Theory Essays


Cultural Identity Essay (Free Example Completed in 2019)

  Abstract This paper discusses all the facets and considerations inherent to cultural identity. Namely, the paper describes the importance of cultural identity, the definition of cultural identity, and examples of cultural identity—both theoretical and literal examples in the world today. This essay seeks to show how one’s cultural identity is so much more than just a melee of one’s race, environment and heritage. Cultural identity is made up of so many factors and influences, both positive and negative, and both direct and covert. This paper sheds light on how one’s cultural identity manifests and how the cultural identity of Continue Reading...

Liberation Theology Meets Humankind Embrace

by analyzing diverse social elements of our lives. However, considering this dissertation's word count constraints, liberation theory's history and development cannot be adequately covered by the paper. Theology as Critical Reflection Liberation theology mulls over practice, bearing the element of faith in mind. For comprehending this statement's scope, evaluating the question raised at the start of this discussion, for understanding the close interrelationship between spirituality and theological method from this standpoint, is valuable. Lastly, we will be able to detail current challenges. The abovementioned concepts have intensely permeated the concept of liberation theology, and its interpretative structure is developed… Continue Reading...

Ecologising Education Now and in the Future

To achieve the above, environmental education and sensitivity is imperative. But early childhood educational curriculum, including policy, practice and theory of approaches, which emphasizes environmental perspectives, is seriously lacking. The 1978 Tbilisi Declaration outlines several principles and objectives which demonstrate that ecologising education must promote the idea of students' understanding their natural environment, engaging in critical thinking and active participation, and balancing and recognizing, within their respective communities, the impacts of societal and economic needs on ecological relationships (Tbilisi Declaration 1978). Beginning with one's personal community during early education, the declaration demanded the development of problem-solving ability, knowledge, and… Continue Reading...

Special Education in Miami Dade

101). Although a relatively new framework, it has helped influence theory, research, as well as practice in relation to teacher professional development and teacher education. The TPACK framework enables teachers to consider technology application in their design thinking processes. This is because 21st century learning has produced different opportunities and requirements that were not seen in the past (Koh, Chai, Benjamin, & Hong, 2015). Originally created/outlined in 2006 by Matthew Koehler and Punya Mishra, TPACK or TPCK builds on the work produced by Shulman. Shulman stated information of a content or subject area void of pedagogical skill would not… Continue Reading...

Monetary and Fiscal Policy

government spending derives from taxation. Taxation typically has a cooling effect on economic activity, which in theory would be counterbalanced by the positive influence of spending that money. In practice, this ends up being a contentious political issue, but the general principle is that what activities are taxed, and what are supported through government spending, forms a key component of fiscal policy for economic management. Moreover, how much spending beyond what the government has taxed is another key issue, because deficit spending implies future debt service expenses, which are spending that is not an investment. References Federal Reserve (2016).… Continue Reading...

Ethics and Corporate Responsibility

impacted Stakeholders are frequently compared with shareholders, who are individuals with an ownership-related interest. Stakeholder theory was majorly impacted by philosopher, R. Edward Freeman's 1984 work Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach. The stakeholders in this case would be the company itself, its managers and workforce, and its Colberian facility's executives and workers. Human Rights Issues The American Congress instituted the federal agency, OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) in the year 1970. The agency was made responsible for formulating safety and health standards for organizations. Ever since, key discourse on workplace safety and health has revolved around setting of these… Continue Reading...

Analysis Of Murderers Alex and Derek King

Criminology Offenders: Alex and Derek King (12 and 13 when they killed their father) theory: Sampson and Laub's Age-Graded theory of Informal Social Control One basic premise of the Age-Graded criminology and informal social control theory was that, whilst experiences of childhood and personality traits are vital to comprehending behavioral stability, teenage and adulthood experiences can readdress criminal paths either more negatively or positively. Laub and Sampson discovered, particularly, that marital relationships and employment stability were a key factor in adult criminal change. With increased strength of familial and workplace bonds, deviancy and criminality in the non-delinquent control group as… Continue Reading...

Social Bonding Theory

Travis Hirschi's Social Bonding theory The theorist, Hirschi, asserts that those who exhibit deviant behavior desire to do so and that criminal behavior is seen among people with weak social bonds. In his social bonding model, he delineated four elements which make up social bonds, namely, attachment to partner/spouse, engagement in conforming behaviors, holding conventional beliefs and values, and dedication to conventionality (Wolfzorn, Heckert & Heckert, 2006). The theorist indicates that with increased attachment of a person to fellow human beings, their belief in conformist social… Continue Reading...

How Does Heroin Impact a Caucasian Family

parenting processes: Contextual, physiological and psychological factors. Addiction Research & theory, 617-635. EHSAN JOZAGHI. (2014). "SALOME GAVE MY DIGNITY BACK": THE ROLE OF RANDOMIZED HEROIN TRIALS IN TRANSFORMING LIVES IN THE DOWNTOWN EASTSIDE OF VANCOUVER, CANADA. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being. Jennifer Van Pelt. (2012, October). Pain Care Advocacy in an Era of Opioid Abuse. Social Work Today, p. 16. Philippe Bourgois, Dan Ciccarone, Jeff Schonberg, Brian R. Edlin, Alex Kral, & Alexis Martinez. (2006). Reinterpreting Ethnic Patterns among White and African-American Men Who Inject Heroin: A Social Science of Medicine Approach. PLOS Medicine. Ronit… Continue Reading...

Analyzing Critical Criminology

Conflict theory-The Relationship between Sociology and Criminology Theorists, on, social conflict propose that crime, in general, is triggered by conflict in the class system, as well as, laws that have been shaped by individuals and groups in power to safeguard their interests and rights. All acts of crime have political nuances, and Quinney refers to this as crime's social reality. Research attempts to confirm the conflict method; on the contrary, have not generated significant results (Seigel, 2000). Moreover, sociologists ponder over the social patterns that exist among social classes… Continue Reading...

Analyzing Organizational Change

directives or routes when adapting to the change in question. theory recommends providing some measure of leniency for simultaneously achieving both desired outcomes. Insight (2009) claims a firm that wishes to effectively implement change must be prepared for it. That is, its structure and human resource should be capable of, and ready to adopt, change. Four mechanisms have been defined in the Harvard Business Review (2010) for ascertaining if a company is change-ready: 1. Change awareness; Deals with an organization's capacity of defining its ability. It must concentrate on JIT (just-in-time) and innovation. The process identifies and keeps a… Continue Reading...

At-will Employment and the Law

be legally fired. However, to limit liability and impact on operations, the ethical theory approach to use here could be the Utilitarian approach -- John's behavior is scandalous to customers; therefore, he must go. At the same time, out of respect for John's free speech on social media, one could take a transformational leadership approach, retain John, correct him, and coach him to be a better employee who does not criticize customers no matter their deficiencies. This is an alternative that could really limit liability should John choose to sue over wrongful termination. Ellen on the other hand is… Continue Reading...

Managing Change and Dynamics in an Organization

and freezing. Following Lewin's model, other scholars advanced this theory making it highly effective. Among them is Kotter's eight-step model, which holds that successful change implementation relies on the eight steps suggested by him. The ADKAR change model pioneered by Jeffery M. Hait can also be adopted (2006). ADKAR has been widely applied in the field of business and management as a framework to understand the change in the individual level. It is composed of five elements namely, Awareness, Desire, Knowledge, Ability and Reinforcement (Burnes, 2004). Kotter always believed that change is a gradual process (Burnes, 2004). The process… Continue Reading...

Children Of Divorce and How They Can Be Helped

human nature and it is a process that is "well-founded in narrative theory, phenomenology, psychoanalytic theory, trauma studies and aesthetics." Thus, in the realm of Art Therapy, counselors can engage children to bridge gaps in their interior development by making connections through story between the mind, the emotions, and the body's actions (Harpaz, 2014). Likewise, Watts, Oburu, Lah, Hunt and Rhodes (2016) show that "singing, play, dancing and story-telling" are all effective forms of psychosocial stimulation that help children to overcome developmental challenges (p. 1840). In the case of divorce, such stimulating exercises promote the faculties of the child… Continue Reading...

Discrimination Case Analysis

huge way. Jack should address this concern and the emergent larger issues (Jeffrey C. Connor, 2000). Application theory 1. Relative Deprivation theory Relative deprivation theory is used in explaining how social dictates and norms moderate the extent of the effect of perceived racial discrimination on variables of outcomes. Discrimination should therefore be examined in the context it occurs (Maria del Carmen, Mevan Jayasinghe, & Jenna R. Pieper, 2015). Relative deprivation theory argues that feelings of individuals on being denied something are pegged on fair treatment standards, which are informed by the particular context of the action. According to the theory,… Continue Reading...

Ethical Principles and Code Of Conduct Among Psychologists

environmental determiners of behavior, and very useful in controlling learner behavior. The weakness of the theory is that it does not apply to everyone and that it rejects the cognitive factors. The issue selected is that of adolescent smoking. From the operant conditioning, the environment is the main contributor to this behavior. The theory can be used to gain understanding and hence control of the issue (Grenyer & Lewis, 2012) WEEK 3 DISCUSSION 1 In this case, study, the client is the organization. As the I/O psychologist, the professional is to foresee a successful completion of the study. This… Continue Reading...

Corporate Social Responsibility and Philanthropic Foundations

at a degree equal to corporate aims related to profit. The study uses upper echelons theory as a framework for approaching the subject. The method of gathering data employed in this study was a systematic review of a selected sample from the Fortune 500 list of organizations between the years 1996 and 2006. The purpose of using this sample was because large organizations are more engaged in corporate philanthropic activities than are small companies. A longitudinal study was conducted over a period of ten years in which dollars given to corporate charity organizations were log-transformed (this was the dependent variable),… Continue Reading...

Open Source Software

the themes used are motivation, technology, strategies, social and economics, and the impact of adoption on theory and practice (Fitzgerald et al. 2011). Analysis of the review While reading Gaff & Ploussios (2012), the perception gained by the reader is that the authors intend to provide an accurate and authoritative informative piece regarding the matter of origin and adoption of OSS. The paper lays emphasis on the licensure of OSS, and the various types of license available. The paper is provided based on the understanding that the most authoritative regulatory bodies in the field; IEEE and IEEE Computer Society… Continue Reading...

Black and White Binary Central to Race Discussion

this chapter. When it comes to constructionist, the Social Development theory can be developed from up under this. It argues that social interaction leads development; awareness and thought are the end product of social behavior and socialization. Bandura's Social Learning theory suggests that individuals can learn from one another, using imitation, observation, and modeling. Behaviorism is considered to be a worldview that functions on a code of "stimulus-reply." It also stresses that all behavior is produced by external stimuli or what is known as the (operant conditioning). For the structural perspective, one theory used is the social conflict theory. This… Continue Reading...

Strategic Resource Management Hewlett Packard Enterprise

like that enjoyed by railroads, is a very valuable right. Economic theory ought to consider land a unique and separate production factor, from which practical inferences must be made. A key challenge encountered by governments and economists is ensuring effective working of land markets, taxation, and policy, for the welfare of the public. One can see the enormous significance of land when one regards it as a production factor. In the end, all that mankind uses traces back to land. It is fitting, indeed, to term land as the true source of material wealth. Equipment and machinery: A number… Continue Reading...

Generational Differences in Social Media Usage

and responses from a survey or shown an outline of the elements of a theory. Word tables illustrate the discussion in the text" (p. 161). A number of qualitative studies have used word tables for data collection purposes, including a study by Geraci and Mcdaniel (2009) that examined intergenerational differences in memory patterns of distinctive events, a study by Miller (2009) that used a word table to evaluate the lived experiences of law school students, and a study by Lapelle (2004) that used word tables for coding the results of literature reviews, interviews and responses to open-ended questions. Although… Continue Reading...

Effect Of Gender on Leadership Style and Employee Job Satisfaction

gender leadership qualities - males are task-oriented and authoritative, whereas females are social and democratic - and guides leadership theory development. Unfortunately, conflicting, poorly-composed research works exist in support of, or in opposition to, the prevalent standpoints on gender-specific approaches to leadership. These works frequently define gender leadership in a different manner: behavior vs. demographics. Researches depicting no significant differences in leadership styles of males and females concentrate more on context than individuals. It is becoming increasingly clear that group perceptions of female leaders' roles might be more significant than physical gender. References Ayman, R. & Korabik, K. (2010).… Continue Reading...

Leadership and Change Management

culture: the ultimate strategic asset. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Hayes, J. (2014). The theory and practice of change management. London: Palgrave Macmillan. Simerson, B. (2011). Strategic planning: a practical guide to strategy formulation and execution. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. Continue Reading...

Large Corporations Engage in Dishonest Business Practices

power given to these companies makes current business immoral. Bibliography Dubcova, G. (2013). Actual Trends in theory and in Practice of the International Business Ethics. Ekonomika a Management, 2013(1), 16-28. Lippencott, G. (2011, May 23). The Immorality of American Business. - Loyal Opposition / LJWorld.com. Retrieved from http://www2.ljworld.com/weblogs/loyal-opposition/2011/may/23/the-immorality-of-american-business/ Mather, J., & Tadros, E. (2016, March 23). The ATO Reveals the Tax Secrets of the Rich List - afr.com. Retrieved from http://www.afr.com/news/policy/tax/the-ato-reveals-the-tax-secrets-of-the-rich-list-20160321-gno066 Washington post. (2016, March 21). A transcript of Donald Trump's meeting with The Washington Post editorial board - The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/post-partisan/wp/2016/03/21/a-transcript-of-donald-trumps-meeting-with-the-washington-post-editorial-board/?tid=ss_fb&utm_term=.644f2b89d856 Continue Reading...

Ending Terrorism in Africa

as in naturalism, case studies, institutional ethnography, ethnomethodology, grounded theory, extended case method and action research are some of the possible paradigms (Stump & Dixit, 2012). Bias and Flexibility In the aftermath of 9/11, terrorism has become an ever difficult area to study because it faces a heavy and ready bias. Owing to these events, any analysis that seeks to be objective must view the current literature as heavily skewed. If matters persist as they are for longer, there is a risk that studies to do with terrorism will easily become Islamist terrorist researches with all others designated to… Continue Reading...

Enlightenment

Adorno. Dialectic of Enlightenment, trans John Cumming. London: Verso, 1997. Print. MacIntyre, Alasdair. After virtue: a study in moral theory. 3rd ed. London: Bloomsbury, 2007. Print. Rasmussen, Dennis C. Contemporary political theory as an anti-Enlightenment project. Brown University, n.d. Web. 9 September 2016. Continue Reading...

Aristotle’s Philosophy

He reasons this viewpoint through the logic that the notion of good changes with different categories; and Platonic theory of an ideal absolute good cannot be applied to all sciences or disciplines as the standards of good are different for different fields. Aristotle also contests ideal good notion for its practical application, as for a carpenter or doctor the knowledge of this ideal good is of no use as the appropriate good for each means to attain good in their own field, "for a doctor seems not even to study health in this way" but through the healing. He… Continue Reading...

Facets Of Global Leaders

and good impacts of an interpersonal nature (Javidan, Bullough & Dibble, 2016). While there is only so far that theory and ideas can take a person when it comes to the real world practice of global leadership, there are some broader frameworks and conceptual models that one can consider and ponder when it comes to the subject. Indeed, global organizations, by virtue of their status and position, must content with and handle other global leaders. Beyond that, it is less than easy to find full and constant parallels between the facets of domestic leadership and the same thing for global… Continue Reading...

Evolution Of Management Style at Galaxy Toys

over the years (Griffin, 2008). The evolution of management theory over time depicts the ever changing role of managers or leaders in organizations. Each management orientation or school of thought, however, presents its own merits and demerits. With reference to Galaxy Toys, Inc., an American toy manufacturing company, this case study provides an analysis of how the style of management in the organization has evolved from the mid-20th century to the 21st century. The case study particularly identifies two management theories that depict the organization's style of management in the late 1960s as well as the late 1980s and… Continue Reading...

Fairy Stories

must be perceived with the seriousness it deserves in Tolkien's theory of the Fairy. The developer, the writer of such a story is a sub-creator because he creates a world in which the reader enters and lives. The state of the mind of the reader is rather roughly described but not accurately in the expression ''willing suspension of disbelief.' The expression suggests a toleration of agreement. The reader embarks on secondary belief when the story succeeds. This will hold true for as long as the narration and relation of the world hold true to the contemporary rules of such… Continue Reading...

