gender were and continue to be sublimated in the interests of globalization. Globalization can only be considered Americanization if Americanization is defined as the state of cultural mingling. Yet what most people mean when they imply globalization equals Americanization is something nefarious, something hegemonic. The British empire, and the Ottomans, and the Mughals before them, also spread their own cultural, political, and economic hegemony throughout the world and especially the territories that they ruled over for centuries. Therefore, globalization has never been and never will be… Continue Reading...

European Global Perspective

among the Europeans conducting such expansion that they were inherently superior. This value was driven by both religion and by their advanced technology relative to most other societies. Combining the two elements allowed Europeans to impose their will on other societies around the world – even the stronger ones.  Human progress should in theory work a lot like economic progress – the greater the diversification of ideas, and ability for different ideas and value systems to compete, the more likely that the optimal system will be the one that rises. It is no stretch to suggest that the paradigm… Continue Reading...

Iraq: the Cradle Of Civilization Video Reaction

forward to unless something changes dramatically. As easy as it may be to blame Islam or religion in general, Wood makes it clear that it is abuse of power, not religion, that is the real problem. religion gives social cohesion and psychological solace for many people around the world, and Wood does a good job of reminding viewers of the importance of Islam to many regions of the globe and their people. Overall, this is a balanced and instructive documentary. Heartbreaking to know that travelers cannot simply hop on a plane to visit these marvelous ruins, it is still… Continue Reading...

How Diversity Functions in the Organization

ways of doing things and different perspectives. Essentially, race, religion and gender are used as proxies for different types of perspectives. A third view is the flexibility argument, which the authors state "indicates that multicultural management practices would result in changes that meant that the system will become less determinant, less standardized and therefore more fluid." Thus, there are different views of diversity from which human resources organization can draw from. The social organization perspective doubtless arose as the result of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which specifically barred discrimination of specific peoples on the basis of social… Continue Reading...

Trade from the End Of the Axial Age to 1500 C.e.

wherever wisdom was loved by societies. Moreover, ideas about religion spread via the conquering of lands by the Roman army. The Roman religion, however, incorporated the gods and goddesses of the Greek religion—and so this too was transmitted from an earlier age, given a new understanding (new names) and passed on to new people. The Jewish people maintained their own belief system during this era and though they experienced captivity in Egypt as well as exile during the rule of Babylonian times, they were given their freedom by Cyrus, who allowed them to rebuild their sacred temple, which they… Continue Reading...

Michelangelo and the Sistine Chapel

philosophy used to support the theology of the Christian religion, Catholic Europe was being torn asunder from within as a result of too much expression given to humanism, too much corruption among the clergy, and too much laxity among the Church officials to hold the foundations together. With all of that history surrounding it, it is no wonder that Michelangelo’s Creation of Adam has become so iconic: it represents the moment that generated it all: the moment of human life springing into existence. [6: Benson Saler, “Supernatural as a Western category.” Ethos 5, no. 1 (1977): 38.] In conclusion, the Creation… Continue Reading...

Oral History Of the Russian People

the late ninth century (traditional date, 882). The princes of Kievan Rus adopted Christianity as their official religion around 988, establishing a relationship with the Byzantine Empire and what became Orthodoxy, which had enormous influence on the future ideology of tsarism.”[footnoteRef:6] Then there is the oral history that Alexievich offers. It is less focused on facts and figures than on the human experience, the real lives of Russians, who probably could not say what tsarism or who the princes of Kievan Rus were, but are nonetheless Russians. Alexievich lets them speak for themselves: “They were collecting aid for the… Continue Reading...

A Historical Comparison Of Christianity and Buddhism

the religious establishment” in his time: namely the Vedic religion that the world now knows as Hinduism (Violatti 1). Several centuries later, Jesus of Nazareth served a similarly disruptive role in his community, being leader to a movement that pushed for political change within the religious establishment of Judaism. The New Testament is filled with references to Jesus upsetting the Jewish religious order. Jesus says of the Pharisees, “So you must be careful to do everything they tell you. But do not do what they do, for they do not practice what they preach,” (Matthew 23:3). Unlike Jesus, Buddha… Continue Reading...

Religion in Plato Euthyphro

can therefore undergird social norms and laws, preventing recourse to superstition and religion as excuses for human rights abuses. As modern society shifts towards a new moral order based on secular values rather than on religious doctrine, the concept of piety as it is elucidated in Plato’s Euthyphro is the most important concept to be integrated into the Socratic Citizenship Initiative. In Plato’s Euthyphro, both Socrates and Euthyphro exemplify the need for a universal moral order, one that transcends either church or state. At one point in Euthyphro, Socrates cryptically questions, “is it that where there is piety, there… Continue Reading...

