Research Design Essays


Research Approaches in Maritime Security

efficient data analysis systems. Evaluation of research techniques The study will use qualitative and quantitative research studies. The research design to be used by the study is a survey design that considers the possibility of accessing critical data within a descriptive avenue of study. Thus, the descriptive survey design to be used by the study seeks to explore on the existing state of affairs, shedding more light on its current state and probable future states. The descriptive survey design to be used by the study involves both the qualitative and study quantitative methods, which will yield both the qualitative and quantitative… Continue Reading...

Healthcare and Fitness Research

instrumental in bringing about the comprehensive study. The study will adopt a quantitative and non-experimental causal-comparative research design. A survey study will be done to acquire data from respondents within their areas of residence or place of work. For instance, while targeting a sample of about one hundred students, the researcher will place an advert in a school newspaper or the school noticeboards requesting them to participate willingly (Ferkel, Stodden, Judge, Griffin, & Hamman, 2015). Anyone who agrees to take part in the interview will be asked to read and sign an informed consent form before participating and promised… Continue Reading...

Systematic Review

indicated whether it was CPG recommended, the evidence level (in accordance to the research design) as well as the eminence of research that supported or refuted the suggestions (determined after thorough appraisal of the research by the reviewers). For examination and evaluation, these classes were used: finding any cardiovascular risks, methods of measuring blood pressure, physical examination, medical history, subclinical destruction of an organ as well as laboratory examination. For control, these classes used: changes in lifestyle, beginning of therapy, therapy type, therapy adjustment, combination therapy, dangers linked with therapy, special group consideration such as the elderly, pregnant women,… Continue Reading...

Enhancing Ship and Port Security Globally

and efficient data analysis systems. Evaluation of research techniques The study will use qualitative and quantitative research studies. The research design to be used by the study is a survey design that considers the possibility of accessing critical data within a descriptive avenue of study. Thus, the descriptive survey design to be used by the study seeks to explore on the existing state of affairs, shedding more light on its current state and probable future states. The descriptive survey design to be used by the study involves both the qualitative and study quantitative methods, which will yield both the qualitative and… Continue Reading...

Working for International Peace

gained an alarming degree of credence in Africa in a relatively short amount of time. This evaluation research design will utilize a case study of Boko Haram, a militant Islamist terrorist organization centered in Nigeria. It will attempt to mitigate the effect of terrorist activity in this area my monitoring and determining the relationship between commonly used communication channels and terrorist activities. By analyzing terrorist activity on the phone, online, and in conventional media entities such as the television and radio news reports, the researchers hope to identify intelligence that can be used to systematically regain terrorist territory and… Continue Reading...

Terrorism in Africa Study Design

and more effective means of solving the issue (Cresswell, 2007). References Cresswell, J. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry and research design: Choosing among Five Approaches. CA: Sage. Uriel, E. (2013). 5 multiple regression analysis with qualitative information. Retrieved from http://www.uv.es/uriel/5%20Multiple%20regression%20analysis%20with%20qualitative%20information.pdf Continue Reading...

Recycling Research Proposal

& Bell, E. (2011). Business Research Methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Cresswell, J. W. (2013). research design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches (4th ed.). London: Sage Publications. Duke University. (2016). How much do we waste daily? Retrieved from https://center.sustainability.duke.edu/resources/green-facts-consumers/how-much-do-we-waste-daily Eckersley, R. (1992). Environmentalism and political theory. Albany: State University of New York Press. Elliott, B., & Elliott, J. (2013). Financial Accounting and Reporting. London: Pearson. EPA. (2013). Defining and Measuring Solid Waste Recycling and Disposal (No. Publication No. 905Q13001). Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-09/documents/region_5_state_measurerment.pdf Gandy, M. (2014). Recycling and the Politics of Urban Waste. Abingdon: Routledge. Purser, R., Park, C., &… Continue Reading...

Effort and Impact on Memory

learners who put in less effort (less time). Methodology Method: An experimental research design will be used, in which the independent variable is the effort condition, and the dependent variable is the rate of recall. Independent variable of “effort” is measured in the amount of time the learner is exposed to both the visual image of the character and the amount of time the learner repeats the sound of the character. Dependent variable “recall” is the number of total characters each person remembers in a post-test given one hour later. The advantage to this method is the ability to test experimentally… Continue Reading...

Research Methods

allocation and burdens (Rosch et al., 2017). Describe the methodology and research design The sample of the study includes the indicators that substantiate the sustainable development goals that relate to energy. The types of data that are collected encompass the rules for the goals. These goals are detailed by significant sustainability rules creating the fundamental component of the concept. They define least possible requirements for sustainable development in terms of a welfare base that requires to be guaranteed for all individuals of present-day and forthcoming generations. In this study, a set of instrumental rules was well-defined addressing the economic, political… Continue Reading...

Boko Haram and Diffusion Of Innovation

to emphasize the ways Boko Haram's activities have disrupted the Nigerian economy. research design The methodology used for this study will be quantitative and quasi-experimental. A regression discontinuity design or a propensity score matching method are both quasi-experimental design methods that can be used for this research because the research design may require the use of retrospective data related to the Nigerian economy (White & Sabarwal, 2014). A quasi-experimental design can also be used to examine the diffusion of information, ideology, technology, and terrorist techniques throughout the region and within radical Islam. It is also possible to examine the causal… Continue Reading...