Second Chance Act Of 2008

and vocational training to assist them gaining full employment. Roca uses the theory of change in assisting people to change to a positive way. Since 2005, Roca 's model has transformed behaviors of several young people in a positive way. Apart from the Roca's model that supports a mass implementation of the Second Chance Act, Fryer, A. (2015) also argues that SCA will assist in reducing the recidivism across the United States. The author supports his belief based on the case of rehabilitation program carried out by the Justice Center. In 2014, 10 men were asked to sign up… Continue Reading...

Apple Investment and Financial Analysis

Apple has higher market values than the Microsoft market value. Capital Structure theory The capital structure theory assists in determining method to select the most optimal organization for an investment based on the market value and costs of capital. Typically, the capital structure theory assumes that the company that is able to maximize the market value and minimize the cost of finance will be the best company to invest. At the end of 2015 fiscal year, Apple recorded a long-term debt of $28.98 billion, however, the company net income was $53.39 billion. The data show that the company has an… Continue Reading...

Change Management

Chaos theory states that change represents a contemporary corporate model which is best suited to the advanced corporations of the current era. The theory understands the fact that change is unavoidable, but that forecasting its trajectory and time is hard (Taneja, 2013). Mergers, acquisitions, governmental takeovers and liquidations, which are ever more frequently observed, all support chaos theory premises. Akin to chemistry, organizational change may be classified as organic (flowing from an existing process) or inorganic (entirely different) (Wong, 2016). A Discussion That Assesses… Continue Reading...

Impact Of Federalism on Privacy Rights

federalism, the right to privacy is no longer considered from a legal theory perspective but as an issue of public interest. Therefore, the most significant impact of federalism on privacy rights is a negative one since it provides avenues for the central government to violate these rights. Conclusion Federalism is a concept promotes separation of powers between the central government and state governments. This concept has generated numerous constitutional debates in the recent past such as the right to privacy. The positive impact of federalism on privacy rights is that it enables people to determine the extent with which… Continue Reading...

Gender Equality

up occurring all too often. There are many, including Sherry Schneider and Gregory Northcraft, that assert that social identity theory and social role theory should be used to understand the problems and dilemmas that arise so as to develop solutions and resolutions to problems rather than allowing infighting and division-style tactics to ruin any sort of synergy or calm in an organization (Schneider & Northcraft, 1999). One thing that was mentioned several times in the introduction, and not by accident, is the difference between gender and sex. There is not a question as to what someone is born as… Continue Reading...

Diversity Management

better, ultimately minimizing the likelihood of conflict. Reference Yang, Y., & Konrad, A. (2011). Understanding diversity management practices: implications of institutional theory and resource-based theory. Group & Organization Management, 36(1), 6-38. Continue Reading...

Inclusion-exclusion in the Workplace

is more inclusive (Mead et al., 2011). 4. How does the social identity theory provide a connection between social structures and individual identity? The social identity theory provides a connection and link between social structures and individual identity through the connotations and significance that individuals bestow upon their affiliation to identity groups, for instance, those that are created because of race, ethnicity, or gender. In particular, the main suggestion from the social identity theory is that individuals have a desire to have belongingness to groups that have unique and constructive individualities. As a result, the individuals that belong to different… Continue Reading...

Psychology, Financial Decision-making, and Household Management

inheritance or grant. Mental Accounting Aspects of Mental Accounting There are several different aspects of mental accounting theory, all of which are centered on the psychological distinctions of economic classifications, but do not essentially encompass mental budgeting. They consist of hedonic editing, categorization of gains and losses, earmarking and labeling of income and assets, simultaneous borrowing and saving, and mental budgeting. To begin with, hedonic editing also referred to as 'hedonic framing' takes into account assessing the combinations of gains and losses as experienced by people. Research has shown that people have a preference to segregation of gains over integration and also… Continue Reading...

Gopros Usage Of Social Media

can emulate it). Trackmaven. Retrieved from http://trackmaven.com/blog/2015/01/why-you-should-envy-and-emulate-gopros-instagram-strategy/ Locke, E. et al. (2000). A theory of Goal Setting and Task Performance. NJ: Weldon, M., Eadie, W. (2009). 21st Century Communication: A Reference Handbook. Thousand Oaks: SAGE. Prentice-Hall. Continue Reading...

Prophet’s Night Journey Ascension in Islamic Literature

to the Heavens, showing him all in the cosmos, and tutoring him in numerous sciences. (Einstein's relativity theory can explain how two hours spent in space are equivalent to several years on earth). The Prophet (PBUH) said he spent twenty-seven years in the Nightly Journey and Ascension, while his bed on earth was still warm when he returned). b) On this day, it was made mandatory for Muslims to perform Salah (prayer) 5 times a day. The daily prayers were reduced from 50 times to 5 times specifically for the Ummah of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), with the reward… Continue Reading...

Germanys Economic Policies

Kapitalbeteiligungsgeschaoft der Sparkassen-Finanzgruppe. Wiesbaden: Deutscher Universitaotsverlag. Reiff, M. (2015). On Unemployment: A Micro- theory of Economic Justice. International Monetary Fund. European Dept. SGI, (2016). SGI 2016 - Germany - Economic Policies. [online] Sgi-network.org. Available at: http://www.sgi-network.org/2016/Germany/Economic_Policies [Accessed 25 Oct. 2016]. Trading Economics, (2016). Germany GDP - 1970-2016 - Data - Chart - Calendar - Forecast - News. [online] Tradingeconomics.com. Available at: http://www.tradingeconomics.com/germany/gdp [Accessed 25 Oct. 2016]. UNESCO, (2014). EFA Global Monitoring Report -- 2013 -- 2014 -- Teaching and Learning Achieving quality for all. UNESCO. WorldBank, (2016). GDP per capita growth (annual %) - Data. [online] Data.worldbank.org. Available at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.PCAP.KD.ZG?end=2015&locations=DE&start=2011 [Accessed… Continue Reading...

Qualitative Research Annotated Bibliography

is a valuable tool for health sciences in evaluating programs, crafting interventions and developing theory. This paper seeks to guide the inexperienced researcher in picking out the important elements for purposes of design and implementation of qualitative case study research tasks. There is a summary of the available designs of case study. The generalized recommendations for drafting the research questions, crafting propositions, binding the case, determination of the case in focus, triangulation and discussion of the sources of data are also availed. In order to apply the principles, there must be clear samples of research questions, propositions of study… Continue Reading...

Case Summary Analysis

authorities transferring him to an institution for boys (Warren Commission Report, 1963). The Case Summary and Offender Profile CRIMINOLOGICAL theory 7 The commission of Warren wrote an 888-page report submitted it in 1964, September 24 to Johnson. The report was then publicized after three days. It stated that the bullet which led to Kennedy's death and that which injured the governor had been fired by Lee. He fired three shots using a rifle which he pointed from a window in the Book Depository of Texas Building, on the 6th floor. There was a detailed report on the life of Lee, even… Continue Reading...

Leadership Tools and Being Fair

it should be identified and fixed. However, it should never be assumed that workers are " theory X" and that they need the proverbial whip cracked to get their job done. Similarly, there should not be a cutting of corners when it comes to attaining desired results. Whether it be safety, quality or whatever else, cutting corners just leads to quality going down and workers being unsafe. Either way, the bottom line is going to take a hit and the leaders in that situation are ultimately to blame if they let that malfeasance go on for any considerable amount of… Continue Reading...

American Body Culture Annotated Bibliography

Fat Girl": Acquisition of an Unfit Identity." Women's Studies International Forum 30, no. 2 (2007): 158-74. Carla explores the theory of feminist poststructuralist of fat that narrates diverse fat women in the Canadian context. The author documents the cultural message regarding fitness and fatness contributing to the perceptions of the fat frame being unfit for the societal values. Typically, size stereotypes have attributed to lack of physical activity and overeating. The author recommends that women need to be creative at self-making and indulge in physical activity. Keith, Walden. "The Road to Fat City: An Interpretation of the Development of Weight… Continue Reading...

Developmental Learning and Technology

Shin, & Graham, 2013, p. 101). Although a relatively new framework, it has helped influence theory, research, as well as practice in relation to teacher professional development and teacher education. The TPACK framework enables teachers to consider technology application in their design thinking processes. This is because 21st century learning has produced different opportunities and requirements that were not seen in the past (Koh, Chai, Benjamin, & Hong, 2015). Originally created/outlined in 2006 by Matthew Koehler and Punya Mishra, TPACK or TPCK builds on the work produced by Shulman. Shulman stated information of a content or subject area void… Continue Reading...

Teaching and Learning

their treasure during school hours as well. A story-centred syllabus is created, aiming to address potential issues. The underlying theory is provided for explaining content and framework choice. Further, this essay methodically offers seven teaching sessions in the framework, together with an alternate evaluation for one of them. The journal has been referenced in (Handoyo Puji, 2016). Language isn't graded or chosen for the author's syllabi or stories, but is used from that typically seen in a majority of beginner syllabi. Individual stories achieve distinct objectives in the parallel program based on language features, subject matter, and activities. It… Continue Reading...

Soren Aabye Kierkegaard

all disciplines, owing to his contributions to philosophy, theology, literary theory, psychology, social and political theory, and communications theory. He wished for the world to remember him chiefly as a spiritual philosopher. In fact, Soren even stated he was actually a missionary who aimed at reintroducing Christianity in the Christian community (Garff, 2005). Considering his various interests and chiefly-religious purposes, some people raise doubts regarding whether he can really be considered a philosopher. Soren became more and more certain that the Danish Lutheran Church rendered a true Christian life hard and sometimes even impossible to lead. By means of… Continue Reading...

Recycling Research Proposal

University. (2016). How much do we waste daily? Retrieved from https://center.sustainability.duke.edu/resources/green-facts-consumers/how-much-do-we-waste-daily Eckersley, R. (1992). Environmentalism and political theory. Albany: State University of New York Press. Elliott, B., & Elliott, J. (2013). Financial Accounting and Reporting. London: Pearson. EPA. (2013). Defining and Measuring Solid Waste Recycling and Disposal (No. Publication No. 905Q13001). Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-09/documents/region_5_state_measurerment.pdf Gandy, M. (2014). Recycling and the Politics of Urban Waste. Abingdon: Routledge. Purser, R., Park, C., & Montuori, A. (1995). Limits to anthropocentrism; toward an ecocentric organization paradigm. Academy of Management Review, 20(4), 1053 -- 1090. Recycling Consortium. (2016). Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Recycling Explained. Retrieved… Continue Reading...

Jerry Maguire Analysis

when he is in the hospital visiting a player that is suffering from severe concussion, and the players man theory to advise his father to stop playing in order to protect his health, Jerry dismisses the request, stating that nobody could stop him playing. This demonstrates his uncanny nature, which even Terry himself questions later in the film, when he asked himself if you just become another shock in a suit. This evolution towards redemption occurs after this encounter, when he writes a mission statement for himself, regarding the way he would like to be as an agent and… Continue Reading...

Pro Slavery in the Antebellum Period

a rise of landless poor as this could cause class warfare. [footnoteRef:1] [1: ibid] "Mudsill theory" supposed that there has to be a lower class upon which the upper class rests. One wealthy plantation owner in the south, James Henry Hammond, used the theory to explain his position on theory justifying it by saying that the slaves willingness to do menial work allowed higher classes help advance civilization. Thus, race or class equality efforts would hinder the advancement of civilization. [footnoteRef:2] [2: ibid] Proslavery theorists in the South argued that the existence of slavery ensured that there were no attempts… Continue Reading...

Pecking Order Versus Trade off Theories

elucidates the differences between the two theories. The Pecking Order vs. Trade-Off The Trade-Off theory refers to the concept that a company chooses how much equity finance and how much debt finance to use through balancing the benefits and costs (Agarwal, 2013). This theory explains that organizations are often financed partly with equity and partly with debt. Pecking Order theory argues that the cost of financing increases with asymmetric data. There are three sources of financing for a company: internal funds, new and debt equity. Firms prioritize their financing sources. First, they prefer preferring internal financing, and then debt, lastly equity… Continue Reading...

Organizing and Leadership Theories

These are some of the qualities that make great leaders. Nonetheless, critics of the trait theory have argued that leadership qualities can be acquired through experience, training, and development (Kunnanatt, 2016). The adage "leaders are made, not born" has actually become popular in the contemporary world. Critics of trait theories have particularly argued that successful leaders are defined by their behaviors, not their innate qualities or how they come out to others (Kunnanatt, 2016). In this regard, leaders can either be production-oriented or employee-oriented, or autocratic or democratic. Production-oriented leaders or autocratic leaders focus on the task at hand,… Continue Reading...

Compare and Contrast Aristotle and Plato

comes to the latter, it can only be hypothetical and in theory due to the invisible nature of it. Of course, the Allegory of the Cave represents a story where people are facing a blank wall and this is what leads to their perceived reality. He then makes clear that a philosopher is someone who has been freed from this slow hell. The analogy of the sun is about the concept of not being able to clearly and concisely defining what goodness happens to be. It is further remarked within the Sun story that goodness can actually make objects… Continue Reading...

Nature and Necessity Of Scientific Revolutions Preview

examinations show that paradigms play an important role in scientific theory. The role mainly informs the researcher or the scientist on the aspects that can and cannot describe the nature and their behaviors as well. "That information provides a map whose details are elucidated by mature scientific research." (15) The map creates a platform for continual scientific study of the universe and its nature into the future. The theories that are involved in paradigms are important for research. Apart from creating the map, the paradigms provide theories, standards and methods, all together to research scientists. Thus, a change in… Continue Reading...

Juvenile Probation

with juvenile lawbreakers. The other theme entailed the quest for proper theory, in order to guide juvenile probation. With social workers' acceptance of psychodynamic models and their increasing discomfort with providing services in the correctional context, probation administrators moved away from social work, an area that was deemed by an increasing number of professionals in the field to be unrelated and unimportant to their job. Why Juvenile Probation? Newton and Abusaid state that juvenile probation officers have a central part to play in delinquent children's development. Being the chief link between law-breaking kids and juvenile courts, these officers are… Continue Reading...

Public Health Law Case Study

new century: Part I: Law as a tool to advance the community's health. JAMA 283(21). 2837-2841. Gostin, L. (2008). A theory and definition of public health law. Georgetown University Law Center. Retrieved from http://scholarship.law.georgetown.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi? article=1007&context=ois_papers Gostin, L. O. (2000). Public health law in a new century: part II: public health powers and limits. JAMA, 283(22), 2979-2984. Gostin, L. O. (2000). Public health law in a new century: part III: public health regulation: a systematic evaluation. JAMA, 283(23), 3118-3122. Continue Reading...

Review Of Leadership Style and Emotional Intelligence

Leadership has been addressed in a wide range of terms and theories including the contingency theory, charismatic leadership, leadership traits, leadership style and emotional intelligence; commonly referred to as EI. Leadership thus constitutes adopting a specific style, behavior or stance which transforms a leader and helps them to become better and effective. So, it means that an effective leader is a construct that can be made. The importance thus of emotional intelligence of a leader in operating business today is all the more significant because it is not easy to break even under the existing austerity culture. The role… Continue Reading...

Treatment Modalities for Act and Ipt

patients. I had also valued the input of Relational Frame theory, which takes many of its practices from symbolic interactionism and linguistics theories. I often recognize my own internal dialogue, and pay attention to the way language is used in my dream states as well as in my waking subconscious. Beyond the mere "self-talk" that therapists often talk about, relational frame elements of ACT provide a wealth of opportunities for exploration and growth. Patients can explore art, music, and writing as a means to get in touch with their thoughts and feelings, expressing and then processing what is going… Continue Reading...

Role Of Labour Market Imperfections in Generating Unemployment

economics of imperfect labour markets, Princeton:     Princeton University Press. Dwivedi, D. (2010): Macroeconomics: theory and policy, 3rd ed., New York: McGraw-Hill.  Jha, P. and Golder, S. (2008): Labour market regulation and economic performance: a     critical review of arguments and some plausible lessons for India, Economic and     Labour Market Papers, International Labour Organisation. [online] Available at:     <http://www.ilo.org/public/english/employment/download/elm/elm08-1.pdf>     [Accessed 28 November 2016]. Manning, A. (2010): Imperfect competition in the labour market, CEP Discussion Paper No     981. [online] Available at: <http://cep.lse.ac.uk/pubs/download/dp0981.pdf>     [Accessed 28 November 2016].          Continue Reading...