Iran Bioethics and Biotechnology Issues

Iranians abide by the Sunni school of thought, Shia had become the mainstream Iranian religion about a thousand years ago. In Shia Islam as well, Aql (the reasoning and critical thinking procedure) and urf (culture) are actually two other essential sources of sketching Islamic law. Shia scholars have officially acknowledged aql as an unbiased source of the Islamic law and also have examined it fully with the solid jurisprudence support. The job of community activities (culture), like a supplementary tool in the practice of deducing the Islamic law, is actually in principle, undeniable. Historically, depending on aql (withholding or… Continue Reading...

Cultural Diversity Issues

From WWMT.com comes the news story of Western Michigan University Bronson School of Nursing receiving $2 million in grant money for scholarships to students who are from different cultural backgrounds so that a more diverse culture of student nurses can be achieved (VanTimmeren, 2017). As Bryan (2014) points out, culture is very important in this day and age because it informs people’s perspectives and values about what is good and bad regarding others in society. If people have a very narrow and poorly conceived viewpoint or perspective on other cultures, there is going to be tension in the field. To… Continue Reading...

The Trump Travel Ban

not support a travel ban because no one should be profiled due to race or religion, travel is a human right, and the U.S. is a safe place for refugees. The travel ban provides much cause for concern because of the potential legality of such an extreme measure. Half a century ago, the American Government chose to outlaw the discrimination seen in the Trump travel ban. “More than 50 years ago, Congress outlawed such discrimination against immigrants based on national origin.” (Bier) Additionally the travel ban puts the United States in a bad light, as other countries may see… Continue Reading...

Universal Religions and the History Of the World

their places of origin, albeit in different ways. Unlike the ancient religion of Hinduism (or the Vedic traditions), Buddhism became a universal religion. Buddhism originated in India, but spread throughout the rest of Asia. Although at one point, Indian Emperor Ashoka adopted Buddhism as a state religion, but Buddhism did not take root for long due to competition with other faiths and traditions. Therefore, believers in Buddhism traveled, taking their belief systems and doctrine with them. Buddhism spread throughout Southeast Asia, the Himalayas, and East Asia, transforming each place by infiltrating its society and adapting to local customs and… Continue Reading...

Life Of Arthur Koestler

subjects including, but not limited to, science, the occult, religion, travel, and other areas of interest. Towards the end of the 1950’s he all but retired from writing about expressly political subjects, specifically anti-Communism and anti-Fascism pieces, to devote himself to these other literary arenas. A good example of this fact is a volume he produced near the end of his life in 1976, The Thirteenth Tribe, which was influential, and highly innovative, for its approach towards Semitic matters. The crux of the book is that, as demonstrated by the lineage of a particular Jewish tribe, “European Jews were… Continue Reading...

Les Miserables Light and Darkness Victor Hugo

Jean’s world. Therefore, the light of the Bishop is not just tied to religion or to God, and certainly not necessarily the institution of the church. Rather, the light of the Bishop is a universal moral light, a light of truth in human kindness and compassion. Light also represents the truth, which is an important theme in Les Miserables. For example, Jean states, “You light your candles for me. Yet I have not concealed from you whence I come and that I am an unfortunate man,” (Chapter 3). Ignorance is commonly linked with proverbial darkness. When the light of… Continue Reading...

The Religion Of Passion

Is there a clear relationship between reading, family, and religion? Most people might not see it immediately. However, there is actually a definite relationship between these three aspects of life. This fact becomes all the more clear when they are considered in an academic context. Reading, family and religion are all things that I can become passionate about. The truth is that when one such as myself is passionate about reading texts for religion, one will inevitably read about the value of family. Therefore, passion about reading about religionContinue Reading...

The Culture Of the Eastern Band Cherokee

the European communities of the 18th century. However, a revival of Cherokee traditionalism and the traditional religion of the Cherokee has effected a blend of religious views and practices that can be described as new age, Christian, and traditional Cherokee. The Eastern Band still performs traditional Cherokee dances, for instance, and students in the Tribe are required to learn the Cherokee language (Montgomery-Anderson, 2015). The community of the Eastern Band has commemorated the trials of their fellow Native Americans in the outdoor drama Unto These Hills, a play written by the American Kermit Houston Hunter in 1950, which describes… Continue Reading...