African Terrorism and Boko Haram

identify some of the causes of Boko Haram with the goal of identifying the most sensible solutions. Quasi-Experimental research design A quasi-experimental research design is experimental and tests a causal hypothesis, but lacks the strict controls of random assignment (Trochim, 2006). With the dependent variable as an economic equation, it is possible to conduct a quasi-experimental design in which the effects of Boko Haram on the Nigerian economy can be postulated. A regression discontinuity design or a propensity score matching method are both quasi-experimental design methods that can be used for this research (White & Sabarwal, 2014). Because regression discontinuity… Continue Reading...

Social Psychology

are responding to media in dangerous ways that undermine intelligent and critical thought. I believe that a research design could be experimental in nature, by disguising the true purpose of the study and randomly assigning participants to each group. At least twenty participants would be helpful to have, but more would make the study more reliable. I expect to find that people who are not afraid of social vulnerability and who have a strong sense of purpose are more able to resist groupthink. Week 3 Discussion This case shows how deeply ingrained stereotypes remain even in a multicultural society.… Continue Reading...

African-american Ownership in U.s. Oil and Gas Sector

A. (2008). Social research methods. 3rd ed. Buckingham: Open University Press. Creswell, J. (2013). Qualitative inquiry and research design: choosing among five approaches. London: SAGE. Creswell, J. (2014). research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. 4th ed. London: SAGE. Kothari, C. (2004). Research methodology: methods and techniques. New York: New Age International. Robson, C. (2016). Real world research. 4th ed. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons. Thomas, G. (2009). How to do your research project. London: SAGE. Continue Reading...

Mixed Methods Designs

research problem (Creswell & Clark, 2011). This paper identifies the major components of mixed methods research design and the strengths and weaknesses of the design. The paper also examines the relevance of the design to criminal justice agencies. The mixed methods design has a number of components. The first step is to define the design (Creswell, 2014). This is particularly important as the design is quite new in research revolving around social and human disciplines. Defining the design gives the reader a comprehensive understanding of the core attributes associated with the design. This entails describing the collection, analysis, and… Continue Reading...

Experimental Designs

depict the procedures. This gives the reader a better grasp of the research design. In addition to the four components, the researcher must explain measures to address validity. Validity essentially means guaranteeing that the outcome(s) is influenced by the intervention and not other factors. Validity may be threatened by internal and external factors (Thomas, 2009). Threats to internal validity emanate from experimental procedures, treatments, and participant experiences (Creswell, 2014). Major threats include history (time), maturation (changes in participants), regression (extreme scores reverting towards the average over time), selection (choosing subjects with attributes that predispose them to certain outcomes), mortality… Continue Reading...

Communicating Qualitative Research Analysis

These ten aspects relate to different elements in qualitative writing including research design, data collection, sampling strategy, data analysis, and data coding. One of the most salient aspects that distinguish qualitative research writing is the researcher's role in the study and how it may shape interpretations in the research. This is one of the most outstanding aspects of qualitative research because the researcher acts as an instrument. As compared to other research methodologies, qualitative research places the researcher at the center of data collection processes. This essentially means that the researcher is the instrument through which data is collected… Continue Reading...

Research Paper Topic and Annotated Bibliography

work from available works (thereby contributing to the literature pool on the subject), and develop a conceptual framework and research design. The latter may also be achieved based on existing literature that serves to guide scholars with regard to sound research performance strategies. For instance, literature on the topic at hand may help instruct the research scholar regarding the research design (qualitative or quantitative or) that will prove most appropriate when it comes to examining gaps in available literature on the subject. An effective literature search for the purpose of this study will entail consulting every resource accessible. The… Continue Reading...

Possession Time As Indicator Of Basketball Team Efficiency

that are more valid approaches to calculating possession time and basketball team efficiency available. Discussion: Given the exploratory research design used by Kubatko et al. (2007), there was no basic question being asked or answered per se, but the researchers did a convincing job of emphasizing the importance of possession time as a valid predictor of individual player and team efficiency. In addition, there were no discernible flaws in the various analytical methods used by these researchers, and their findings achieved their goal of providing a benchmark for future research in this area. References Kubatko, J., Oliver, D., Pelton, K. &… Continue Reading...

Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Research

(2008). Social research methods. 3rd ed. Buckingham: Open University Press. Creswell, J. (2013). Qualitative inquiry and research design: choosing among five approaches. London: SAGE. Creswell, J. (2014). research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. 4th ed. London: SAGE. Creswell, J., & Clark, V. (2011). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. 2nd ed. London: SAGE. Denscombe, M. (2010). The good research guide for small-scale social research projects. 4th Ed. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill. Kothari, C. (2004). Research methodology: methods and techniques. New York: New Age International. Martin, W., & Bridgmon, K. (2012). Quantitative and statistical research methods: from hypothesis to results. Hoboken:… Continue Reading...

Reactions in Parents Of Children with Life Threatening Illness

major issues identified in regards to the study and research design other than the fact that given only an Australian sample if the results would be generalizable to other populations. For example, there may be some cultural variability to be found in other samples. However, it is at least reasonable to suspect that the parent child bond would likely be largely independent of cultural influences; but further research would be need to confirm such relationships. Conclusions and Applications After running a wide range of differing statistical techniques, the study concluded with some insights that can provide a level of… Continue Reading...