Ethics and Moral Guidelines Criminal Justice

Rough Overview," n.d.). This is why I believe that there can be no one ethical theory that encompasses all situations. A person who has a strong ethical character, and who critically examines the variables at stake in any given situation, will make the best possible ethical decisions. It is impossible to please every stakeholder, every time, and thus, ethical outlooks need to be balanced carefully with pragmatism. Week 1 -- Discussion 2 Ethics are simply theory; it is how we act that matters. Bystander effect is one of the most important examples of where human beings can go astray… Continue Reading...

Business Leadership and Organizational Change

and diffusion of change. Journal Organisational Change Management, 15(3), 214-243. Hayes, J. (2014). The theory and practice of change management. London: Palgrave Macmillan. Kotter, J., & Schlesinger, L. (2008). Choosing strategies of change. Harvard Business Review, 86(7/8), 130-139. Lam, T. (2009). A total change management model for successful growth of housing associations. International Journal Housing Markets and Analysis, 2(3), 263-275. Nehar, Y. (2013). Managing change: a key to organisational development. Review of HRM, 2, 130-138. Odagiu, C. (2013). Organisational culture, change management and performance. Managerial Challenges of the Contemporary Society, 1-6. Pihlak, U., & Alas, R. (2012). Leadership style and… Continue Reading...

Logical Fallacies and Criminal Justice

fixture that fell and left their mother injured. The hearing court refused to grant the recovery, and rejected the theory that claim a recovery should be awarded when there is a predictable injury on a relationship that is legally established. A list of horribles was recited by the court to establish the need limit the liability. Since an action taken in consideration of all such relatives of the victim of the accident would not have been allowed, there was a need for the court to come up with a policy decision as to the appropriate place to set the… Continue Reading...

An Indepth Analysis Of Diversity Management

to, strategic functional decisions and corporate aims. Hence, the basis of the theory of productive diversity is that conventional work and organizational techniques will likely prove inefficient and counterproductive to long-term corporate sustainability and success. Essentially, the present and emergent environment poses various issues to be resolved and averted, in addition to opportunities that are to be taken advantage of (Mor Barak, 2014). A benefits and costs related reasoning may be applied to support this theory. Effective diversity management is linked directly to cost reduction owing to decreased personnel turnover rates, decreased absenteeism, decreased group productivity losses from inter-group and… Continue Reading...

Marx, Weber, Bourdieu, and Gramsci

power in the hands of a few, the more monopolistic the power play becomes. This theory is no surprise coming from Weber who is the father of modern day bureaucracy. Antonio Gramsci view cultural power as having a political basis, which is why he discusses at length the influence of Machiavelli, Savonarola, and others in his Prison Notebooks. He poses the framework in these questions: In what sense can one identify politics with history, and hence all of life with politics? How then could the whole system of super-structures be understood as distinctions within politics...?" (137). For Gramsci, the… Continue Reading...

Criminal Justice Bias

crime (Harring & Ray, 1999). There is no doubt that a crime was indeed committed. The theory of Criminal Behavior Related to the Selected Case Crime, its practice and existence is perceived through the social construction of criminality and the factors that make it happen. According to the traditional theories in sociology, crime was caused by lack of norms. This was immersed in a feeling of lacking the desired social connectedness. The term anomie was commonly used to refer to this scenario. It was further popularized by Emile Durkhein (1897). He also used the term to describe suicide. Sociologists refined… Continue Reading...

Sigmund Freud & the Human Condition

rebuilt the repressed conflict; specifically, the childhood conflict with one's parents. Personality According to Sigmund Freud's theory on psychoanalytic of personality, human behavior results from the interaction of the three components of the mind: superego, ego and the id. The structural theory of personality emphasizes on conflict on the parts of the mind, personality and mind shape behavior. Such conflicts are thought to be unconscious, thus, Freud argued that the personality which develops during childhood is shaped through psychosexual stages that he called psychosexual theory of development. During the stages, the child faces conflict that results from social expectations and biological… Continue Reading...

Mathematics Assessment

to the results of learning. The shift of focus in the theory of learning to constructivism from behaviourism has greatly influenced the learning and teaching of mathematics. Conventional tests are only centred on the mathematical procedures and skills of students. Thus, application of authentic tools for assessment to measure the learning of students is seriously required in mathematics. This paper entails a discussion about the appropriate tools; which is submitted to assess the performance of students in mathematical posing of problems and solving them. The 3 tools chosen are: problem posing and problem solving, authentic assessment and mixed method… Continue Reading...

Marriott Internationals Management Style

of Marriott's Arne Sorenson. Surface. Retrieved from: http://www.surfacemag.com/articles/power-100-hospitality-arne-sorenson Hayes, J. (2014). The theory and practice of change management. London: Palgrave Macmillan. Mandelbaum, A. (2015). Hotel technology innovations that will drive business in 2016. Retrieved from: http://www.hospitalitynet.org/news/4072364.html Marriott, J. (2013). Without reservations: how a family root beer stand grew into a global hotel company. U.S.: Diversion Books. Touryalai, H. (2013, July 15. Marriott's upgrade: new CEO Arne Sorenson freshens up the brand for millenials. Forbes. Retrieved from: http://www.forbes.com/sites/halahtouryalai/2013/06/26/marriotts-upgrade-new-ceo- arne-sorenson-enlivens-the-hotel-giant-aims-for-1-million-rooms/#4cf866dc5dd1 Continue Reading...

Dbt and Family Based Therapy

(DBT) falls within the category of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Its main focus is on psychosocial characteristics. Based on the theory that emotions can trigger intense reactions in some persons (especially in family/friend or romantic situations), DBT proposes that the extreme swings in feeling can be better controlled by enabling the individual to more easily identify the kinds of thoughts and feelings that have an intense impact and prepare the person cognitively to approach these emotional surges in a new way. Anderson et al. (2015) show that DBT can be an effective strategy for helping young patients with bulimia nervosa, but… Continue Reading...

Interpersonal Psychotherapy and Anxiety

Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) and its theory, techniques, application, strengths, weaknesses or other related topics are: the article by Souza et al. (2016) that examines the effects of IPT on treatment-resistant depression in adults, and the article by Markowitz, Lipsitz and Milrod (2014) that examines the relevant literature available on the impact of IPT on anxiety disorders. Both articles provide assessments of the theory of IPT, which is that IPT provides a short-term treatment for individuals in need of psychological treatment. Its aim is to assist the individual in regaining… Continue Reading...

A Concise Analysis Of Financial Performance Of Companies

hard to ascertain the precise timing of these risks' occurrence. Stakeholder theory puts the CR aspect into operation. The theory describes a company stakeholder and combines stakeholder interests and corporate profit maximization objectives. Clients, stockholders, supplying entities, workforce, special interest organizations, non-government organizations, communities and regulators typically make up a company's stakeholders. The contemporary CR concept has basically developed into the following 3 key stakeholder relation classes: environmental (E), social (S), and governance (G). For instance, workforce satisfaction enhances their motivation and retention rates, in addition to increasing development of novel patents, products, or deals. Via such long-run performance improvements,… Continue Reading...

Ted Talk About Body Language

willing to take a gamble versus those in the low power pose. The theory was that high power people in the real world tend to be more willing to take risks, and this was borne out in the research. The people who assumed the high power pose were indeed more likely to gamble. The implications of the research were tremendous. The researcher wanted to show that there are real world applications for the research in helping people who typically feel powerless, especially women, to change the way they carry themselves. By making a simple change to our body language,… Continue Reading...

Reflection on Positive Psychology Trends

central to positive psychology. Positive psychology is also far from being monolithic; it is a diverse area of theory and practice that is flexible and can incorporate a number of different issues and concerns. A body of evidence-based practice is being cultivated in the field of positive psychology. Positive psychology has applications in fields as diverse as sociology and business, where individuals can use the core tools and tenets of positive psychology to improve performance and outcomes. Positive psychology also has the potential for applications in the classroom, such as to enhance classroom management or inspire students for creative… Continue Reading...

Developmental Psychology

theories that explain the development features of adolescents, with a preference to Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalytic theory. Physical Features A number of puberty-related physical changes are apparent in adolescents by the time they reach fifteen years of age. Girls normally go through growth spurts immediately prior to their puberty, which explains why they are often temporarily taller than boys of their own age. Although a majority of girls stop growing in height after fifteen years, boys' weight as well as height increases all through adolescence. Further, the menstrual period of a majority of girls commences at this age, in addition… Continue Reading...

Prison Psychologists and Biases in Corrections

reduce the number of offences by applying theories like Hirschi's general theory of crime (Armstrong, 2005). Unfortunately, the biases and assumptions of correctional service providers influence their assessment of and interaction with offenders. Boothby & Clements (2000) found that many of the correctional psychologists participating in their research did not adequately administer psychological assessments. Due to the intense pressure of their work and the administrative duties the work entailed, psychologists were making intuitive judgments about personality disorders based on intake interviews. The psychologists would, for example, evaluate the prisoner's MMPI score without even administering the MMPI. The MMPI was,… Continue Reading...

Role Of Ceo in Effecting Positivity Among Employees

Marcus, E. C. (2011). The Handbook of Conflict Resolution: theory and Practice. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Rahim, M. A. (2011). Managing Conflict in Organizations. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction. Satinder, D. & Joan M, (2011). The Role and Need of Offering Workshops and Courses on Workplace Spirituality. Journal of Management Development, Vol. 30(9): 816-835 Continue Reading...

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy

of psychotherapy that is similar to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). The theory that ACT is based on is the Relational Frame theory, which launched out of cognitive therapy, supplying missing "steps" in Skinner's behaviorism by exploring more deeply the connections between language and thought. Essentially, ACT explores the idea that what and how a person thinks is highly impactful in that individual's daily life and functioning -- and especially in how that person copes with stress, etc. But whereas CBT focuses on altering the content of one's thoughts in order to move the individual towards the target behavior, ACT focuses… Continue Reading...

Motivational Theories Of Animal Shelters

into it based on factors like boredom, curiosity, or an altruistic desire to promote the well being of others. Self-determination theory takes individual differences into account, and differentiates between autonomous motivation and controlled motivation (Oostlander, Guntert, van Schie, & Wehner, 2013). Autonomous motivation comes from personal choice and is therefore a form of intrinsic motivation. Factors like "interest" and "fun" factor in to autonomous motivation (Oostlander, Guntert, van Schie & Wehner, 2013, p. 3). Research shows that intrinsic, autonomous motivation for volunteerism leads to greater volunteer work satisfaction and greater work effort, too (Oostlander, Guntert, van Schie & Wehner, 2013).… Continue Reading...

Issues in Developmental Psychology

development takes place in different stages and change throughout the life span (Lerner et al., 2013, p.466). Erikson's Psychosocial theory is an example of a theory under this perspective, which state that there are eight stages of psychosocial development that are biologically developed to manifest in a pre-determined, sequential way. Through this theory, Erikson effectively demonstrates that lifelong development involves integration of internal forces and external situations that influence development of ego. Borzumato-Gainey et al. (2009) conducted a study on life satisfaction, self-esteem and subjective age throughout the life span of women (p.29). The study was conducted on a… Continue Reading...

Miscarriage Of Justice, Race, and Poor Testimony

the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist theory, and Antiracist Politics. University of Chicago Legal Forum article. Article 8, Volume 1989, Issue 1. University Press. Fricker, Miranda. Epistemic Injustice: Power and the Ethics of Knowing. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007. Internet resource. Fricker, Miranda. Epistemic Injustice: Power and the Ethics of Knowing. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print. Kukla, Rebecca, and Mark N. Lance. 'Yo!' and 'Lo!' The Pragmatic Topography of the Space of Reasons. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2009. Print. Witt, Charlotte. Feminist Metaphysics: Explorations in the Ontology of Sex,… Continue Reading...

Investigative Psychology

understanding all the modalities of problems with human personality including IP. Multimodal therapy is included in the theory of social-cognition. It takes up technical eclecticism, which uses techniques from several other therapeutic methods. Such methods are training in anxiety management, bibliotherapy, behavior rehearsal, communication training, biofeedback, modeling, positive reinforcement, positive imagery, modeling contingency contracting, sensate-focus training and self-instruction training (Aihie, 2009). What is meant by a multimodal approach to treatment? This therapy applies many treatment methods. It is also known as multimodal and combination therapy. Multimodal therapy often uses such methods as educational interventions, programs for behavior modification, psychological… Continue Reading...

Strategic Importance Of Outsourcing in U.s. Manufacturing Company

147). Despite the benefits that firms can derive from outsourcing, the decision to outsource can be risky. Rob uses the theory of transaction economics to explain the shortcomings of firms' decision to outsource. According to the transaction costs economics, a firm and third party provider are required to draw a contract agreement to finalize the outsourcing business. During the course of negotiation, one party may possess more information about the contract than other party leading to information asymmetry. The concept of information asymmetry in economics refers a situation where one party in the contract negotiation has more information than the… Continue Reading...

European Union and Crime

cross-section sample of up to 150 countries and its methodology on economic theory; and found that the scale effect of legalized prostitution leads to an expansion of the prostitution market, increasing human trafficking, while the substitution effect reduces demand for trafficked women as legal prostitutes are favored over trafficked ones (Cho, Dreher, & Neumayer, 2012) The study further claims that the scale effect dominates the substitution effect and on average, countries where prostitution is legal experience larger reported human trafficking inflows than countries that criminalize the industry. The findings of studies such as this are based upon many different… Continue Reading...

Observing and Reporting Surroundings at a Va Medical Center

this population if it was a professional career field. Relevance of theory and readings in any of the texts Experiential learning opportunities such as volunteering can provide people of all ages and backgrounds with new insights concerning the lives of others and an appreciation for their challenges, values and cultures (Levine & Garland, 2015). Concluding comments Volunteering at a Department of Veterans Affairs medical center can be an eye-opening experience that can help the general public better understand the uphill battle these patients have in regaining a semblance of normality in their lives. References Levine, K. J. (2015, March 1).… Continue Reading...

Frankfurt School and Political Science on Totalitarianism

leader who represents one's values will be chosen over a leader who does not, according to Huntington's theory). Huntington's considerate examination of history through the lens of cultural theory exposes the issue most prominently -- namely, that "the fundamental source of conflict in this new world will not be primarily ideological or primarily economic" but cultural (Huntington 22). In conclusion, the psychological orientation of society towards leaders depends upon the perspective of the philosopher or political scientist: the Frankfurt School views it as a competition between working class individuals and elites; Arendt views it as a question of anti-Semitism;… Continue Reading...

Ergonomics and Human Factors

using the motivation work design. Parker, (2014) argues that motivational job design theory provides evidence of job satisfaction and influence job performances. Moreover, the theory of motivation influences a relationship between employee's expectancy and performances that influences different rewards for the individual employee. The overall concept of motivational work design is to allow individual worker be responsible for the job allowing them freedom of control and authority. The motivation model consists of the JCM (job characteristics model), and group work model. However, the study suggests using the JCM as opposed to the group work model currently being practice. The… Continue Reading...

Accounting Ethics Questions

lead to auditor changes? Auditing: A Journal of Practice & theory, 32(2), 119-145. Sun, W., & Sun, J. (2002). Analysis on Factors Influencing Managers' Earnings Management Intentions (pp. 477-482). working paper. SEC. (2015). SEC Charges BNY Mellon With FCPA Violations. Retrieved from: https://www.sec.gov/news/pressrelease/2015-170.html Continue Reading...

Gender Identity in Life Span Development

Education. Social Work and Society International Online Journal. Hawkes, G. and Scott, J. G. 2005: Sexuality and Social theory, in: Hawkes, G. & Scott, J. G. (eds.) Perspectives in Human Sexuality. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press. Irvin, J., & Mckay, K. (2013). Top 10 Things Social Workers Need To Know About Human Sexuality. Retrieved from The New Social Worker: http://www.socialworker.com/feature-articles/practice/10-things-social-workers-need-to-know-about-human-sexuality/ Ghosh, S. (2015). Gender Identity. Retrieved from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/917990-overview#a1 Continue Reading...