Religion the Theology and Teachings Of Paul

a distinctly “pejorative view” of Judaism and became a self-defined “outsider” to the religion that would have been his main milieu (Scholz, 2013, p. 22). While it has previously been assumed Paul developed his theology as an oppositional one, a sort of polemic against Judaism, the truth is far more nuanced (Zetterholm, 2009). By critiquing Judaism, Paul hoped just as much to revitalize the old faith, as he did to present a new one based on faith in Christ. Paul’s main beliefs centered around faith in Christ being essential to salvation, and to developing a more personal relationship with… Continue Reading...

Biblical Worldview

life’s purpose, and all of history from the standpoint of the Christian religion. For such an instructor, the Incarnation is the most important moment in all of history, because it is the moment in which God became Man and the beginning of the redemption of mankind was initiated. The biblical worldview incorporates into such a teacher’s perspective the Old Testament conception of human nature: the fall of man, through the first sin; the loss of the kingdom of Heaven; the consequence of sin being sickness and death; and the longing for eternal companionship with God, the Creator of all… Continue Reading...

Coca Cola Analysis

above elements can, on occasion, effect product demands owing to cultural aspects like ethnicity/race, religion, tradition or heritage that serve to enforce restrictions on products. The company’s product labelling and marketing approach differs for diverse nations based on their distinct traditions and cultures. Consider, for instance, India, where Bollywood governs standards and trends, with actors being highly influential members of society. The company has, thus, banked on actors like Amir Khan for marketing its products. This strategy is, in fact, adopted with several other nations too, with local celebrities posing as brand ambassadors and attracting clients. But the increasing… Continue Reading...

Snapping Beans by Lisa Parker

she is going to school, lives in a very cerebral world of books where everything is questioned, including religion. Her fellow students, sporting nose rings, are said to write poems about Buddhism, sex, and alcohol. Presumably the last two are forbidden by the grandmother’s faith, and Buddhism is entirely foreign to the grandmother. The speaker also notes that she has read, “revelations by book and lecture/as real as any shout of faith, / potent as a swig of strychnine.” The poet’s choice of language with religious resonance is very deliberate here, given that the speaker’s insights into the human… Continue Reading...

Israeli-palestinian Conflict

three common features: idealistic commitment to a righteous cause, individualism in interpreting religion, and a conviction that Muslims today are engaged in defensive warfare, or jihad al-daf (Lahoud, 2010). Lahoud's (2010) study of jihadist ideology found that the most common arguments of jihadist are actually that the United States defends their own regimes – regimes that when they do not govern according to sharia are committing apostasy from Islam. Prior to the invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq, the conflict in Palestine was one of the stated motivations for attacks, and certainly it was for al-Qaeda, as anti-Israel sentiment forms… Continue Reading...

Ash Wednesday and Lenten Period Sermon

The observances of the Lenten period beginning on Ash Wednesday deepen our relationship with God through enactment of the suffering of Christ. We have scripture to guide us and prepare us mentally, physically, and spiritually. Joel 2, verses 12 to 18 refers to the “fasting, weeping, and mourning” that characterizes Lent. The fasting puts us in touch on a deeper level with the suffering of Christ. Yet we are immediately warned not to allow the sacred re-enactment to become an empty ritual. We are advised, “Rend your hearts, not your garments.” The outer expression of our mourning is unimportant and… Continue Reading...

Epistle to the Hebrews Salvation

The Epistle to the Hebrews reflects the contentious nature of the debate within the Christian community of how to define the role and nature of Jesus in the evolving tradition. Regardless of the nature of its authorship, the epistle establishes Christ as the Son of God and part of the Godhead but also a kind of high priest within the Jewish tradition. Its Christology is uniquely Jewish in its orientation and metaphors, which is one reason why it might be commonly attributed to Paul. But it suggests a new, sacrificial role for Jesus as the Son of God and a… Continue Reading...

Mongols History

2009). Their subjects were engulfed with fear and inability to confront them for a number of reasons. Their religion is also alluded to as people who worshiped the sun and considered nothing as unlawful. They would eat dogs and pigs unlike the Muslims whom they had made their primary target. Concerning marriage they had no boundaries either. The author mentions that several men from this group would have marital affairs with one woman such that a child born of a woman would not actually know whom the father was. Perhaps because of their unruly lifestyle they had no regard… Continue Reading...