Research Designs in Developmental Research

performance in children linked to age, oral habits and dental factors?" This research issue will be examined using cross-sectional research design that will be carried out on a group of 50 children aged between 3 and 5 years. This research design is suitable for the research topic because it will help analyze data obtained from the representative population of 50 children. The approach will help the researcher to examine and compare several variables at the same time to determine how certain factors influence masticatory performance. This will in turn help in making inferences regarding the target population at a specific… Continue Reading...

Digitalization to Enhance Customer Satisfaction at Apm Terminals

and the port industry as a whole. The diagram below summarizes the conceptual framework of the study. Customer Satisfaction Digitalization research design AND METHODOLOGY Research Paradigm Any research activity is guided by certain beliefs, assumptions, and philosophies. These beliefs constitute what is known as the research paradigm (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2015). Generally, a researcher may operate within the positivist paradigm or the interpretivist paradigm. Positivism asserts that knowledge is external, objective, and universal (Bryman, 2008). This means that a sample is used to make inferences about the general population. For generalization to be achieved, the researcher often utilizes a sufficiently representative… Continue Reading...

Virtual Teams: the New Way to Work

research reports (comprising of the following headings: Study Background, Study Purpose, research design, Subjects, Setting, Measures, Intervention, Outcomes, and Conclusions) isn't applicable. Still, a non-study report's abstract ought to clarify that it is only a review article. It ought to offer specific facts to readers to facilitate applicability and validity assessment. Is the abstract no longer than a short paragraph (i.e., less than 1 double-spaced page)? The author has provided a 70-word-long abstract. But unstructured or systematic review abstracts are composed in paragraph format. Further, they are usually not as long as structured abstracts, and are usually around 50-75… Continue Reading...

Socioeconomic Status, Family Structure, and Parental Involvement

place in years 1980, 1982, 1984, as well as 1986. The research made use of correlational research design. As Privitera (2013, p. 215) points out, correlational research design seeks to "use data to determine if two or more factors are related/correlated." To be more specific, the study takes the relational design (one of the two forms of correlational design) as it seeks to explore how student achievement is impacted upon by class/socioeconomic status, the attention of a parent, the working patterns of the mother, and familial structure. When it comes to data collection and statistical analysis, the study made use… Continue Reading...

School Violence Essay

is a typical school district located in the Midwestern United States. research design and method A study’s research design describes the systematic process by which the data that are needed to confirm or refute guiding hypotheses or to develop informed answers to research questions is collected (Mauch & Park, 2013). For instance, according to Mauch and Park (2013), “A completed research design shows the step-by-step sequence of actions in carrying out an investigation essential to obtaining objective, reliable, and valid information” (p. 123). The proposed study will use a mixed research design that draws on both qualitative data from the… Continue Reading...

Culturally Responsive Teaching in Education

teaching, and not simply superficial instruction in cultural responsiveness. Using a mixed methods research design, Kea & Trent (2013) found that pre-service teachers were familiar with the concept of cultural responsiveness and understood its general importance. Moreover, the researchers also found that pre-service teacher lesson plans included culturally responsive content. Yet in spite of the attention paid to cultural responsiveness in their lesson plans, the pre-service teachers did not incorporate effective culturally responsive practices in their classrooms. Just as the Coffey & Farinde-Wu (2016) case study demonstrated, the Kea & Trent (2013) research draws attention to the need for… Continue Reading...

Leadership and Research Methods

from 313 subordinates within 72 groups.   The analysis was carried out using hierarchical linear modeling since the research design entailed hierarchical data structure.   Table 1 focused on examining the intercorelations between the research variables.  The first three variables acted as level 1 variable while the last one was level 2 variable.  The researchers examined the link between level 1 and level 2 variable in which an alpha of 0.05 was used as the cutoff for significance. In statistical testing, a probability value of less than or equal to 0.05 (p ? 0.05) indicates strong evidence against the null… Continue Reading...

Factors Affecting Employee Retention in an Organization

resource management as well as organizational behavior. A descriptive research design was utilized to conduct this study through a Likert scale survey instrument comprising of seventeen questions. The survey was administered to a group of participants from three military-affiliated organizations. The survey found that various factors impact organization’s ability to retain its employees including organizational culture, gender roles within the company, family conflict. However, female employees are more affected because of family and children issues such as sick children and daycare problems. Keywords: employee, organization, retention, company, work, absenteeism, work-related stress, working environment, human resources, personnel management. Conclusion The… Continue Reading...

Quantitative Research Designs Validity

of validity to be taken into consideration in the review of a research design are identified as external validity, internal validity, construct validity, and statistical conclusion validity (Balnaves and Caputi, 2001). Internal validity is often been cited as being of utmost importance in research (Polit and Beck, 2012). For a qualitative research to be regarded beneficial and relevant,it has to clearly define or demonstrate cause and effect. In the absence of internal validity, the said case and effect relationship would be weak and therefore, causation would be unclear – even in instances where there is correlation. Findings would, therefore,… Continue Reading...

Measuring the Effectiveness Of Police Body Cameras

a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 31(3), 509-535. Creswell, J. W. (2013).  research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Gaub, J. E., Choate, D. E., Todak, N., Katz, C. M., & White, M. D. (2016). Officer perceptions of body-worn cameras before and after deployment: A study of three departments. Police Quarterly, 19(3), 275-302. Sousa, W. H., Miethe, T. D., & Sakiyama, M. (2015). Body worn cameras on police: Results from a national survey of public attitudes. University of Nevada Las Vegas: Center for Crime and Justice Policy. Retrieved from https://jobs.unlv.edu/sites/default/files/page_files/27/BodyWornCameras.pdf Continue Reading...