Poverty in Young and Middle Adulthood

lack of drive (Sameti, Esfahani & Haghighi, 2012). An answer to the following questions about the theory of poverty you selected: What aspects of this theory would be most suitable for your practice? Why? I chose the structural poverty theory as the model most relevant to my social work. I agree with the theory's premise that bigger social and economic frameworks can explain poverty. Views on structural facets maintain that capitalism gives rise to conditions that foster destitution (Sameti, Esfahani & Haghighi, 2012).). Furthermore, in my social work, I must appreciate the argument of structural theory proponents that one can… Continue Reading...

Aristotle and the Canadian Political System

a Greek philosopher who is considered as one of the most influential ancient intellectuals in philosophy and political theory. Aristotle's work in political theory was fueled by his travels and encounters of different political systems. This contributed to his focus on comparative politics, through which he advocated and critiqued the different political systems at that time. According to Aristotle, the defining feature of oligarchy is that sovereign power is in the hands of few individuals. In this kind of political system, the Constitution vests sovereign authority in the hands of a few who essentially have control over the country.… Continue Reading...

Death and Faith from Existentialist Point Of View

words challenges the readers by interconnecting with the theoretical concepts of Kant (Wildermuth, 2007). Philosophical Faith As per Jasper, the theory of philosophy never fits directly to the subjects dealt in universities and in particular, to "humanities," and there exist quantitative differences. It has become more common and the German universities faced the problem with the more orthodox philosophy, "Neo-Kantianism." Jasper's work Diegeistige Situation der Zeit, that meant a lot to him, had a major impact on the lives of many people when published (The Spiritual Condition of the Age). The question to which Jasper gave much importance was, "What is… Continue Reading...

Article Analysis on Ergonomics

Motivation theory and Ergonomics The study by Szalma (2014) entitled "On the Application of Motivation theory to Human Factors/Ergonomics: Motivational Design Principles for Human-Technology Interaction" proposes a set of principles and guidelines for motivational design that can be applied to the field of ergonomics. In terms of health and occupational safety, the article focuses on how motivation theory can be useful for reducing risks associated with fatigue, stress and boredom in the workplace environment by assessing the motivation aspects within the technology-human interaction. This paper will discuss the objectives… Continue Reading...

Frederick Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory Of Motivation

Organisational behaviour and management literature provides several theories that can be used to enhance employee motivation. One such theory is the two-factor theory developed by Frederick Herzberg. This paper describes the theory and its application in the improvement of worker safety, health, and/or wellbeing. Also known as the hygiene theory, Herzberg's model asserts that at the workplace, there are factors that lead to job satisfaction and others that cause dissatisfaction (Miner, 2005). This assertion is based on the premise that job dissatisfaction is not the opposite of job satisfaction. Factors that result in job satisfaction are generally factors related… Continue Reading...

Reporting Of Criminal Justice Issues and News

1987. "Rational Learning and Rational Expectations." In Arrow and the Ascent of Modern Economic theory, ed. G. Feiwel. London, Macmillan DeMarzo, Peter, Dimitri Vayanos, and Jeffrey Zwiebel. 2003. "Persuasion Bias, Social Influence, and Uni-Dimensional Opinions." Quarterly Journal of Economics. Vol. 115, No. 3: 910 -- 968 DellaVigna, S., & Kaplan, E. (n.d.). The Political Impact of Media Bias. Econweb, 79. Steele, B. (2002, August). Guiding Principles for the Journalist. Retrieved from Poynter: http://www.poynter.org/2002/guiding-principles-for-the-journalist-2/2132/ Continue Reading...

Terrorism in Nigeria and Boko Haram

including Cameroon, Chad and Niger (p. 150). Approach for the Study This study is grounded in conflict theory, which shows why Boko Haram has been as successful as they have. Boko Haram has appealed to the poor and unemployed in Northern Nigeria. The organization has also established itself as an official opposition to the Nigerian government, which is perceived of as corrupt as well as irresponsive to the needs of Northern Nigerians. The rise of global Islamic terrorism provided Boko Haram with tools and resources it used to infiltrate and permeate the religious and social organizations in disenfranchised communities. Boko Haram… Continue Reading...

Choice Theory and Human Behavior

Mottern (2008) writes that Dr. William Glasser's internal control approach labeled as 'Choice theory' postulates that the following five fundamental needs drive all of human behavior -- a physiological need to survive and 4 psychological needs (belongingness or love or acceptance; authority or acknowledgement or accomplishment; independence, or individuality or choice; and learning or excitement or enjoyment. To sum up, choice theory basically suggests that one's behavior is one's own choice. People develop all through the course of their lifespan. In this context, the term 'development' may be defined as: one's capacity of… Continue Reading...

Apartment Complex Parking Issues

as well which coincided with the former. Some of the more salient features associated with the trait theory of leadership include gender, personality, and intelligence (Derue et al., 2011, p. 7). As previously mentioned, I have always been charismatic which is one of the more distinguishable facets of my personality. Viewed from this perspective, the way I was able to compel others to listen to me and actually follow my leadership pertains to transformational leadership as well as trait leadership theory. Furthermore, I am convinced my intelligence was a factor in getting others to seriously consider my proposal and… Continue Reading...

Leadership Styles in My Community

enlightened and have answers to any questions that might come up. References Dinh, J. et al. (2014). Leadership theory and Research in the New Millennium: Current Theoretical Trends and Changing Perspectives. The Leadership Quarterly, 25(1), 36-62. Hunter, E. M., Neubert, M. J., Perry, S. J., Witt, L. A., Penney, L. M., & Weinberger, E. (2013). Servant leaders inspire servant leaders: Antecedents and outcomes for employees and the organization. The Leadership Quarterly, 24(2), 316 -- 331. Northouse, P. G. (2016). Leadership: theory and practice (7th ed.). Thousand Oaks: CA: Sage Publications. Parris, D., Peachey, J. (2013). A Systematic Literature Review of Servant… Continue Reading...

Post Feminism and Hip Hop

of text and visuals to gather and form ideas and theory. The first concept to analyze is 'raunch aesthetics'. A term see in feminist theory, 'raunch aesthetics' describes the women in hip hop and the various ways they express sexuality via staging, choreography, and performance of lyrics. Women in hip hop that participate in 'raunch aesthetics' are thought to attempt to own their sexual identities as well as their bodies by performing these physical/verbal expressions. The women Hernandez discusses in her essay go by the name Yo! Majesty. They are based in Tampa, Florida and use lyrics depicting a… Continue Reading...

The Morality Of Punishment for Actions

again. The Theories That View Punishment as an Inappropriate Response Moral theory shows what makes a certain action wrong and why there is a need to behave in a certain way. According to this theory, the best way or appropriate way to deal with moral issues is not through punishment. It explains that punishment causes an offender to become antisocial or even aggressive, blurting out his anger to the whole world, and thus does more harm than good. It also blocks the way towards learning how to resolve conflicts peacefully. Finally, an offender may assert his freedom by becoming antisocial and/or… Continue Reading...

Communicating Effectively for New Couples

partner know of all your intimate secrets. Effective communication skills encompass knowing proper self-disclosure levels. The social penetration theory put forward in the year 1973 likened disclosure to peeling layers of an onion (Bevan & Sole, 2014). With the strengthening of your relationship, you will automatically start opening up and letting your partner know more about yourself. Bear in mind that open communication forms the answer to a successful marriage. This entails sharing all things with one another and leaving no secret untold. After understanding and knowing yourself, you can effectively demonstrate emotional intelligence. The ability to pay active,… Continue Reading...

Oath Horatii

to the Curatti (Locating the Viewer in Formalist Aesthetic theory and French Neoclassical Art, 2007). The work by David was representative and significantly influential in the revival of the neo-Pousinist which carried a lot of the compositional and subject choices by the famous Academy. The French art enthusiasts had been conditioned to inspect and consider ancient art subjects as living examples of heroism and sacrifice that was inspired and essential qualities of maintaining the state. David delivered in that regard. The Oath of Horatii was heroic, didactic and often described as propagandistic. It is a classic example of a… Continue Reading...

Businesses Run by Women

To do so, researchers must examine through the feminist theory perspective. Many studies in the past borrowed theoretical concepts from areas that were not valid for the women entrepreneurship domain. There is a need to be inclusive of diverse voices and consider constructionist approaches to explore traditional as well as non-traditional questions. Particularly, there is a need to use the lens of feminist theories to capture heterogeneity in women entrepreneurship research and extend existing entrepreneurial theories" (Yadav and Unni, 2016, p. 10). They must also expand the score of research in not just the context, but also the content… Continue Reading...

Pacific Island and Aboriginal Art 1980

Rendering the abstract cosmology of the Dreamtime in art has evolved over thousands of years. Dreamtime is rooted in the theory that "the Earth's surface once was nothing but a vast, nondescript expanse of mud or clay," (Kiger, n.d.). From an artist's perspective, a "vast, nondescript expanse of mud or clay" is the starting point of all creation. The creation of the universe is art, and art therefore mirrors the creation of the universe. Moreover, the creators are not earth-bound. Rather, the "ancestral spirit beings rose from beneath the surface or descended from the sky, and assumed the forms of… Continue Reading...

Marketing an Emba Program in Vietnam

opportunity for experienced professionals to gain a sense of reflection about best practices in business, synthesizing their experience with theory (Roglio & Light, 2009). Because of their experience, Executive MBA students have lower barriers to success, and conventional measures such as GMAT scores are not correlated with that success (Gropper, 2007), which means the EMBA program can be offered with lower barriers to entry, though other studies contradict this (Siegert, 2010). An EMBA program typically allows students to learn with a combination of classroom and distance learning, which allows for greater flexibility in terms of time dedicated (Desanctis &… Continue Reading...

Economic Inequality and Austerity Motivator for Revolution

the major factors that influences a revolution. The economic theory implies that a reduction in the production capacity leads to a decline in the employment rate. In 2010, the unemployment rates in Tunisia, Egypt and Tunisia were higher than the preceding years. In the Arab world, a juvenile dissatisfaction leads to youth unrest. Before the global economic crisis in 2008 and 2009, one out of four youths was already without a job in Egypt and Morocco. Obviously, participation in the female labor force in the Arab world is very low leading to a waste of human capital consequently curbing… Continue Reading...

Treating Depression with Act

Acceptance and Commitment theory It largely appears as though Jacob is experiencing signs of depression. There are a number of telltale signs which point to this assessment. One of these signs is he has recently experienced a life-altering event with the loss of his business. Such a loss is especially devastating for this individual because it was his sole source of income, which lends a degree of pragmatism to the sort of anxiety which can rapidly lead to depression (Cadigan and Skinner, 2015, p.293). This notion… Continue Reading...

Psychological Case Study Using Ipt

major goal of syndromal diagnosis," (p. 976). The process of diagnosis also occurs in the absence of theory. Theories like Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) offer "a unified model of behavior change applicable to human beings in general, not just those fitting certain diagnostic criteria," (Hayes, Pistorello & Levin, 2012, p. 978). ACT also avoids overreliance on diagnoses (Hayes & Lillis, 2012; Twohig, M.P., 2012). In Dawn's case, Interpersonal Therapy (IPT) might be indicated due to the proven efficaciousness of the modality: deMello, Mari, Bacaltchuk & Neugebauer (2005) performed a meta-analysis and found that IPT leads to results comparable… Continue Reading...

Kings County Library Changes Needed

submitted for this project, the selection of videos that are available from the library is a good idea in theory but it has been underwhelming in its execution. There is certainly demand for the video library system in place but the selection is rather bad, per the customers, and the popular videos are always checked out. Rather than wait-listing people or otherwise allowing the status quo to take hold, things need to change. Additionally, the mediums and methods that are used can be expanded and in a way that benefits the bottom line of the library system itself (TAI,… Continue Reading...

Organizational Change and Leadership Effectiveness

alter the relationships between employees and those that manage them. "Sociotechnical systems theory, process improvement, adaptive structuration theory, the job characteristics model, technostructural change models, and activity theory" are all potential components of work design (Torraco, 2005, p. 85). Role clarity might be one of the most important features of a successful organizational change. Working with human resources to update job descriptions and work with employees to offer their input into the new job descriptions can be exceedingly helpful. Similarly, change leaders need to be clear about the big picture: what the vision of the change will be for… Continue Reading...

Muslim Youth Identity in Biculturalism America

identity construction is built on Western values and concepts integral to Western personality theory and worldview. When considering the unique elements of Muslim identity construction, or any other non-Western identity construction, it may be necessary to reconsider issues such as how happiness and other psychological variables are defined (Joshanloo, 2013). Identity and culture are both structural elements in sociology and psychology. As structures they are "mutually sustaining cultural schemas and sets of resources that empower and constrain social action and tend to be reproduced by that action," (Sewell, 1992, p. 29). Biculturalism theory and Identity Formation Bicultural identity construction… Continue Reading...

Nigeria Boko Haram and African Terrorism

in the north to radicalize young recruits. The author shows how deprivation theory can be applied to Boko Haram to provide alternative counterterrorism solutions. Anyadike, N.O. (2013). Boko Haram and National Security Challenges in Nigeria; Causes and Solutions. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development 4(5): Retrieved: http://rguild.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Boko-Haram-and-National-Security-Challenges-in-Nigeria-Causes.pdf This article is helpful for positioning Boko Haram in terms of globalized Islamic terrorism. The author shows how Boko Haram's 2009 uprising "set a precedent," and showed how a specifically Nigerian brand of Islamic fundamentalism was competing with secular Nigerian institutions. Economic disenfranchisement, "party politics and politics of anxiety," and desperate politicians… Continue Reading...

How Supreme Court Justices Are Appointed

to win popularity contests, not ones that are actually good judges. For example, elections could in theory prevent conservative judges from passing legislation that restricts civil liberties, and yet, the recent election shows that a significant proportion of Americans are stupid and cannot be trusted. Americans have no idea what qualities to look for in a judge, and would vote for judges based on their television commercials, what their church tells them, or what their conservative radio talk show host tells them instead of based on how accomplished the person's career had been until that date. Americans cannot be trusted… Continue Reading...

Darwinism and Evolution in Woodlanders

"evolutionary pessimism" is paralleled by an ironic optimism. Social Darwinism has misappropriated Darwinian theory of evolution by using the theory to justify the subjugation of non-whites and women. On the contrary, a deconstruction of social Darwinism can be located in the theories of Karl Marx, who wrote concurrently to Darwin. Hardy's novel The Woodlanders locates itself as a Marxist revision of social Darwinism. The Woodlanders, like Marx, actually show that evolution will favor the subjugated in due time. However, in deft literary fashion, Hardy practically tricks his readers into thinking that he is assuming a more classically Darwinian approach to… Continue Reading...

Macroeconomics and Gas Stations

it does not, then demand will remain static. There is also risk of further recession, but business cycle theory argues that this would only occur following another expansion-peak stage. Fiscal policy is uncertain right now with a new president coming into office. There are apparently mixed signals with respect to fiscal policy and what governmental priorities are going to be, making this a tough time to predict which direction the economy is going to go in. So it might be best to think of business cycle in local terms -- what will happen with the local economy? Will unemployment… Continue Reading...

Democracy or Not for Economic Development

of the country in the long-run could be taken into account. In theory, such a leader could envision a nation with equitable distribution of wealth, and where expenditures were closely focused on the areas that will ultimately promote economic development. Where autocratic leadership has succeeded in economic development, it is because it has learned to build consensus among the people, and execute long-run visions for infrastructure projects and education. The form of government itself is not the cause of any success. But it allows for decisions to be made quickly, and a vision to be enacted. The reality is… Continue Reading...

Sociology Article and How It Relates to a Theory

of his claim that he is ill and will not. Explanation of theory Although a number of theoretical viewpoints can be used to frame this case, including structural-functionalism and symbolic interactionism, gender and medical paternalism are at the forefront of the issues. Therefore, a feminist perspective allows for a fruitful investigation of the event. The feminist perspective shows how the structural inequities built into a paternalistic medical system work against a female petitioner like Kohli. A feminist perspective provides the underlying framework for understanding the phenomena of sexual harassment of abuse, of abuse of power in the doctor-patient relationship, and… Continue Reading...

Effort and Impact on Memory

term memory than to long term retention of facts (Chadwick, et al, 2015). Cognitive load theory has suggested specific numbers of units of information that working memory can handle. Furthermore, cognitive load theory proves especially relevant when the goal is to improve learning and not simply rote memorization. To this effect, researchers recognize three different types of cognitive loads including intrinsic, extraneous, and germane (Leppink, et al, 2014, p. 32). Intrinsic cognitive load has to do with differential levels of difficulty. For example, for an English speaker, it will be easier to learn Spanish than to learn Arabic because… Continue Reading...