Du Bois Vs John Lennon Sociology

of all cultures, given that it was a unique hybridization of African and European ideas, religion, music, and life. Du Bois, who received his doctorate from Harvard University and taught sociology at the University of Pennsylvania, also wrote in The Souls of Black Folk about the personal challenges he felt as an African-American man who felt neither wholly a part of American society nor Black society as a highly and at the time unusually educated Black man. Du Bois is associated with the philosophy of the need to elevate the “talented tenth” of African-American society to prominence, to uplift… Continue Reading...

Eating Disorders in Women from the Christian Point Of View

been raised in the Christian tradition. One of the main purposes of the religion is to evangelize those who do not have the faith—the reason being that the faith offers support for people who do not have the keys to overcome their own personal struggles. Counselors and therapists interested in using the Christian tradition have found even that engaging in ritualistic prayers that are part of the Christian religion can have a beneficial effect on people seeking treatment (Gilbert, 2014). Prayer can produce in patients a very positive feeling of peace and it can help to lift the stress… Continue Reading...

Secular Humanism

the paper’s conclusion. [2: Alan T. Price (2007, Spring), ‘Secular Humanism vs. religion? The Liberal Democratic Education Tradition and the Battle over Vouchers in the USA.’ Forum on Public Policy: A Journal of the Oxford Round Table, p. 37.] II. Summary of the secular humanist worldview As the term connotes, the source of authority for the secularist humanist worldview is the individual human being, and the source of morality is judged by the consequence of individual actions based on experience and empirical observations. For example, one secular humanist concedes that, “It's true that secular humanism says the morality of… Continue Reading...

Mlk Speech I Have a Dream Rhetorical Analysis

by all in the US despite the race or religion. He also emphasized on the need of the Negro to have his citizenship rights. He also employed use of logos or logic where he questioned the intentions of the system that denies the Negro his rights, and then hopes that the Negro will cool off and stop demanding for the rights. It would be illogical to expect peace and tranquility without the granting of rights. The speech further displays the use of pathos or appeal to the emotions of the audience in various sections, for instance when he mentions… Continue Reading...

Prophet Muhammad Founder Of Islam

is unique. For example, while Christ plays the role of God-Man in the Christian religion, Muhammad simply plays the role of man—though a very special one, of course.[footnoteRef:1] As the Qur’an notes: “Muhammad is no more than an apostle: many were the apostle that passed away before him.”[footnoteRef:2] However, Muhammad’s nature is unlike that of other men, for he is recognized in Islam as having the “most perfect nature” and as being “like a jewel among stones.”[footnoteRef:3] Similarly to the way in which Christ is beloved of the Father in Christianity, Muhammad is “the beloved of God (habib Allah),… Continue Reading...

Constitutional Law and the Rowan County V Lund Case

the Constitution, particularly the Establishment Clause. The Establishment Clause states, “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof,” (“Introduction to the Establishment Clause,” (n.d.). Even a cursory reading of the Establishment Clause shows that prohibiting commissioners from praying during the public meetings violates the First Amendment by “prohibiting the free exercise” of religion. Therefore, when the Supreme Court finally makes its deliberations in Rowan County v. Lund, it should rule in favor of Rowan County. The Rowan County practices have been grossly misunderstood and misrepresented. Thus far, federal courts have ruled… Continue Reading...

Multicultural Leadership Diversity in the Workplace

guide organizational policy and practice regarding diversity and communication. Religious Diversity religion can be a central component of individual identity construction and community cohesion. Just as employees have rich social and family lives outside of their place of employment, they also observe religious practices that coincide with their personal beliefs or their cultural background. While religiosity and spirituality usually do not conflict with the workplace environment, holidays are a potential source of conflict. A hegemonic Christian culture has enabled the celebration of some holidays as if they were universal. Failure to formally acknowledge non-Christian holidays sends “a subtle yet powerful ethnocentric… Continue Reading...

Things Fall Apart Novel Analysis

1958, p. 25). The gods are a symbol of justice, the religion a key to enforcing moral codes. Okonkwo has respect for his religion, which is why he does understand that this higher moral code is one that even he must submit to. Unfortunately, Okonkwo does not realize that his version of masculinity is contradictory to the moral code. Achebe shows that in many ways, the villages are democratic. The people have collectively more power than Okonkwo, and can decide how to punish one of the most powerful men in the village. He is not perceived of as invincible,… Continue Reading...