The Impact Of Using Bilingual Call Compared to Family Interpreters Research Paper

Elderly (HEPESE), the researchers sampled a population of 3,050 adults who were 65years old or more. The research design allowed the respondents to respond in either English or Spanish. The participants were native Mexican Americans or immigrants. The immigrants also were classified as first, second or third generation respondents (Jacobs et al., 2006). They also took a diabetes test under which they were classified as either baseline diabetic, borderline diabetic, or definite diabetic. They were also asked to provide any historical evidence in their families of diabetes. They were also asked to present any information on their educational background… Continue Reading...

The Impact Of Social Media on Teenage Girls

is the overall impact of social media on the self-perception of teenage girls?” Hence, this research design will take a social constructivism stance. This type of design refers to a sociological theory of understanding and perspective where human development is based and connected via engagement with other humans, as noted by Peter Berger and Thomas Luckmann. The specific research design will be an interview format, with each participant being interviewed on camera in a one-on-one format. This method of data collection will go hand in hand with the grounded theory that the research is centered in. Grounded theory will… Continue Reading...

Mixed Methods Research and Pros and Cons

for answering a complex set of research questions. Because the researcher can use more than one research design in the same study, mixed methods can “answer a broader range of research questions,” (Center for Innovation for Research and Teaching, n.d., p. 1). However, mixed methods can be like performing two separate studies at once, which does require more resources and time. Commonly used in the social sciences and in public health research, mixed methods should be employed when it is feasible and warranted (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2013). Researchers should always endeavor to approach a problem from… Continue Reading...

Allyship Community Education and Leadership

327 students, and the authors also used a small but significant control group. The research design used a pre-test and a post-test to assess learning. Some of the core components of mediation were found to be empathy, anger management, and “social problem solving,” which may be critical in the educational setting (p. 30). Students and educators alike need mediation training. Mediation skills are specific, and require astute development of emotional intelligence. It is important to teach these skills systematically. The reason why this study focuses on students is to show how mediation training can become part of a standard… Continue Reading...

Grounded Theory and Ethnography in Doctoral

the research questions and the theoretical vantage point of the researcher. Five of the main approaches to qualitative research design include narrative research, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, and case studies (Creswell & Poth, 2018). This paper will focus exclusively on two of those qualitative research designs, grounded theory and ethnography, to showcase the strengths and weaknesses of each. Grounded theory and ethnography are similar designs and approaches to research questions. Even some of their methodological considerations are alike, particularly in that both grounded theory and ethnography use observation as the primary tool of data collection (Najafi, Roudsari, Ebrahimipour, et… Continue Reading...

Role Of Interactive Social Media in Corporate Social Responsibility Communications

Scientific relevance. Although there are no experimental elements involved in the proposed study’s research design or data-gathering strategies, the proposed study has significant scientific relevance by virtue of its interest in identifying best practices in a rapidly evolving communications platform that is reaching near-saturation levels among small and large businesses. In addition, the proposed study also has some profound societal relevance as discussed further below. 4.2 Societal relevance: The focus and aim of the proposed study have significant societal relevance given the explosive growth in social media use by consumers and private sector enterprises. For instance, Facebook had more… Continue Reading...

Team Building Through Servant Leadership Philosophy Essay

was used to measure the perceptions of interdisciplinary practice. Further, a pretest-posttest research design was employed in checking whether the desired outcomes were achieved. After a multivariate analysis was performed, a significant variation was observed between the pretest and post-test results. Through the student’s score on the interdisciplinary education perception scale, it was established that teamwork in practice highly changed their perceptions compared to the perceptions they had before the test. However, when a univariate analysis was conducted, the students indicated notable changes in his or her perceptions of professional autonomy, practice, resource sharing, cooperation and valuing others. From… Continue Reading...

Development Of High Potential Employees

quantitative study on actual employee retention numbers. Furthermore, using a mixed methods research design will help bolster reliability and validity of the research. References Downs, L. (2015). Star talent: investing in high-potential employees for organizational success. Industrial and Commercial Training 47(7): 349-355. Dries, N. & DeGieter, S. (2013). Information asymmetry in high potential programs. Personnel Review 43(1): 136-162. Letchmiah, L. & Thomas, A. (2017). Retention of high-potential employees in a development finance company. SA Journal of Human Resource Management 15(1): 1-9. Miller, C.J. (2016). Would opening a satellite office in or near a major metropolitan city be beneficial in… Continue Reading...

Colonialism in Higher Education Indigenous

Public Intellectual Essay The introduction of critical race theory and other anti-colonial approaches to academic discourse has obscured the fact that higher education itself remains embedded in colonial institutions and structures. Higher education is a vestige of colonial means of psychological and social control. The political implications of colonialism in higher education include the perpetuation of hegemony, the suppression and subordination of alternative epistemologies, the ongoing political dominion over what constitutes knowledge, and the use of higher education to promote structures and institutions that serve the dominant culture. Although often an unconscious process, the ways colonial mentalities and processes remain… Continue Reading...