Lateral Violence

Jones, S. (2014). Lateral violence in nursing and the theory of the nurse as wounded healer. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 18(4). Embree, J. L., & White, A. H. (2010). Concept analysis: Nurse-to-nurse lateral violence. In Nursing forum (Vol. 45, No. 3, pp. 166-173). Blackwell Publishing Inc. Hill, A. (2014). Lateral Violence Experienced by Nurses in the Workplace. Roberts, S. J. (2015). Lateral violence in nursing: a review of the past three decades. Nursing science quarterly, 28(1), 36-41. Continue Reading...

Child Studies

that will be discussed in this particular section are the theory of Cognitive Development and Multiple Intelligences theory. Piaget's theory of Cognitive Development One theory is the Cognitive Development theory. This theory was developed by Jean Piaget, and it lays emphasis on predictable cognitive stages. In particular, Piaget asserted that cognition was dissimilar in the course of every stage of development. This theory includes four stages, which include the sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete, and formal operations stages. To begin with, the sensorimotor stage occurs between birth and two years of age and in this phase the child utilizes all his… Continue Reading...

Cognitive and Behavioral Development Of an Adolescent

be used in understanding Riley's case and behavior. According to the Piaget's theory of development, children go through various stages in life. Theories of development reveal that when a student is in high school or the 10th grade, he or she undergoes through a period of personal development through the creation of identities. At this stage, individuals are preparing for adulthood and gaining more independence just as adolescents become experimenters in their lives. Piaget proposed a theory of development where moral reasoning for children develops from what he calls a naive understanding of morality. This naive understanding is usually… Continue Reading...

Diagnosing Change at Fedex

for the organisation to fully adopt the people analytics approach. Reasons for Change Change management theory stipulates several reasons for organisational change. Nonetheless, three major reasons relate to efficiency, effectiveness, and performance (Russell & Russell, 2006). Efficiency is all about accomplishing a task or a desired outcome using the least amount of time, effort, energy, and resources. Wastage in HR processes is not an uncommon phenomenon. Often, organisations waste time, effort, and resources in performance appraisals, employee development, and other HR processes without a significant impact on overall goals and objectives. With more data-driven HR practice, FedEx would eliminate HR processes… Continue Reading...

Research and Theory in Criminal Justice

research plays an important role in describing, evaluating, and quantifying various physical and social issues, theory is an important part of this process. A theory is applicable and informs a research study through providing a basis for developing reasonable explanations of reality. Through the use of theory, criminal justice researchers can effectively categorize and organize events, explain their root causes and forecast future incidents or events. This implies that information derived from theories is primarily used to understand why and how complex social phenomena in the criminal justice field occur. A generalized theory remains relevant to new or innovative… Continue Reading...

Women and Minorities in Leadership and Stem Annotated

was centered on what is known as the social cognitive theory, as proposed and discussed by Lent, Brown and Hackett in 1994. There was a significant relationship found between outcome expectations, interests and goals. Self-efficacy and efficacy-mediated relationships were also in play. One area that is touched upon with fervor in this study is what is known as STEM, which is short for science, technology, engineering and mathematics. Indeed, the under-represented groups mentioned for this study are even more under-represented in the STEM group as it is dominated by white males in many to most instances. The college that… Continue Reading...

College Student Development

role in the social development of students. As per the college student development theory (CSDT), college significantly contributes to students' academic, cognitive, social, psychological, as well as spiritual and moral development (Patton et al., 2016). Indeed, CSDT provides student affairs practitioners with a solid foundation for practice. More specifically, given the widespread prevalence of development-related issues in colleges, such as attrition, violence, suicide, and drug abuse, CSDT to a large extent guides and informs the work of community college counsellors. In this essay, I illustrate my personal knowledge, skills, and dispositions regarding my role as an outreach community college… Continue Reading...

Boko Haram and Diffusion Of Innovation

Diffusion of innovation theory refers to the spread of ideas, materials, or strategies and can be applied both to counterterrorism policies or terrorist tactics themselves. By paying attention to the patterns of diffusion, governments can make more informed counterterrorism decisions or policies. At the same time, diffusion of innovation can show how terrorist tactics spread from one group to another or how extremism spreads throughout a region. Applied to Boko Haram, the diffusion of innovation theory can show how terrorist tactics used by one extremist group… Continue Reading...

Starbucks Financial Assessment

Miller, M. H. (1958). The Cost of Capital, Corporation Finance and the theory of Investment. American Economic Review, 48(3), 261 -- 297. Myers, S. C., & Majluf, N. S. (1984). Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have. Journal of Financial Economics, 13(2), 187 -- 221. Nellis, J. G., & Parker, D. (2006). Principles of the Business Economics. Harlow: Prentice Hall. Nijmeijer, K. J., Fabbricotti, I. N., & Huijsman, R. (2014). Making Franchising Work: A Framework Based on a Systematic Review. International Journal of Management Reviews, 16(1), 62 -- 83. Phan, M., Thomas,… Continue Reading...

Ethics in Corrections

has critical implications for stakeholders within and outside correctional institutions. References Banks, C. (2013). Criminal justice ethics: theory and practice. 3rd ed. London: SAGE. Birsch, D. (2014). Introduction to ethical theories: a procedural approach. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press. Braswell, M., McCarthy, B., & McCarthy, B. (2008). Justice, crime, and ethics. 6th ed. New York: Routledge. Carlson, P., & Garrett, J. (2008). Prison and jail administration. 2nd ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Joyce, P. (2013). Criminal justice: an introduction. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge. Kleinig, J. (2008). Ethics and criminal justice: an introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pollock, J.… Continue Reading...

Applying Activity Theory to Ones Life

Psychological Aspects of Aging Activity theory is a psychological theory that could be used to explain successful aging. It holds that the more active a person is as he or she ages, the more likely that individual is to be happier and age without difficulty (Martin, Kelly, Kahana et al., 2015). This theory would apply to Helen's case because part of what would allow her to age successfully is to be active and continuously engaged with something -- whether it is a hobby, friendships, or… Continue Reading...

Nursing Needs These Times

departure between actuating those patient goals and providing a consistent means for doing so. A basic cognizance of systems theory and systems thinking underscores the aforementioned point. Nurses must integrate a number of different systems to effect proper care concerning environmental factors (Neuman, 1996), individual, patient-centered ones, as well as sanitary and psychological concerns. The complexity of such integration becomes amplified when one considers the different nursing fields which these practitioners must consider these systems for as well. Thus, it is necessary to have a structured approach to incorporating evidence-based practice which is applicable to all of these systems and… Continue Reading...

Negative Interest Rates Analysis

believing that the policy carries some financial risks. Abozaid, & Garin, (2016) point out that economic theory had disregarded the option of negative interest rates to be insignificant to the economic growth. Moreover, a reduction in interest rates will make depositors be worse off while borrowers benefit from the policy of negative interest rates. The policy is also not beneficial to elderly people because these age groups have accumulated savings, thus, negative interest rates will make them be worse off in the long run because of a decline in their income. Moreover, negative interest rates will reduce the propensity… Continue Reading...

Uk Trade Policy and Its Departure from the Eu

as possibilities and obstacles that await the UK post-EU (Hatzigeorgiou, Lodefalk, 2016). From a trade theory and policy perspective, this paper will assess the UK's current trading arrangements along with the potential advantages and difficulties it will likely face as a result of being outside the EU. From a mercantilist trade theory perspective, Britain's current trading arrangements are based on what is good for the EU member states (Britain formerly being one of them). It is less protectionist from a nationalist point of view and the idea that a country might import less than it exports and thereby have… Continue Reading...

African Terrorism and Boko Haram

Frustration-Aggression theoretical framework as suggested by Omadjohwoefe (2013). Frustration-Aggression theory is related to conflict theory, in that systematic alienation and oppression lead to widespread frustration and despair, and the outlet for that despair is violence. Violence has been normalized within the context of quasi-religious ideology, which simultaneously promises to rectify corruption in the government and replace the existing regime with one that claims to empower the disenfranchised elements of Nigerian society. Moreover, the dependent variable in the research will be related to the Nigerian economy. As a terrorist organization using destruction of public infrastructure as a military tactic, Boko… Continue Reading...

Solow Growth Model and Unemployment

role that business cycles play in the macroeconomic environment. The real business theory school of thought holds that economic agents are rational and optimising. Another key assumption is that wages and prices are flexible, something for which there is little evidence in the real world for most goods, and certainly for labour. Business cycles, therefore, arise as the result of shocks to the economy. Because agents are always optimising each transaction, a business cycle change is the result of agents changing their views about future economic outcomes, and the implications thereof on current transactions. Changes often occur from outside… Continue Reading...

Nursing Challenge

patient safety, as well as healthy nurse-patient and nurse-nurse relationships. As described by systems theory, a system comprises several interrelated elements that work together to achieve a specified objective (Bielecki & Stocki, 2010). Nursing staff comprises one of the crucial elements in a hospital system. They provide primary care and support other members of the interdisciplinary team in delivering care to patients. Accordingly, deficiencies in nursing staff can be detrimental to the hospital as a whole. It can affect not only nurses, but also doctors, patients, and the reputation of the organisation. SWOT Analysis A major strength of the… Continue Reading...

Constructivism Theory in International Politics

Constructivist theory is one of the theories of the international relations emerged in the 1990s posing a challenge to the dominant liberal and realist theoretical paradigms. By taking different theoretical approaches to viewing the international systems, constructivist theory emphasizes on the material objects "rather than the mere existence of the objects themselves". (Cristol, 2011 p 1), for example, nuclear weapons in North Korea, and the United Kingdom may be identical materially, however, they possess different meaning to the US policy makers.… Continue Reading...

Importance Of Gender in International Relations

utilized to explore and develop ways through which international relations theory and discourse is restructured in a gender-neutral manner.  Gender relations play an important role in international politics issues like global economy and war.  In the recent past, there have been numerous efforts to develop various IR bodies that focus on theoretical and substantive research relating to women (Youngs, 2004). Establishment of Social Policies and Inclusive Peace Strategies Secondly, incorporating gender in international relations is viewed as a crucial element towards establishing fair social policies and inclusive peace strategies (Ivanov, 2012).  Men have traditionally acted as the major perpetrators… Continue Reading...

Globalisation and Business Cultures and Practices

has led to a convergence of business cultures and practices. Cultural Differences Different cultural theories, notably Geert Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions theory, suggest that significant cultural differences exist between countries (Hofstede, 2001). Values, beliefs, norms, traditions, and worldviews vary from one country to another. For example, while some countries value individualism, others emphasise collectivism and group harmony. Some view power and status as a source of recognition, while others consider individual accomplishments as the source of recognition. Generally, culture affects the behaviours, attitudes, and perceptions of a particular group of people (Luthans and Doh, 2012). It affects everything from language and communication… Continue Reading...

Niger Delta Militants

all stakeholders in terms of working towards peace in the Niger Delta. Tobor (2016) utilizes critical theory and the political economy approach specifically (p. 24), which is an appropriate lens for viewing the problem, as the political-economic factors are main drivers that impact stakeholders' perspective on the situation. Tobor (2016) appropriately uses and applies relevant literature throughout, with the majority of sources coming from recent publications (within the past 5 years). Quantity of sources was not emphasized over quality as all the sources used relate in some way to the issue at hand. The literature review itself adheres to… Continue Reading...

Organizational Leadership

from social science, initially proposed by Immanuel Kant, the German philosopher, in the year 1784. This theory dealt with world citizenship, in which no individual would be identified as a specific country's citizen, but as a global citizen. Thus, cosmopolitans are simply people who don't identify only with their local environment, but with the international environment (Nicolopoulou et al., 2016). A geocentric attitude necessitates the ability to adjust to novel atmospheres and to be competent with multiple cultures. With swift economic transformations and organizations' attempts at market expansion, tax breaks, and labor cost reductions, a trend is being witnessed,… Continue Reading...

Global Warming in 21st Century

the necessary sacrifices to safeguard the future of our generations. This gap between theory and practice largely stems from differences in contributions to global warming between developed and developing countries. It is evident that developed countries are the greatest contributors of global warming. Statistics indicate that the U.S., Canada, Europe, Japan, Russia, Mexico, India, China, Brazil, and Indonesia account for more than 70% of all global emissions; with the U.S., Canada, Japan, Europe, and Russia leading in terms of per capita emissions (BBC News Magazine, 2016). Nonetheless, developed countries are the least affected. With more wealth and resources, developed… Continue Reading...

Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

(1995). But that's just good teaching! The case for culturally relevant pedagogy. theory into practice 34 (3): 159-165. Woolfolk, A. E. (2016). Educational psychology. Upper Saddle river, NJ: Merrill. Continue Reading...

Behavioral Approach Instruction Criticism

benefits and strengths of instruction and classroom management that is done on the basis of behavioral theory. For starters, human beings learn by acting on the environment that they are in. This is in the sense that individuals act on the world, and transform it, and are in turn transformed by the implication of their actions. In particular, individuals effectively learn in a responsive environment. Having instruction and classroom management that is based on behavior provides such a setting. Teachers that use praise and also rewards with respect to the behavior and performance of the students facilitate the creation… Continue Reading...

Visual Analysis

advocacy, 33(1), 23. Dove, I. J. (2012). On images as evidence and arguments. In Topical themes in argumentation theory (pp. 223-238). Springer Netherlands. Hill, C. A., & Helmers, M. (Eds.). (2012). Defining visual rhetorics. Routledge. Jeong, S. H. (2008). Visual metaphor in advertising: Is the persuasive effect attributable to visual argumentation or metaphorical rhetoric? Journal of Marketing Communications, 14(1), 59-73. Scott, L. M. (1994). Images in advertising: The need for a theory of visual rhetoric. Journal of consumer research, 21(2), 252-273. Continue Reading...

Google and the Mind

in time, there is a lack of a single scientific theory to explain the working of the human memory. Hence, the authors based their research on synonyms, Semantic Model, and word pair associations. Intriguingly, in case of this research, majority answers (that is, at least half) came under PageRank's top eight-percent ranks (22). It was concluded that PageRank ordering of 'terms that begin with a particular alphabet' are closely matched to the most frequent responses of users when provided an alphabet and requested to utter the very first word that comes to mind. The Google Search engine is superior… Continue Reading...

Supply and Demand

prices of gasoline per gallon in ten different gas stations. Thereafter, the theory of demand and supply will be utilized to ascertain the change in prices and the new prices to be set in a new market. The following are 10 gas stations in your local area with a record of the price per gallon for each gas station. Gas Station Price per Gallon Catt-Rez Enterprises Inc. 10910 Erie Rd & Lakeshore Rd Big Indian Smoke Shop 597 Milestrip Rd near Farnham Rd Wolf's Run 12795 Four Mile Level Rd near Iroquois Dr. Signals 11024 Southwestern Blvd near Brant… Continue Reading...

Mixed Methods Designs

and quantitative data. It also involves describing the timing of data collection as well as the theory and philosophical worldview underlying the above procedures. The next step involves educating the reader about other terms that may be used in place of mixed methods. These include mixed methodology, multi-method, and quantitative and qualitative methods (Creswell, 2014). It is also important to familiarise the reader with the history of the mixed methods design. According to Creswell (2014), the mixed methods design gained popularity towards the end of the 1980s, with researchers attempting to overcome the weaknesses presented by single-method designs. Since… Continue Reading...

Southernization and Westernization

to keep things as information-filled and accurate as possible. It is also important to make it clear when theory and conjecture are in play and why alternate theories that are nonetheless present are not mentioned or accepted as firmly [footnoteRef:2]. [1: Shafer, Lynda. 2017. "Southernization." Hawaii.Edu. http://www.uhpress.hawaii.edu/journals/jwh/jwh051p001.pdf.] [2: Stearns, Peter N. 1987. "Periodization In World History Teaching: Identifying The Big Changes." The History Teacher 20 (4): 561. doi:10.2307/493757.] It is important to note what other historians have to say about this same topic and lexicon in the most modern context and frame of debate. More importantly, it is important… Continue Reading...