The Relevance Of Business Ethics

a type of moral law that is dependent on culture, tradition, religion, or regional laws. Libertarian Ethics Libertarian ethics can help businesses understand the importance of respecting the rights of individuals, respecting and valuing diversity, and honoring the need for autonomy. Rooted in virtue ethics, libertarian ethics also focus on the development of good moral character within an organization’s leadership as well as its entire staff (Powell, 2013). Like utilitarian ethics, libertarian ethics are not predisposed to rules but nevertheless realize the importance of overarching ethical tenets that foster good business relationships. Libertarian ethics prove important from a business… Continue Reading...

Missionaries

gender, and social power. The Beebouts exhibit classical colonialist thinking, in that they believe in the superiority of their religion, customs, and culture. Based on the letters and the videos, the Beebouts and their fellow RCA missionaries are also resolute that a Christian worldview is critical to bring about desired changes that can promote social justice. Susan Beebout is also surprised to learn that the locals “revert to their old ways of practicing medicine,” seeming shocked instead of understanding the saliency of health beliefs and their underlying sociological and psychological components. Purpose The primary purpose of these communications is to… Continue Reading...

Theology Of Communion for the Contemporary Catholic Parish

Book Chapter: A Theology of Communion for the Contemporary Catholic Parish Introduction The study of ecclesiology is the study of how the Christian church, the ever-expanding body of believers, has evolved over time to respond to new political and social realities. Ecclesiology also takes into account the way organizational structures, hierarchies, and roles within the church have changed and reflect the nuances of a cultural milieu or historical epoch. In addition to all that, the study of ecclesiology also comprises the church’s relationship with surrounding community organizations. How the church forms strategic alliances with secular political, social, and economic institutions… Continue Reading...

I Am Alive Documentary

group that anthropophagy is an extension of the Eucharist ritual (Osborne, 2010). Framing anthropophagy in religious terms shows how religion has been used as a powerful means of social control in general, and is ironically invoked in the survival situation to encourage positive deviance. Social rituals were also used as a means of encouraging conformity. For example, they describe how they “made a pact” to donate their own body to the collective if they should die too (Osborne, 2010). Conformity in the I Am Alive story is a means by which the group ensures its collective survival. They also… Continue Reading...

Christ-hymn

The Christ-hymn, or Christological Canticle from Colossians, contains several distinguishing features in its content and structure. One of the most unique elements, which has been a point of contention for Christians, is that the hymn points to Christ’s role in creation (cosmology), and Christ’s role in reconciliation (soteriology). The Canticle can be interpreted to show that Christ serves effectively as a “unifying principle, holding the universe together at its head,” (MacDonald, n.d., p. 65). Christ also holds together the church: positioning Christ clearly as the symbolic head and the Church as the body of Christ (MacDonald, n.d., p. 66). As… Continue Reading...

Ancient Roman Civilization and the Gladiator Games

gladiatorial games in ancient Rome—the expression of political influence, the expression of religion, a means of emphasizing the Empire’s power, and grounds for slaves to have a reason to revolt—and show how these purposes were interwoven throughout the coliseums where these brutal contests were conducted. Context The gladiator games were not a Roman invention but rather a tool that the Romans borrowed (like so many other tools in their society) from other cultures. In this case, gladiatorial contests were first found among the Etruscans and the Romans first incorporated them into their culture at the funeral of Junius Brutus… Continue Reading...

Legal Precedent Constitution Religion and Education

Kitoo The Constitution is clear in the Establishment Clause, which undergirds so much of the debate regarding the role religion plays in school. Private schools have freedom to impart religion and religious values, but public schools are not because public schools are considered a public—meaning taxpayer-funded—service. Public schools are therefore governed by the Establishment Clause. On this matter, the courts have remained fairly constant, although there are some cases that demonstrate the different ways the Establishment Clause may be interpreted (or misinterpreted, as the case may be). In fact, the Establishment Clause has long been misunderstood and teachers and students… Continue Reading...

Nursing Practice Changes

ancient Romans—the Hippocratic Oath, which, of course, is of ancient Grecian origin. religion was a major historical influence on the development of the nursing profession. Christianity in the West and Islam in the Middle East helped to spread the practice of nursing (Jan, 1996; Kourkouta, 1998). In the modern era, however, nursing shifted into more of a secular practice and in the West, Florence Nightingale served as the model nurse for the modern era. As the nursing practice developed in the West with more and more focus on institutionalized education, standards, and accreditation being implemented into the teaching of curriculum,… Continue Reading...