Indwelling Urinary Catheter Care

464). Theoretical Framework Overview and Guiding Propositions The research theory for this study would be a quantitative research design since there will be number of patients who will be involved in the research and their results tabulated in an excel tracking sheet and the number compared to the pre-test results. Application of Theory to Study Focus The qualitative research approach will be the best in this particular case since the only reflection of the efficiency of the intervention will be the reduction in the numbers of in-hospital patients with CAUTI. If the numbers before the intervention are similar to those after the… Continue Reading...

Emotional Intelligence

the virtual teams in Asia (McLeod S., 2017). The research will take the form of correlation research design or study as it will embark on the determination of the relationship between two variables (Scollon C.N., 2018), the emotional intelligence being the dependent variable and the electronic devices choice being the independent variable . The experiment will seek to determine if the emotional intelligence of a given set of virtual team members will determine the kind of electronic devices they chose to own. The target population in this research will be youth of ages between 15 -30 years drawn from five… Continue Reading...

Husserl and Heidegger’s Phenomenology

questions that help determine the data collection methods, sampling methods, and other aspects of research design including how to best present the data and analysis to the research community. Therefore, a researcher using Husserl methods of descriptive phenomenology would conduct in-depth interviews while also taking note of their own subjective perceptions and experiences during the process. By recording such impressions, the researcher carefully brackets their a priori knowledge or any biases. The researcher is also challenged to differentiate between the subjects’ a priori knowledge or background and their description of the phenomena (Englander, 2012). A researcher using a Heidegger… Continue Reading...

Online Statistics and Probability Theory

and not made up of discrete steps. The fourth and fifth chapters of the section encompass probability and research design. There are different probability distributions including binomial distribution, Poisson distribution, multinomial distribution and hypergeometric distribution (Online Statistics Education: A Multimedia Course of Study begins with Hebl (n.d.)). Questions Introduction 1. Probability can be thought of as subjective, relative frequencies and relative frequencies 2. The paper says there is an 80% chance of rain today, so you plan indoor activities. Then it doesn't rain. Was the forecast wrong? The forecast was not necessarily wrong. Because it gave a prediction that… Continue Reading...

Philosophical Orientations and Theory

methods. 3rd ed. Buckingham: Open University Press. Creswell, J. W. (2012). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Lamidi, K. O. (2015). Theories of Public Administration: An Anthology of Essays. International Journal of Politics & Good Governance, 6(6.3), 1-35. Le, T. (2015). Theory Role in Research Study. Linked In. Retrieved 17 August, 2018 from: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/theory-role-research-study-thiensi-le Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2015). Research methods for business students. London: Pearson Education. Continue Reading...

Statistical Significance and Meaningfulness Essay

order for meaningfulness to be explained, the researcher has to look at method, research design, the problem the research is supposed to be addressing, context, sample, theoretical application, and so on.  The researcher must be able to explain why a relationship is meaningful or why it applies to the real world problem.         Even if there is no statistical significance between variables, this does not invalidate the research.  For example, say a researcher is conducting an exploratory survey.  The researcher does not have a hypothesis but may have an assumption—i.e., the researcher may believe that a… Continue Reading...

Phenomenological Design

they navigated the difficulties of balancing life, work, and their academic demands. References Groenewald, T. (2004). A phenomenological research design illustrated. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 3(1), 42-55. Retrieved from: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/160940690400300104 Nieswiadomy, ? R. & Bailey, C. (2017). Foundations of nursing research (7th ed.) Pearson. Continue Reading...

Qualitative Design

things all start with inspiration, guidance and leading by example. However, the research design will take an interview format, where participants are asked open-ended questions in order to best determine how they are stimulated and inspired effectively. Since this subject and challenge is so nebulous, it is important to allow participants to answer freely and to readily adapt all methods so that the widest range of data is gathered (Andrade, 2009). References Andrade, A. D. (2009). Interpretive research aiming at theory building: Adopting and adapting the case study design. The qualitative report, 14(1), 42. Schweitzer, K. (2015, August 31). Writing Business Case… Continue Reading...

Organizational Psychology

level of research planning, publication and reporting, irrespective of research design (Skelly, 2014). Moreover, researchers’ credibility is established by their roles as senior university faculty at the following renowned Pakistani private universities: University of Central Punjab, University of Central Punjab (Lahore), and International Islamic University. The study’s chief researcher is a doctoral degree holder. But no links have been presented, to any other papers published by these authors, which could increase their authority. Accuracy The data presented within the paper is appropriate to the context, in addition to being supported using in-text citations and a complete bibliography at the… Continue Reading...

Attitudes Toward Physical Education in Fourth Graders

of the sample, and sample size. The abstract should also identify the research design and methodology. Finally, the abstract should name the instrument and explain the procedures for data collection and statistical analysis. The abstract should not contain any in-text citations. The recommended length is 200–250 words. Physical education is an essential and necessary component of every child’s life. In order for maximum effect to be realized, children must have a healthy, positive attitude towards physical activity. However, with evidence to suggest that physical activity is on the decline and childhood obesity on the rise, investigating the attitudes of… Continue Reading...

The Elderly and Dementia

studies used in the systematic review were assessed thematically rather than statistically, which makes their study qualitative. The research design was that of the systematic review—a literature review of relevant studies regarding person-centered approaches to treating elderly patients suffering from dementia. The purpose of the study was “to appraise the effectiveness of environmentbased interventions that address behavior, perception, and falls in people with AD and related major NCDs” (Jensen & Padilla, 2017, p. 2). The researchers conducted a search of peer-reviewed articles on MEDLINE, PsychINFO, CINAHL and OTseeker. The search resulted in 1,854 sources, of which 154 were reviewed for… Continue Reading...