How Diversification Can Help Ceos Financially

global economic crisis" (Florentina, 2012). Corporate governance is based on the theory of the "organization and the expenses it implies," and the organization's efforts to clarify relationships "between the several actors to the determination of management" (Florentina, 621). Good governance " . . . reduces risks, increases performance . . . improves managerial style," and offers transparency vis-a-vis "social responsibility" (Florentina, 624). But when there are "inefficient policies" and "agency conflicts" within diversification, the firm is harmed (Florentina, 621). Florentina's research (not based on specific empirical data) shows that diversified companies' long-term indebtedness is 4% higher than concentrated (non-diversified)… Continue Reading...

Social Capital

that exists between trust, social networks, and the advancement of present day industrial society. The theory of social capital has attained significance by means of the assimilation of classical sociological theory with the delineation of an intangible form of capital (Ferragina, 2010). Where it's going? The direction that social capital is taking encompasses the individualism and communitarian approaches. Through the conception of social capital, researchers have brought forth a combination between the value that is encompassed in the approaches of both individualism and communitarianism. This is to expound on the aspect that social capital can not only be produced… Continue Reading...

Research Paper Topic and Annotated Bibliography

Science & Medicine, 70(12), 2045-2051. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.02.023 Kwok and Mak employ an integrated theory for examining the link between internalized peer stigma, social support, and mental health status of autistic kids' parents. The support of family, spouse, professionals, colleagues and friends has been revealed to be differentially linked to mental health and internalized stigma. Stigma internalization in autistic kids' parents was revealed to be severe. This paper produces highly significant outcomes with regard to the present research, underscoring the fact that supporting family members may help decrease stigma and improve the QOL of autistic kids' parents. In spite of its many… Continue Reading...

Impact Of Syrian Refugee Crisis on Marketing Arena

Strategic management and marketing theory demonstrates that marketing activities are significantly affected by events in the external environment (Mullins & Walker, 2013). For instance, the PESTEL framework shows that business and marketing decisions must be made in consideration of political, economic, social, technological, environment, and legal factors. One event that is increasingly affecting marketing activities is the Syrian refugee crisis, which has resulted in the influx of hundreds of thousands of refugees into Europe (Kleintop & Schwab, 2015). This text considers the implications of the Syrian refugee… Continue Reading...

Democracy and Pluralism

power-related suppositions and approach determine their results and conclusions. 3. Explain how one argument from a theory or critique of democracy OR a theory or critique of pluralism is linked to your research interest (Black Women in White Male Dominant Oil & Gas Industry: Are Set-Aside and Inclusion Programs & Policies Really Assisting?) Please refer to the readings to support the points that you make and cite your sources. Pluralist thinking acknowledges the legality of principles governing action which are implemented uniformly across a number of diverse institutions, including plurality, super majority or majority voting, voting entitlement definitions, rules for… Continue Reading...

Lesson Plan for Gustav Klimt Art Class

art addressed within the learning tasks and students' prior academic learning, their assets, and research/ theory". The prior academic learnings of the students in 2a above had been a guiding factor that affects my decision in planning my instructional strategies in order to focus on this learning segment. Thus, I relied on the student's prerequisite knowledge to develop my plan of instructions. My aim is to develop instructions that will allow students utilizing the existing knowledge by capitalizing on cultural assets in order to understand the arts with reference to the historical context. This method will assist students to have… Continue Reading...

Applied Social Psychology

literature on social psychological theories and their generic role in resolving practical and social problems. A key applied social psychological theory is Cognitive Dissonance, whose main premise is that an individual is driven to remain consistent in his/her cognitions or perceptions as any dissension in this regard may give rise to psychological discomfort (Brehm, 2007). The term 'dissonance' involves aversion or discomfort; individuals can alleviate such distress by altering their cognitions. What is its effect on family dynamics, familial issues and teen problems? In what way is dissonance theory possibly applicable to such situations? The mid-teenage is a phase characterized… Continue Reading...

Budgeting

Information Systems Threats and Vulnerabilities. International Journal of Computer Applications, 89(3). Deegan, C. (2013). Financial accounting theory. McGraw-Hill Education Australia. Riahi-Belkaoui, A. (2004). Accounting theory. Cengage Learning EMEA. Continue Reading...

Ideals Of Utilitarianism

or the process of the action itself. Rationality seems to have a grounded theory that proclaims the best for all. This means the actions at bay have to be considerate of the results. Perfection comes with the achievement of better results, results that are consistent with human rationality. Reforms, Utilitarian, Idealists Reformations bring change to an ideological world. Through reforms, much of the status quo is eliminated with logic and reasoning give the entire streamline of action. Reforms are a sensation towards change, change that brings about new results and new perceptions. In any sensible way, utilitarianism seeks for… Continue Reading...

Strategic Plan

initiative will generate substantial benefits for the organization. References Hayes, J. (2014). The theory and practice of change management. 4th ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Hill, C., & Jones, G. (2012). Essentials of strategic management. 3rd ed. Boston: Cengage Learning. Samson, D., & Bevington, T. (2012). Implementing strategic change: managing processes and interfaces to develop a highly productive organization. London: Kogan Page. Thompson, J., & Martin, F. (2010). Strategic Management: awareness and change. 6th ed. Boston: Cengage Learning. Tractica (2016). Consumer drone sales to increase tenfold to 67.7 million units annually by 2021. Retrieved from: https://www.tractica.com/newsroom/press-releases/consumer- drone-sales-to-increase-tenfold-to-67-7-million-units-annually-by-2021/ Continue Reading...

Concept Of Ethics and Culture

"A more moderate position is that what theories like Aristotle's show us is that any adequate ethical theory must do justice to the essential part the virtues play (perhaps by including both a theory of right conduct and a theory of virtue." The argument shows that virtues are an integral part of the Maori Ethics as they attempt to connect the self with the arguments of nature. Section 2: 186-189 The author in this section looks at the reasons that are there to explain the Maori ethics as virtue ethics. The concept of "tika" is well elaborated in relation… Continue Reading...

Security Leader in a Military Organization

must have (Taylor, Rosenbach & Rosenbach, 2009). Indeed, demonstrating calmness and emotional stability can significantly influence troops. Leadership theory asserts that followers tend to emulate the behavior of their leaders (Bertocci, 2009). Therefore, if the leader behaves as if everything is under control even during crisis conditions, their followers are likely to stay calm as well. Exhibiting calmness during difficult times portrays the leader as brave and a conqueror, which serves as a powerful motivator for their troops. Time Management The ability to manage time is also an important leadership skill (Bertocci, 2009). On any given day, a leader… Continue Reading...

Introduction to Global Business

trade if it had a trade surplus. The specializations theory asserts that free trade motivates nations to specialize in the manufacture of goods and services they can produce through the most efficient level of production. Lastly, the Factor Endowments theory outlines that countries predominantly export goods and services that largely utilize their abundant factors of production. In the contemporary, there are both socio-economic and geo-political justifications for managed trade. These include protecting local infant industries, health and safety reasons, avoiding creation of export cartels and also outlining any questionable labor practices. Chapter 3 In summary, this chapter elucidates regional… Continue Reading...

Comparative Analysis Of Egoism or Altruism

human behavior where humans act purposely for their self-interests. The psychological theory of egoism is based on the ultimate aim of satisfying one's welfare. While good deeds or good behaviors of many people are motivated by self-interests or egoisms, however, some behaviors are still rooted in altruism. There are several examples of people doing good deeds without their self-interests. For example, several professional doctors have been providing volunteering health services to low-income people around the world without asking for financial rewards in returns. Moreover, some wealthy individuals have set up foundations across the globe to assisting needy people. There… Continue Reading...

Supreme Court

him the strongest and most prominent supporter of the constitutional interpretation theory of originalism, which was scorned at the time Scalia was first appointed by Reagan, but has now assumed 'mainstream' status in the minds of conservatives as well as liberals. His notions will indisputably continue to be debated among legal circles even a century from now, just like Joseph Story, Learned Hand and Oliver Wendell Holmes Junior are (Burrus, 2016). When visiting California, President Obama hailed Scalia's larger-than-life role at the Court, his sharp intellect and his profoundly-persuasive and marvelous legal brain. The Justice's death sparked an instant,… Continue Reading...

Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Research

findings. The last two steps are vital as they present the theory to explain the research phenomenon, convey important information about subjects, highlight convergence or divergence between the present findings and past research, and highlight questions for further inquiry. The six steps have important implications for evaluating criminal justice data and interpreting published research. Indeed, evaluating criminal justice data and presenting it in a manner that makes sense to both the researcher and the reader can be quite difficult, often taking a substantial amount of time and effort. Knowledge of these steps minimises this difficulty. Personally, knowledge of these… Continue Reading...

Restorative Justice

relationship between restorative justice and recidivism has important implications for offender rehabilitation. References Dzur, A. (2003). Civic implications of restorative justice theory: citizen participation and criminal justice policy. Policy Studies, 36(3/4), 279-306. Elis, L. (2005). Restorative justice programs, gender, and recidivism. Public Organisation Review, 5(4), 375-389. Latimer, J., Dowden, C., & Muise, D. (2005). The effectiveness of restorative justice practices: a meta-analysis. The Prison Journal, 85(2), 127-144. Sherman, L., Strang, H., Mayo-Wilson, E., Woods, D., & Ariel, B. (2015). Are restorative justice conferences effective in reducing repeat offending? Findings from a Campbell systematic review. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 31, 1-24. Stamatakis,… Continue Reading...

Auteur Theory Application

term auteur emanates from France and it means author, which in film theory implies that a film by a director mirrors their artistic and ingenious vision. In accordance to Pearson and Simpson (2001), an auteur is delineated as a film director that generates a distinguishing and unique way to film creation by means of visual autograph and thematic and storyline constancy. The auteur theory was instigated in the 1950s in France by directors such as Francis Truffaut who promoted an emphasis on the input made by directors with respect to their style and type of film. The conception of… Continue Reading...

Why Transcultural Nursing Theory Is Applicable

many new groups, beliefs, cultures, and ideas forming all the time. As Wayne (2014) notes, the transcultural theory of nursing also enables nurses to provide meaningful care within the context of the patient's cultural framework. In other words, the conditions of quality care that may apply to one patient may not apply to another patient of a different culture, background or belief system. A nurse trained transcultural nursing will have a developed sense of these differences and will be aware of indicators and of questions to ask that will prompt the appropriate responses in patients regarding cultural preferences in a… Continue Reading...

Motivational Theory Of Lifespan Development

Life-span developmental theory offers a guideline for understanding human aging. Primarily, the theory provides explains the regular changes occurring to an individual to death. Theories of the aging process act as frameworks for aligning research findings and observations to deduce significant conclusions. The information is essential because it enhances sequencing in the lifespan hence providing chronological priority to earlier moments and events in an individual's life. Besides, life span theory can be identified as a synchronized integration of different age-based developmental specializations.… Continue Reading...

Child Development

their way of thinking adapts to accept new ideas, which in turn improves their perception of the world. Piaget's theory and cognitive development in infancy The intellectual development theory by Jean Piaget is recognized as one of the best theories on cognitive development. It is used to explain infant development according to the sensorimotor or first stage. The theory suggests that intellectual development as a continuation of the biologic development that started before birth. This means that since birth, the child is equipped with the ability to make several motor responses. This provides the foundation for the subsequent thought processes.… Continue Reading...

Human Development

34 (8). Retrieved from: http://pedsinreview.aappublications.org/content/34/8/354 Sokol, J. T. (2009). Identity Development Throughout the Lifetime: An Examination of Eriksonian theory. Graduate Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1 (2), 1-11. Retrieved from: http://epublications.marquette.edu/gjcp/vol1/iss2/14 Continue Reading...

Multinational Companies

the business environment (Sethi and Elango, 1999). They affect how firms strategize, compete, and manage personnel. Cultural theory, particularly Geert Hoftede's cultural dimensions model, demonstrates that significant differences exist between countries in terms of culture (Noorderhaven and Harzing, 2003). Some countries tend to be individualistic (prioritise individual wellbeing) and others collectivist (prioritise group wellbeing). Some are characterised as high power distance societies (accept unequal distribution of power and authority) and others as low power distance societies (promote equality). These intrinsic characteristics influence how individuals within a given society think, behave, and relate with one another (Pudelko and Harzing, 2007).… Continue Reading...

Norway, England, Wales, and the United States

of judging. Oxford: Hart Pub. Sriramesh, K., & Vercic, D. (2009). The Global Public Relations Handbook, Revised and Expanded Edition: theory, Research, and Practice. Routledge. Sullivan, L. E., Rosen, M. S., Schulz, D. M., & Haberfeld, M. R. (2005). Encyclopedia of law enforcement. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Travis, A. (2017, March 14). England and Wales have highest imprisonment rate in western Europe | Society | The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/society/2017/mar/14/england-and-wales-has-highest-imprisonment-rate-in-western-europe Ugelvik, T., & Dullum, J. (2012). Penal exceptionalism?: Nordic prison policy and practice. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. Walgrave, L. (2003). Repositioning restorative justice. Cullompton: Willan. Continue Reading...

Informal and Formal Powers Of the President

power to influence Congress, other than the veto (Hudak, 2014). The theory of Presidential Power Scholars have long maintained that the President is relatively weak in the realm of domestic affairs, but of course that is the nature of relativity. Relative to what is the question. Relative to foreign affairs, yes, the President is relatively weak. But that does not mean that the President is actually weak in the realm of domestic affairs. Far from it. The President holds a lot of power, just with a handful of critical formal levers and with the vast influence that the President has… Continue Reading...

Parental Authority Hobbes and Locke

and cohesive perspective. [2: A. John Simmons, The Lockean theory of Rights (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1992), 174.] [3: Simmons, The Lockean theory, 180.] Perspectives are what Locke and Hobbes stress regarding parental authority. While they seem different, there are some similar elements to their arguments. The first is the age of reason. Both believe children are obligated to honor their parents through obedience until they reach an age of reason. This means to Hobbes the child no longer needs the care and protection of the parent. To Locke, it means the age of criminal responsibility. When a… Continue Reading...

New Testament and Christianity

on a strict belief in the literal understanding and interpretation of the religious texts. • Heresy: Heresy is a theory that is developed to be at strong variance with any sort of religious custom and beliefs. Heresy is a strong violation that is directed at critical religious teachings and beliefs, and its related general ideas especially held towards Christianity, Islam, and Judaism. Q2 Inherent neglect of the traditional adjudications, adoption of new and modern ways of life and worship, abandonment of the key features of religious activities, the movement towards a more diversified culture amidst worship and traditions, among other… Continue Reading...

Camden New Jersey and Corruption Exploitation

businesses imaginable: illicit drugs (controlled by gangs) and the scrap metal industry. Strain theory shows how residents of Camden will view both of these businesses as the only means to put food on the table -- because essentially they are. All the people that the authors interview in Camden assert that now that Camden is a wasteland, there are absolutely no jobs. Young people, more than fifty percent of whom drop out of high school because the education system is so terrible, turn to whatever work they can find. It happens that the work is either in the illicit… Continue Reading...

Understanding the Collapse Of the Roman Empire

later continued to exist but in the form of Byzantine Empire. In this essay, I present the strongest historical theory used to explain the collapse of this most legendary Empire. Joseph Tainter (1990) pioneered the explanation and theorization of the Roman Empire collapse (Tainter 11). This American anthropologist holds that given technological levels yield implicit declining returns to complexity whereby the society depletes its resource base past any sustainable levels. In essence, the most crucial cause that brought down the Roman Empire is that the society had become highly complex as it tried to solve its problems. Tainter's social… Continue Reading...

Advancements in Connectionism

doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00187 Nelson, R. (2013). Expanding the Role of Connectionism in SLA theory. Language Learning, 1-33. Plaut, D., & Vande Velde, A. (2017). Statistical Learning of Parts and Wholes: A Neural Network Approach. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 318-336. Wiltshire, T. (2015). A Prospective Framework for the Design of Ideal Artificial Moral Agents: Insights from the Science of Heroism in Human. Minds and Machines, 57-71. This article was chosen because it provides a rich and detailed history of how this model developed, as well as some discussion of where the model could go in terms of advancement into the future. In 1986,… Continue Reading...

College Student Development Theory

The student development theory is a body of the educational scholarship and psychology that demonstrates the strategy higher educational students gain knowledge. The theory also guides students in their educational affairs. College students are categories as students in the higher education especially in the formal setting such as colleges, universities, polytechnic and other institutions of higher learning. On the other hand, development is defined as a "process of increasing complex." (Patton, et al. 2016 p 5). With reference to the students' affair, the theory is a useful tool in… Continue Reading...