Virtual Teams Place in Organizations

questions: a reflective process. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education. 22(4), 431-447. Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017).  research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications. Törmänen, M. (2017). Virtual teams: considerations, advantages and disadvantages. Lappeenranta University of Technology. Continue Reading...

Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methods

Consider how qualitative and quantitative research methods complement one another, and consider the role of mixed methods designs. Quantitative and qualitative social science study techniques have, for long, remained discrete, barely overlapping, spheres. But, of late, innovations have shed light on quantitative and qualitative techniques’ complementarity (Maxwell, 1998). Complementarily employing both methods offers broader understandings besides facilitating research findings’ confirmation or triangulation using different techniques, thus improving overall result validity and making the research more useful for targeted entities. However, the quest for genuinely complementary research techniques is also a greatly challenging task as it implies extra expenses, in terms… Continue Reading...

Logical Positivism and Scientific Research

are on the effects of genetically modified corn when consumed by rats. Sample, sample size, research design, and so on—all of it will play a part in the outcome of the study—but so too does bias and the perspective from which the researcher is operating. Not all researchers will present their bias or perspective at the outset. They will hide their orientation and use language that fools the reader of the study into thinking that here is a perfectly objective researcher whose soul interest is in conducting a test and communicating the results. But things are never so simple… Continue Reading...

How to Store Prescription Drugs Safety

group. Future research should use a more robust experimental research design. Second, the researchers rely only on self-reports for opioid misuse behaviors and measure those behaviors using parameters like stockpiling and lending pills. Self-reports are not necessarily a reliable means of measuring misuse behaviors, and misuse can occur without stockpiling or lending of pills. In fact, the results show that even though the vast majority of participants knew intellectually that lending pills was misuse, about 20 percent did lend their pills to others. The researchers do acknowledge several of these limitations and provide suggestions for future research that can… Continue Reading...

Human Resources Talent Management

in different sectors. Therefore, I would choose either a descriptive or a causal comparative research design. A causal comparative research design has its limitations, namely that it is conducted post facto (Salkind, 2010). However, there are many benefits to using this research design method in studies related to high potential employee identification. One is that I can study multiple firms at once, noting various dependent variables like fiscal performance. Another is that managers and employees might only be able to reflect retrospectively on softer methods of talent management. Talent identification and development is not always formalized or operationalized. The… Continue Reading...

Provider Patient Communication Through Professional Interpreters

provider-patient communication if the reduce the language barriers facing LEP patients when seeking for healthcare services. Project Design The research design used in conducting this study is a pre-test/post-test design to help answer the research question. As previously indicated, the intervention utilized in the study is using professional interpreters and language-concordance as measures for improving provider-patient communication among LEP patients. Using this research design, the researcher administered a pre-test prior to the beginning of the 3-month period and a post-test four weeks after the project was completed. Results Statistical techniques were utilized to analyze pre-test and post-test scores obtained from the… Continue Reading...

Research in Education Qualitative Quantitative

Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research According to Lopez-Alvarado (2017) and Muijs (n.d.), research design decisions are linked to ontology and epistemology. Ontology refers to the researcher’s beliefs about whether reality is absolute or contextual, universal or relative. Whether the researcher is a realist or a relativist determines research questions and designs, with an increased tendency for relativists to focus on phenomenological and qualitative methods and a realist to use quantitative methods. Muijs (n.d.) describes quantitative research as using numerical data and mathematical methods, showing how a realist will use these types of methods to seek for an objective truth. Likewise,… Continue Reading...

Research Design Issues in Education Dual Credit

disadvantaged students from attaining a desired achievement outcome. The research questions will then determine the appropriate research design, and whether it would be more effective to use qualitative or quantitative methods. I would then refer to the readings like Lopez-Alvarado (2017) and Muijs (n.d.) to help me formulate an appropriate research question. As Lopez-Alvarado (2017) points out, one of the central issues for researchers at this stage in the process is to focus on ontology and epistemology. What kinds of knowledge would be valid, or at least perceived of as valid? How do we come to an agreement of… Continue Reading...

Beneficence Respect and Justice in Education Research

as with the Tuskegee experiment. Review boards should be populated with experienced professionals who understand the intricacies of research design and can make specific recommendations to researchers for how to improve their studies, to make them more ethical. Some review boards might not be as competent as some researchers would like, or as efficient. Some educators might feel that their research is of the utmost importance for immediate policy changes, and in their haste would cut corners in research design and methods. Others might believe that their designs are beyond criticism and that the opinions of review boards will… Continue Reading...

Problems with Random Assignment Experiments on Principals

on the DPD. In other words, this study is a classic mixed-methods research design that uses both qualitative and quantitative methods judiciously. The qualitative methods are needed to illustrate why the program did not work, which is not something the data from the quantitative study could ever reveal. As it turned out the reason why the program failed to achieve its intended goals were related as much to methodological constraints as to subjective issues like lack of motivation. The researchers outline several main challenges to implementing a professional development program as ambitious as the DPD. One challenge was the… Continue Reading...

Psychology Statistics T Test and Multiple Regressions

to determine if there was an effect caused by the independent variable. After applying the t-test to my initial research design, I could then design a more robust study with even greater reliability and validity. 2. Multiple regressions are commonly used in statistical analysis. The reason why multiple regressions are so commonly used is that they perform one of the most fundamental functions in experimental research: which is to determine the relationship between an independent and a dependent variable. A multiple regression can be used for different types of research design including correlational and true experimental designs. Moreover, the… Continue Reading...

Intervening to Prevent Diabetes

Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/touromain-ebooks/detail.action?docID=484874 Leach, M. J. (2006). Evidence?based practice: A framework for clinical practice and research design. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 12(5), 248-251. Nutbeam, D. (2000). Health literacy as a public health goal: a challenge for contemporary health education and communication strategies into the 21st century. Health promotion international, 15(3), 259-267. Rubin, A. (2011). Teaching EBP in social work: Retrospective and prospective. Journal of Social Work, 11(1), 64-79. Schillinger, D., Grumbach, K., Piette, J., Wang, F., Osmond, D., Daher, C., ... & Bindman, A. B. (2002). Association of health literacy with diabetes outcomes. Jama, 288(4), 475-482. Continue Reading...

Difference Between Causation and Correlation

statistical data for the credulous. How to extend or modify a research design to examine a true cause-and-effect relationship Causality can be problematic in that the researcher may not be able to have an assurance that variable manipulation was the only reason for perceived correlation and trends. For complex experiments it is hard to neutralize and isolate confounding influence implications (Bleske-Rechek, Morrison & Heidtke, 2015). This will make it particularly difficult for a researcher to ascertain the cause is a result of their treatment. Any program of research must therefore contain enough measures for the purpose of establishing the causes… Continue Reading...

Knowledge and Understanding in Sports

as the tasks are not too dependent on athletic talent alone (Perkins, 2010). research design The Approach and How it Relates to the Research Question Methodology The research technique that was used was participant observation. This was accomplished by coupling qualitative data collection with quantitative data collection. The former was accomplished by filming the sport sessions and then showing the students what they had done during the sessions and giving feedback on it. There was also an element of classroom discussion between the teacher and the students to see if the students had grasped the objectives and understood the basics… Continue Reading...

Article Critique Worksheet Learning and Sense Of Community

the African American students in the mixed-race section.” 4. What research design is used and why? The authors made use of a causal-comparative research design. This research design came in handy in response to the research question on whether in graduate Asynchronous Learning Networks, a blend of learning community, social community, perceived learning, and total course points differ on the basis of student race. This was the appropriate design for a study of this nature for purposes of comparing the various sets of subjects. 5. What type of sampling method is used? The authors of the present study… Continue Reading...

Research Design and Methods Used in Leadership

for granted, making mixed-methods approaches extremely attractive in emerging literature on leadership and organizational behavior. Methods of data collection and research design trends eventually feed the formation of new theories in leadership. Just as the research questions may influence the choice of research design and methods, the researcher’s theoretical orientation may impact the choice of research questions. The results of leadership research may also transform—or simply reinforce—existing theories of leadership. For example, a new study that assesses the impact of transformational leadership on organizational outcomes could be used to bolster theories that stress leadership style. Alternatively, a study that shows… Continue Reading...

Heart Disease and Stress

mental health conditions. The authors also provide details related to study methodology and research design to offer suggestions for future research on the relationship between stress and heart disease. Generally, issues like blood pressure and inflammatory responses are particularly indicated as stress-related causal factors in heart disease. In fact, research shows that exposure to systematic daily stressors also increases the mortality rate from heart disease. Daily stressors have been shown to be causes of cardiovascular disease in general, and also associated with the risk factors that may lead to cardiovascular disease. According to the authors, there is an even… Continue Reading...

Qualitative and Quantitative Research Differences

Discussion of the Differences Between Quantitative and Qualitative Research Q1. How does a research problem/question guide the determination to conduct a quantitative versus a qualitative research study? In general, qualitative research is exploratory in nature and seeks to understand a particular phenomenon from a particular subject’s perspective (McLeod, 2017). It is open-ended in its focus and the researcher has no predetermined conclusions before embarking upon the study. As a result, it focuses on a small rather than a large population. In stark contrast, a quantitative study seeks to understand a phenomenon in an objective fashion that is generalizable to a… Continue Reading...

Effects Of Different Interactions on Students Sense Of Community in E Learning Environment

the level of student-content interaction in the formation of sense of community in the e-learning environment.” 4. What research design is used and why? The authors make use of a cross-sectional research design. This is particularly the case given that participants in this case have not been selected on the basis of random allocation, but on existing differences. A preview of outcomes has been given. 5. What type of sampling method is used? A probability sampling approach has been used by the authors in the present study. More specifically, a simple random sampling method was utilized. 6. What are the… Continue Reading...

Effects Of Instructor Immediacy Behaviors in Online Learning Environments

between perceived instructor immediacy and perceived instructor social presence. 4. What research design is used and why? The authors made use of an experimental design. In this case, participant assignment to treatment groups was random. The choice of design in this case advanced to the authors control of the situation, thus effectively permitting them to establish causation. 5. What type of sampling method is used? The authors made use of simple random sampling, which is a probability sampling method. Towards this end, participants were assigned (randomly) to the relevant treatment groups. 6. What are the names of the instruments (provide… Continue Reading...