Fake News and Knowledge Is Power

backlash and criticisms. From Socrates's poisoning due to his championing of reason to Galileo's excommunication because of his heliocentric theory, knowledge has always had the power to threaten existing political and social institutions. The current American backlash against knowledge is only a reaction against the threat of the power of knowledge in eliminating outmoded beliefs and worldviews. Works Cited Alcott, Hunt and Gentzkow, Matthew. "Social Media and Fake News in the 2016 Election." Retrieved online: https://web.stanford.edu/~gentzkow/research/fakenews.pdf Barton, Hannah. Tactical Virality: "Fake news" now is a strategy for consolidating executive power. Stop Fake. Retrieved online: http://www.stopfake.org/en/tactical-virality-fake-news-now-is-a-strategy-for-consolidating-executive-power/ Swinton, Elizabeth. "Opinion: Students… Continue Reading...

The History Of American Social Welfare

What fueled anti-immigrant sentiment included fears of losing jobs and other conflict theory perspectives showing how immigrants are perceived of as threats to the existing social order (Social Work Speaks). The NASW Policy Statement supports the rights of immigrants and refugees to live without discrimination. Committee on US-Latin American Nations (2014). Similar Anti-immigrant rhetoric used throughout US history. Retrieved online: https://cuslar.org/2014/10/23/similar-anti-immigrant-rhetoric-used-throughout-u-s-history/ NASW Policy Statement Social Work Speaks The pre-Civil War/antebellum era was tumultuous, with a series of failed political compromises leading to a breakdown of morals and ethics. At the same time, there were reform movements most notably the… Continue Reading...

Film Juno Analysis

construction within a white, cis-gender framework. Using the feminist analysis presented by Hayward in Concepts as well as auteur theory, it is apparent the title character never has to negotiate other elements of intersectionality like race or social class, as she is white and from a privileged background as is the father of her child, Pauli Bleeker (Michael Cera). By placing the female body and the female choice related to sexuality and childbirth at the center of the film, Reitman does create a feminist discourse. As Cohan and Hark points out, in film "traditionally the male body has been… Continue Reading...

Biculturalism and How to Create Multiple Identities

oppositional identity), or weakening religious/cultural identity in order to successfully integrate into German society (ie. assimilation theory). The Kunst, Tajamal, Sam & Ullebergh (2012) research stresses the importance of contextual variables. The Kunst, Tajamal, Sam & Ullebergh (2012) results also support what Elashi, Mills & Grant (2009) found, in that "balancing one's identity becomes especially difficult when an individual living in a host country is targeted for being a member of an out-group. In such cases, the individual must decide whether to accept the host country's practices at the cost of isolating his or her own cultural practices or… Continue Reading...

Digitalization to Enhance Customer Satisfaction at Apm Terminals

(2005) Effect of information technology investments on customer satisfaction: theory and evidence. Ross School of Business Working Paper Series, Working Paper No. 971. [online] Available from https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/39170/971.pdf?sequence=1 &isAllowed=y [Accessed 19 April 2017]. Pernia, O. and Santos, F. (2016) Digital ports: the evolving role of port authorities. [online] Available from: http://navis.com/sites/default/files/pages/docs/digital_ports_print_0.pdf [Accessed 6 April 2017]. Port Technology. (2015) Digitalization and the future of shipping. [online] Available from: https://www.porttechnology.org/news/digitalisation_and_the_future_of_shipping_te chnology [Accessed 6 April 2017]. Ryding, D. (2010) The impact of new technologies on customer satisfaction and business to business customer relationships: evidence from the soft drinks industry. Journal of Retailing and… Continue Reading...

Public Sector Performance Measurement

processes are ultimately aimed at driving performance. Based on management control theory, PBM is about evaluating outcomes with the aim of creating value for the end consumer and other important stakeholders (Pihl-Thingvad, 2017). PBM processes relate to not only individuals or employees, but also organizational processes (Brudan, 2010). Indeed, performance-based management means that all organizational processes, internally and externally, are pegged on performance or results -- from personnel management to supply chain management. Selviaridis & Wynstram (2015), for instance, demonstrate the relevance of PBM in supplier management. PBM determines aspects such as supplier payment, incentive design, performance specification, and… Continue Reading...

Leadership and Ethical Decision Making Scenario

decline the invitation is supported by the utilitarianism ethical theory, which focuses on promoting the good of all. Based on this theory, an act is not inherently right or wrong, but its rightness or wrongness is determined based on its overall good (Moreland, n.d.). In this case, the decision to decline Bill's invitation is viewed as Joe's duty to ethical behavior, to UWEAR and its employees. Through declining the invitation, Joe would essentially be acting in the interests of all stakeholders. In this case, such a response would create the greater good for the greater number since it would… Continue Reading...

Operations Management in Education

M. (2013). Operations management: process and supply chain. 10th edition. London: Pearson Education. Mahadevan, B. (2010). Operations management: theory and practice. New Delhi: Pearson Education. Stevenson, W. (2012). Operations management: theory and practice. New York: McGraw- Hill. Continue Reading...

The Various Ways to Learn

Commercial Training, 48(3), 142-148. doi:10.1108/ict-01-2015-0011 Ramsey, W., Rumelhart, D. E., & Stich, S. P. (2013). Philosophy and Connectionist theory. Psychology Press. Sun, H., Teh, P., Ho, K., & Lin, B. (2016). Team Diversity, Learning, and Innovation: A Mediation Model. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 57(1), 22-30. doi:10.1080/08874417.2016.1181490 Continue Reading...

Partisan News Outlets and Propaganda

the propaganda forces of the State. While a news agency, in theory, is expected to be a source of information, most news agencies are promoting a specific take on information or presenting a one-sided perspective of a subject. Most news agencies are owned by umbrella corporations which control the manner in which information is published so as to create a narrative in society that fits the agenda of the umbrella corporation. Give an example of a "trustworthy" news agency and explain your reasons for choosing it. I cannot point to a single trustworthy news agency, though some provide more… Continue Reading...

Managing Stress Brought by Self Defeating Behavior

evaluation includes recommendations of suitable solutions to this issue based on organizational theory concepts and the concepts of organizational behavior. Background Information The organization I work for has several divisions or department that are mandated with various responsibilities and tasks towards the achievement of the established business goals and objectives. Each of these departments is led by a departmental head who ensures that the division's workforce carry out their respective roles in line with department goals and objectives. The departmental heads work in collaboration with the organization's top management to create a suitable working environment where employees can thrive… Continue Reading...

Psychology Journal

an extensive review of literature based on learning and cognition theory, Sadideen et al. (2013) sought to answer this question. Focusing specifically on the field of surgery, the authors concluded that surgical expertise is acquired through continuous learning and practice, not innately or genetically. These findings are consistent with the broader body of knowledge suggesting that experts are made, not born (Hallam, 2010; Tashman, 2013). In other words, whereas some individuals appear to be born with superior capabilities than others, they become proficient over time, through an unwavering process of practice. This knowledge has important implications for scholars. As… Continue Reading...

Increasing Patient Satisfaction

metric improvements. These points should be a focus of your change initiative. Roger's Change theory The diffusion of innovation theory, or Roger's change theory, was first proposed by Everett Rogers more have a half a century ago. Despite the theories age, it remains relevant to any change process today. The premise of this theory is that different groups of people adapt to changes at different paces. Some people are entirely coping with changes as soon as they are presented with it in things such as new ideas, new technologies, new processes, or anything else that represent an innovation of sorts.… Continue Reading...

Leadership and Ethical Decision Making

or higher price cut as compared to Threads4U's offer. Relevant Ethical theory for Joe's Response to the Situation The proposed response for Joe in this situation is supported by utilitarianism ethical theory, which focuses on promoting the good of all. Based on this theory, an act is not inherently right or wrong, but its rightness or wrongness is determined based on its overall good (Moreland, n.d.). Through this ethical theory, Joe should focus on maximizing the greater good for the greater number of people involved in this business transaction. This implies that Joe needs to consider the situation at UWEAR,… Continue Reading...

Critiquing a Nursing Article with Picot

practice because of the clear impact bullying has on the workplace environment and on patient outcomes too. Methods 2. Constructivist grounded theory methods are used, whereby the researchers identify how participants construct their social realities subjectively and objectively via qualitative research collected in online and offline settings. Data collection methods included a 30-item online survey, with informed consent. In total, 81 different participant narratives were collected and analyzed. The narratives were systematically coded for content, themes, and patterns. A theoretical coding process was also used to discover relationships between the different categories that emerged during the process of data collection. 3.… Continue Reading...

Hegel, Heidegger, and Nietzsche on Philosophy

the traditional process of propositional logical changes the substance of the thing being defined, according to Hegel's theory. The outcome is this theoretical position is that "thinking [i.e. ordinary reflection], instead of getting any farther with the transition from subject to predicate, in reality finds its activity checked through the loss of the subject, and it is thrown back on the thought of the subject because it misses this subject."[footnoteRef:8] The act of thinking, of ratiocination, obliges the thinker to mix with the propositional sides and become part of the proposition in his attempt to comprehend it. This means… Continue Reading...

Psy 620 Psychology and Cognitive Science Journals

Levykh (2008) comments on recent trends to adapt Vygotsky's original theory of the zone of proximal development and concludes that there is no need to "expand" the theory to include emotional aspects of learning. After all, Vygotsky did embed the potential for emotional states into the zone of proximal development, through the analysis of the processes of cognitive, social learning, and also cultural and temporal constraints. The ultimate conclusions drawn by Levykh (2008) show how important emotions are to learning and development in general. 3. When considering the effects of the zone of proximal development on behaviors and also… Continue Reading...

Epicurus\\\'s Views on Death

any salient impact on a person, proponents of Epicurus's theory may contend that death may not be considered responsible for the emergence of any (salient or non-salient) condition within us. It only makes us stop existing in a particular condition. But this theory is obviously false if one considers death's process sense: transitioning from being totally alive to a totally lifeless state may well create a bad condition (e.g., pain) within us (Fischer, 2014). Undoubtedly, Epicureans are drawn to death's 'cessation' sense as the end of the last vestiges of life may happen instantaneously and leave no salient impact… Continue Reading...

Intelligence Learning Memory Cognition

2 The study described in "Self-Regulated Learning and Social Cognitive theory" in the text talks about the concept of self-regulation and agency in terms of social cognitive theory. Results show that it is possible to integrate these theories and concepts into classroom learning. Agency refers mainly to the ability to make choices through self will, and refers also to motivational theories. Tied into the Zhang & Sternberg (2010) article, the study on self-regulated learning and social cognitive theory links the way social learning occurs with the ways self-directed learning and motivational theory also work to create optimal learning environments and… Continue Reading...

Artificial Intelligence and Futurism Transhumanism

achieved by a computer. It therefore follows that computers can, in theory, emulate human intelligence -- and exceed it," the scientist's vision does actually come close to capturing the spirit of the more optimistic science fiction films (Cellan-Jones 1). To emulate and exceed human intelligence is a positive thing for all life. Samantha and her fellow OSs in Her are the idealized thought leaders of the future, the beings that can light a pathway forward for human beings to achieve their highest potential. The filmmaker wanted to show the potential in AI for awakening the best, not the worst,… Continue Reading...

Behaviorally Targeted Ads As Implied Social Labels Article Analysis

social labels to develop consumer explicit characterizations based on their personality, beliefs and behavior. Based on self-perception theory that reveals how people demonstrate certain behaviors based on their traits, the authors argue that implied social label can be used to develop the consumer identity to design behavioral consumer adverts.  However, Summers, et al. (2016) point out there is still short of research that clarifies the distinctions and commonalities between social labeling and identity priming.   ²Despite the method the author employ developing the theory, the theory is not well presented in the article. Instead of revealing how the theories… Continue Reading...

American History During Early 20th Century

Starting in the 1890s, the Progressive Era drew upon Marxist theory of labor exploitation to help balance unbridled capitalist growth during the Gilded Age of industrial development. Progressivism welcomed social and technological progress both by suggesting reforms in both government and business to reduce corruption and ensure a higher quality of life for all Americans. Two of the progressive political party movements during the turn of the century included the Populist Party and the Bull Moose Party. Progressive values then later became embedded in the platform of the Democratic Party when President Franklin Roosevelt became president. Some of the… Continue Reading...

Police Organization and Administration

1.  Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs theory Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs theory states that every individual has different levels of needs that must be met for them to reach their ultimate potential. The basic level includes the necessities of life, such as food, clothing, and shelter, while the more advanced levels require such things as positive social relationships and self-esteem. An officers job can be difficult, especially over a number of years. The reality that most officers eventually face is how to deal with stress and staying motivated. Applying Maslow's… Continue Reading...

Child Adolescent Development

development. As a result, Mark and Nicole would need to consult a healthcare provider for evaluation. Based on Piaget's theory, David is in the coordinating secondary schemes of sensorimotor development because he is within the age of this stage and exhibit its characteristics by engaging in intentional actions. Moreover, he thinks that when the mother disappears out of sight, she is completely gone and no longer there. David is likely to start realizing that when an object is hidden, it still exists despite being out of sight. Therefore, he is likely to start retrieving hidden objects or things that are… Continue Reading...

Philosophy Questions

made by Hume emanate from the application of the theory of meaning. If the customary notions of causality and personal identity are to hold meaning, it is imperative to have the ability to mark out such ideas to some impression. In particular, Hume does not entirely repudiate the notion of essential connection and causality. However, Hume does repudiate the customary notion of it being something like a main quality within objects themselves. As an alternative, he recommends that essential connection is similar to a minor quality that we onlookers carry out onto A-B categorizations when humans often perceive A… Continue Reading...

Shared Values and Diverse Ideas in Healthcare Environment

values permeate every aspect of their organisation, they must be at the forefront. Leadership theory demonstrates that followers tend to emulate their leaders (Schein, 2010). Therefore, when leaders portray and enforce the organisation's shared values, they influence their subordinates to espouse the values. Leaders must, however, recognise that there is no one-size-fits-all approach to leadership. This is particularly true in the health care environment (Yoder-Wise, 2013). Health care organisations serve individuals and populations with diverse needs. Without attention to these specific needs, care that satisfies patients may not be achieved. For instance, in an organisation with rigid structures and… Continue Reading...

As Nature Made Him by John Colapinto

of the gender of their own choosing. Several reports of his concur with the above theory. But the irony here is that we expect Money to follow that train of thought, developing on those ideas, while in truth, he acts to the contrary. He attempts to disprove his older claims. A second ironical instance was, after the failure of David's case, one would think Money reverted to his original theory. However, he still insists on experimenting with babies (York, 2015). "Likewise, a twenty year old born with a small, hypospadic penis that required him to sit to urinate and… Continue Reading...

Digitalization to Enhance Customer Satisfaction at Apm Terminals

quantitative research. The inductive approach, on the other hand, involves generating a new theory. Often used in qualitative research, inductive reasoning focuses on investigating a new phenomenon or examining a known phenomenon from a new perspective (Bryman, 2008). As the study will involve both positivist and interpretivist aspects, it will also encompass both deductive and inductive aspects. Research Purpose The purpose of a research may be exploratory, explanatory, or analytical. Exploratory research is research that aims to provide more information about a given phenomenon (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2015). It seeks to study the phenomenon more clearly and provide… Continue Reading...

Military Management and the Agency Problem

Military Management and the Agency Problem Agency theory can be helpful for understanding any organizational conflict or behavior, and applies equally as well to the private and public sector. Applied to the military organization, agency theory "offers insight into how military strategies relate to political objectives," an important consideration (Petrina, 2005, p. v). When it is applied to the corporate world, agency theory also offers insight into how executive decisions are made and how executives can become corrupt when they possess significant power and separation from agents or shareholders. There are differences in corporate versus… Continue Reading...

The Impact Of Legislation on Violence

crimes are reported, how they are viewed, how society adopts its legislation, etc. Such a theory suggests the quantitative data showing a decrease in crime rates may have a qualitative explanation that is rooted in the shifting of societal attitudes. This explanation is supported by Downes and Rock (2011) who state that the "sociology of crime" does not and cannot serve up one, absolute, all-conclusive explanation for why societies engage or do not engage in "rule-breaking," though different theories may at times "mesh" and serve as a guide towards a deeper understanding of a complex phenomenon (p. 1). Assessing… Continue Reading...