Criteria for Qualitative Research

Criteria for Evaluating Qualitative Research Qualitative research is different from quantitative in that the data analyzed and the methods by which the data are analyzed are unique. Qualitative research tends to be exploratory—the data obtained is used to describe the phenomenon under scrutiny, usually in thematic terms, while quantitative research tends to test a hypothesis—the data obtained can usually be statistically analyzed and understood in numeric terms. When it comes to evaluating the quality of research designs, reliability and validity are two considerations that have to be made: does the study measure what it purports to measure, and can the… Continue Reading...

When to Use Mixed Methods Design

where the subject can be analyzed from both qualitative and quantitative approach, the mixed methods research design would be appropriate. Sometimes data is not available from a qualitative perspective or from a quantitative perspective. Sometimes researchers are only able to examine a subject and must base a study on this limitation, and so a qualitative approach would be best suited. Other times, researchers are able to interview, observe, immerse themselves in the world of the subject and obtain quantitative data that can be analyzed statistically. In such cases, it helps to have a team of researchers that can assist… Continue Reading...

Team Development Leadership Emotional Intelligence

intelligence constructs with leadership and team outcomes. Although not an experimental research design, the authors offer an extensive review of literature on emotional intelligence to bolster their contributions to theory development. Emotional intelligence is defined and applied at the individual level, such as via traits like self-awareness and self-regulation. Then, the authors show how emotional intelligence is empirically linked to leadership behaviors and leadership effectiveness. Emotionally intelligent leaders may also increase overall motivation among team members, and is therefore linked with transformational leadership styles. The authors also provide several research propositions based on this extensive review of literature. In… Continue Reading...

Diabetes and Self Care

under similar surroundings and obtain the same outcomes. If they fail to do so, then it means that the research design is unreliable externally (Shuttleworth, 2008). The linear mixed model was subjected to further tests after including the interaction of diabetes distress and diabetes distress with autonomy support. The results obtained were consistent with the stress buffering hypothesis. The results (B = ?0.13 [SE 0.06]; P = 0.027) showed that there was a consistent interaction of autonomy support with HbA1c for the 12 months. The control variables insulin status (B = 0.38 [SE 0.12]; P = 0.002) and glycemic… Continue Reading...

Positive and Negative Stress in the Workplace

is necessary for a researcher because it helps him/her to explain and back up the selection of a suitable research design (Blumberg et al 2011, p 16). Research Philosophy is the creation of knowledge and how that knowledge relates to research. The research concept employed by a research study should contain important theories which strenghtens the strategy and systems selected to make up the strategy. (Saunders et al 2009, p 108). A number of researchers have the mind-set that management and business researchers have to be knowledgeable of the logical commitments which are made via a researcher’s strategy selection… Continue Reading...

Africa and Cultural Studies

one source, which could lead to a highly biased presentation of meaning. research design As Moyo (2009) shows, the state of Africa today is such that the Aid promised to the country and given is simply not an effective source of strength and stability from Africans: “sub-Saharan Africa remains the poorest region in the world” (p. 5). This research design is going to be a case study to explore the role of self-reliance in bringing stability to African nations. Self-reliance will be defined by countries’ independent and assertive policies to develop on their own merit, resources, and capacity. The focus… Continue Reading...

Intellectual Disabilities

of ensuring that the voices of the intellectually disabled are heard researchers found it necessary to moderate the research design’s consensual nature while at the same time upholding the research integrity. Researchers replaced words for symbols and pictures to help nonreaders (intellectually disabled) with an ability to understand the content. The researchers read materials for the research participants with a reading ability that is lower than normal. The researchers took time to ensure that the intellectually disabled comprehended their right to consent. The researchers employed this method in order to ensure that the intellectually disabled were included in the… Continue Reading...

Epidemiology and Valley Fever

Dream Job Turned Nightmare: Valley Fever Executive Summary According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2018a), coccidioidomycosis, also known as Valley fever, is an infection caused by the fungus Coccidioides. The fungus is commonly found in the soil in the Southwestern U.S. and Mexico region. When people breathe in the spores of the fungus, which can hang in the dusty air, they can develop Valley Fever. People who already have weakened immune systems are most likely at risk for developing Valley Fever (Woods et al., 2000). Those with healthier immune systems tend to recover within a few weeks,… Continue Reading...

Parental Involvement That Boost Young Children’s Academic Performance

their 3rd and 7th grade. The purpose of this study is to do this. research design and Methods The methods of data collection will be interviews and questionnaires. The research question is, “In what ways does parental involvement impact the academic performance of children in their 3rd and 7th grade?” Information for the study will be collected from an elementary school and involve 6 teachers, 18 parents, and 18 students. Half of the children will come from grade 3 and a half from grade 7. The research will also be done using the bracketing concept to ensure that the personal… Continue Reading...

Personal Learning the Field Of Qualitative Research

practical guide. London: Taylor & Francis. Creswell, J. W. & Poth, C. N. (2018). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Pillow, W. (2003). Confession, catharsis, or cure? Rethinking the uses of reflexivity as methodological power in qualitative research. International journal of qualitative studies in education, 16(2), 175-196. Richardson, L., & St. Pierre, E. A. (2005). “Writing: A method of inquiry.” In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), The Sage handbook of qualitative research (3rd ed., pp. 959-978). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Saldaña, J., & Omasta, M. (2017). Qualitative research:… Continue Reading...