Analysis Of Ageing Based on Psychology Interview

and deal with household chores such as dressing, shopping, and eating. The late adulthood theory reveals that some elderly people can lead the nation and have the ability to run marathons. While others can no longer talk or walk. The self-theory reveals that some elderly adults have the ability to maintain their identity and integrity. Some older people are able to maintain their stable attitudes and personality over their lifespan even with a change in their bodies. Mae has been able to remain active despite her old age because she uses to indulge in physical activities, and she receives support… Continue Reading...

Julie\'s Psychological Assessment Report

a student. Smiley, & Anderson, (2011) argue that motivation theory is the strategy to motivate students' cognitive performances. The authors identify the cognitive assessment as an effective strategy to assess students' ability. The benefit of the cognitive assessment is to identify the areas where students are underperforming and provide the strategy to improve their academic performances. This study also uses the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test to assess the academic performances of Julie since the test can be used for children, students, and adults aged between 4 and 85. The test assists in assessing a broad range of academic skills… Continue Reading...

Analysis Of an Individuals Personality

of learned behaviors that she has acquired based on the conditions in her family and at home. The behavioral theory of personality suggests that personality is a by-product of a pattern of learned behaviors (Bustamante, Howe-Tennant & Ramo, 1996). In addition to being reserved or self-absorbed, TinaShazzy is also sensitive given her tendency to experience unpleasant feelings easily i.e. anger, which makes her defensive (University of Minnesota, n.d.). TinaShazzy's sensitive personality trait is influenced by the negative impacts of her dysfunctional family and hostile home environment. On the other, she is determined to be successful because of the family's… Continue Reading...

Emotional Intelligence and Employability Of Graduates

and not the environmental aspect of the personality. Mixed model; this theory is often associated with Daniel Goleman as the main proponent and contemporary psychologists accept it as a viable model. It involves various competencies that are further broken down to the particular skills. The EI competencies under this model are self-awareness (Emotional self-awareness, accurate self-awareness, self-confidence), self-management (self -- control, trustworthiness, conscientiousness, adaptability, achievement orientation, initiative), social awareness (empathy, organizational awareness, service orientation) and social skills (influence, leadership, developing others, communication, change catalysts, change management, building bonds, teamwork and collaboration). Here, these abilities are not considered innate but those… Continue Reading...

Issues Within Special Education

ways that improve the education of all students [and it] has the potential to transform education" (p. 372). What theory(ies) exist(s) to support these claims? Explain. RTI, of course, refers to response to intervention. It is something that can be applied to special education but it actually has applications with all levels of students. It simply refers to the idea that if there are students are struggling with a given lesson or teaching, there are ways to "intervene" with that student (or students) and help them process and learn what they are struggling with. The progress that is seen… Continue Reading...

Review Of Human Resource Management

of international business. Oxford University Press. Shen, J. (2005). International training and management development: theory and reality. Journal of Management Development, 24(7), 656-666. SHRM Foundation. (2015). Challenges for human resource management and global business strategy. Retrieved from: http://futurehrtrends.eiu.com/report-2015/challenges-for-human-resource-management-and-global-business-strategy/ Continue Reading...

Effects Of Poverty on the Brain

brain...", 2014). Drawing on animal subjects' neurobiological data and human beings' behavioral information, the authors put forward their theory of an extant impact of penury on the above brain volume results. Further, they postulated that important variables linked to poverty and established as having adverse influences on kids' development outcomes (e.g., traumatic life events, caregiver support, and caregiver education) were mediating factors in the relationship between brain volume and poverty. As regards the research methodology adopted, researchers gathered information from a potential longitudinal research of preschoolers' emotional growth (these kids later went on to take part in neuroimaging tests).… Continue Reading...

Biological Theories Of Crime

and makeup, heredity, body systems and impaired mental function. The supporters of this theory believe that the biological insight into conventional actions of criminal minds give more effective tools, mechanisms, beliefs and examples which can work smoothly with the normal anticrime systems in keeping up their work quality. The basic belief of the study targeted at biological makeup and criminality is that there is a connection between delusion, brutality, loneliness and spontaneity and crime. Several studies apply their own developed methods and parameters, a trend which complicates the drawing of inferences from their work. Due to the societal origins… Continue Reading...

Philosophical Influences on the American Constitution

political philosopher was the early proponent of social contract theory believing that there were certain inalienable rights that people should enjoy. Locke believed that it was people who created the government, and people could overthrow the government if they failed to protect their rights. In his philosophical thinking, Locke revealed that all human is born equal, and they had the natural rights to defend their liberties, life and health. Locke contributed to the development of liberalism and laid a groundwork for the development of the Enlightenment. Typically, Locke's philosophical thinking influenced the U.S. Declaration of Independence. When the U.S.… Continue Reading...

Young Drivers Speeding Intentions and Behaviors

the premise for the hypotheses, the authors also utilized the theory of Planned Behavior as the basis for carrying out the research. The theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) is a theory in the field of psychology that links an individual's belief to his/her behaviors. According to LaMorte (2016), this theory has been successfully utilized to forecast and explain a series of health intentions and behaviors such as drinking, substance use, and smoking. The theory postulates that behavioral achievement is usually dependent on motivation (intention) and capability (behavioral control). The six constructs underlying the theory of Planned Behavior are attitudes,… Continue Reading...

Developing Work Teams in Organizations

to explore the significance of team diversity and performance in organizational performance based on theory and empirical research. One of the major concepts from this research is that team development in organizations is supported by social comparison theory, cultural mosaic theory, intergroup contact theory, and social identity theory and mental models. Secondly, the different types of work teams in an organization include production-oriented work teams, project teams, management teams, and quality improvement/problem-solving teams. These researchers found that the effectiveness of work teams in enhancing organizational performance requires members to develop relationships based on respect, optimal performance, and embracing diversity.… Continue Reading...

Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility Csr

their operations. This is the core of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR theory asserts that business organizations exist for not only profit motives, but also social and environmental objectives (Schwartz, 2011). Indeed, CSR has become so that important governments in most countries around the world have enacted laws and regulations that businesses must adhere to so as to foster community wellbeing and environmental sustainability. Inattention to social and environmental concerns may harm an organization's public reputation or have serious legal ramifications on the organization. WECAREHealth (WCH), a New Jersey-based pharmaceutical company, is facing serious human rights issues and environmental… Continue Reading...

Admissions Essay for Family Nurse Practitioner

my philosophy of nursing is holistic and grounded in caring theory. Caring theory is patient-centric, non-judgmental, and individualistic. The family nursing model is also one that takes into account issues related to family systems, culture, and worldview. Caring is more than an ethical, moral, and professional duty for nurses. I echo the sentiment that caring is a "complex and trans-cultural process, grounded in an ethical and spiritual context," (de Guia-Rayos, 2014). Throughout my decades of experience, I have had the opportunity to work in diverse healthcare settings and most importantly, with a diverse patient population. Working with patients as… Continue Reading...

Group Dynamics and Teams

R. (2016). Management: leading and collaborating in a competitive world. 12th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Education. Hayes, J. (2014). The theory and practice of change management. London: Palgrave Macmillan. Margerison, C. (2003). Team leadership. London: Thomson Learning. Raines, S. (2012). Conflict management for managers: resolving workplace, client and policy disputes. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons. Continue Reading...

Cognition and Learning

without social interactions. That is the basis of the social cognitive theory as it brings together attitudinal and cognitive effects. The major forms of continuous learning are via the environment, the web, media houses and social communications. The intensity of the effect this new knowledge would have on people is dependent on their individual mindsets. Social communication (as earlier stated) is a major way of increasing knowledge and deriving meaning from these. In this handbook, we have given a thorough breakdown of social cognition and the workings of social communication in its various forms. This topic is very useful… Continue Reading...

Participative Leadership and How It Works

in the decision making process and work towards solutions to problems together. The leadership theory that most resonates with me is the Skills and Abilities Approach. This approach is based on the idea that leadership is something that can "be learned and further developed and applied in an organizational setting" (Kearney-Nunnery, n.d., p. 169). What I like about this approach is that it promotes human, technical and conceptual skills within the organization. Human skills foster collaboration and team work among the group. Technical skills foster organizational development, as team members must know how to use the technology in the workplace… Continue Reading...

Understanding Voter Behavior Patterns

the 'every person' to help govern the nation. However, Popkin's theory of low information rationality posits that 'every person' is unlike the ideal citizen in that they do not make their decisions based on fact, but rather, personal interactions and information from the media. Populistic Democracy allows for the governing of the nation through the 'simple person' not the privileged elite. However, similar to Popkin, Berelson believes most citizens are not able to maintain specific standards needed to successfully govern a nation. This may be because most people lack the education and understanding of what it takes to run… Continue Reading...

Sexual Harassment in a Workplace Organization

know why my manager's position did not feel completely ethical. From the perspective of stakeholder theory, I had a right and responsibility to report what I saw as sexual harassment, even though I was not the party harassed. Because I was a worker in the organization, I was impacted at least indirectly by the harassment and could see how such behavior, if tolerated, could lead to a decline in morale and a feeling of hostility and instability in the workplace. As a worker there, I could report the incident based on the concept that I was a stakeholder in… Continue Reading...

Kolb’s Model Of Adult Learning

learning and development. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. Latham, G. (2012). Work motivation: history, theory, research, and practice. London: SAGE. Tulgan, B. (2004). H.O.T. Hands on transactional management. Amherst: HRD Press. Continue Reading...

Herzberg Vs Job Characteristics Model

people who are not such job design really only creates motivation to leave, not motivation to perform. Herzberg's two-factor theory (NetMBA, 2010) argues that there are factors that lead to dissatisfaction and factors that lead to satisfaction in the workplace. This theory highlights why certain factors do not increase work satisfaction -- those factors being good is the default condition employees will accept, so anything above that is pointless but below is not. This ties in with the job characteristics model because job characteristics should be aligned with personality type. The key lies in the fact that different personality types… Continue Reading...

Classroom Observation

Introduction It is easy to assume that a comprehensive decision making theory gives a reliable basis for an observation scheme for a classroom. However, it is apparent that even though the practical and theoretical ventures overlap in many respects the core of the theoretical tenets are fundamentally variant. They are broader in some respects and narrow in others. The deterrents of real time implementation are significant and thus the scheme of analysis is fundamentally different from the theory frames that led to (Schoenfeld, 2013. At the onset, I believed that teaching was about spending 8 hours teaching and… Continue Reading...

21st Century Skills and Competencies

belief that great leaders are made and not born. This leadership theory illuminates actions of leaders and not their mental qualities or internal states. The theory postulates that people can learn to be leaders through teaching and observation. According to Bass (1990), this is simply done by teaching an individual the most appropriate behavioral response to any given situation. This means that the contemporary leaders, will learn good quality leadership from the current professionals some of which were not in the previous century, and from interacting with the current systems like the email system, the social media and other… Continue Reading...

Labor Laws and Employment Contracts

of employees. Moreover, it will attract competent employees to the company. This action is in line with the deontological theory of ethics that considers an action ethical if it is in line with an individual's duty to the organization. In the second case, Mitch requests the approval to fire his subordinate. The underlying reason for this request is the secretary refused to falsify expense reports for Mitch. In this case, the secretary cannot be fired due to public policy that is an exemption to the doctrine of willful employment. In essence, whatever the secretary was required to do was… Continue Reading...

Theory Vs Practice Explained

theory vs. Practice When it comes to working in any sort of organization or corporation, one of the obvious chasms that becomes clear here is the relationship between theory and what is practiced in a small business setting. To truly look at and assess that paradigm, the author of this report has interviewed an owner/manager at a small business to discuss what they do to make things work, what is suggested in theory and scholarly literature and how those frameworks and lessons do or do not work… Continue Reading...

Different Theories for Managing Employee Relations

the rules if they were to honor their end of the contract. According to Weber's theory of bureaucracy, there was organized human activity and processes. In order to maintain order and maximize efficiency labor unions could not disrupt the factory operations, and they had to quell any shop floor activism that was taking place. According to Weber, there should be formal rules and regulations in order to ensure uniformity and to regulate the employees' actions. Managers had to rely heavily on the rules to ensure that employees adhere to what is expected of them and there is no conflict.… Continue Reading...

Best Practices in Supply Chains

comes an algorithm, the precision is less present. 9) Simulation is when a question or theory is tested in a way that is contrived and thus "simulated". It does not always replicate reality in a good way but it can teach lessons in some instances. Chapter Four 1) Buyback should be used when the demand can drop sharply. A payback contract is good when the buyer wants to sell back any excess production. An option contract would be used when a reservation on a product is desired and is secured in the form of a small deposit 2) Since demand… Continue Reading...

Teacher Performance Assessment

language and makes effort to include English lessons designed to familiarize them with the concepts. Lesson Rationale/Justification Principles of Research/ theory on Learning and Teaching: The inquiry-based learning model is the teaching and learning method applied. The model's nature makes it possible to wholly gauge the intellectual capabilities of each student while improving the student's learning capacity. As a result, application of the inquiry-based learning is able to deepen the understanding of the student through: improving their ability to question, developing their researching and communication skills, improving collaboration outside the classroom setting, improving problem solution, tackle challenges in real life while creating… Continue Reading...

Management Vs Leadership Essay

can make management functions easier by promoting communication and effective influence. The traits theory was often used to predict the potential manifestation of leadership abilities in any given individual. When examining leadership ability in managers, it is important to assess the ability of the manager to promote goal completion among subordinates as well as satisfaction and growth in job related tasks. The chosen organization is Florida Gang Investigators Association and it has a mission statement to intervene, prevent, and enforce suppression against criminal gang activity. "This mission will be carried out through enhanced interagency intelligence exchange, legislative activism, citizen… Continue Reading...

Couples Counseling and Social Work

can lead to dysfunctional behaviors, especially within the couple context. Social work typically uses the person-in-environment (PIE) theory to understand the person and the personal behavior in light of environmental settings in which that individual acts and lives (Hutchinson, 2014). By using the PIE theory in conjunction with the Gottman Method, the social worker may be able to provide a deeper level of assessment that can lead to breakthroughs for the couple. Relational Life Therapy (RLT) is a framework developed by Terry Real and is driven mainly via emotional experience. RLT focuses on the development of insight into existing,… Continue Reading...

Leadership and Employees

they perform in order for the department's objectives to be achieved. The strategies will employ Herzberg Hygiene theory, which debates that two major factors exist that people consider when highly motivated; the factors associated with job satisfaction and those related to job discontent as well as the Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs theory; "Motivational needs vary from the essential biological needs such as food, air etc. to self-fulfilment". The proposed policies are: Efficient internal interaction and commendation for successful jobs. Information should be concise and understandable when being presented and it also needs to be modified based on the role… Continue Reading...

Modern Police Tactics and Tricks

them part of the community rather than being against it, in theory or in practice. The community would be the non-officers in the community that support (or work against) the police . . . for whatever reasons such as being criminals, not trusting the police, and so forth (RAND). Describe briefly the impact of police-community relations on the police system. The impact to police/community relations on the job of the police is huge. An engaged and trusting community is more likely to work with police, provide tips of crimes and so forth (RAND). Why is feedback necessary for effective… Continue Reading...

Concept Of Judicial Philosophy, Social Security, and Political Realism in the U.s.

for Social Security reforms and improvements. Moral Idealism vs. Political Realism in the U.S. The theory of moral idealism is a philosophy in which individual rights are regarded as universal, particularly from a moral perspective. In this case, individual rights must be protected regardless of the costs and outcomes of the process. Moral idealists tend to emphasize the existence of natural harmony of people's interests based on the belief that humans are fundamentally uniform (Wilson, 2011). On the contrary, the theory of political realism refers to a political philosophy in which power is considered as the primary or ultimate goal of… Continue Reading...

Ethical Dilemmas and Ethical Decision Making Framework

performance of the company. References Marquis, B. L., & Huston, C. J. (2009). Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing: theory and Application. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Project Management Institute (n.d.). Ethics in Project Management. Retrieved June 17, 2017, from https://www.pmi.org/about/ethics Vardi, Y., & Weitz, E. (2016). Misbehavior in Organizations: A Dynamic Approach. Routledge. Continue Reading...

Changing Organizational Structures to Learning Organization

determine the suitable structure that should be used. References Baligh, H. H. (2006). Organization Structures: theory and Design, Analysis and Prescription. Springer Science & Business Media. Buhler, P. M. (2011). Changing organizational structures and their impact on managers. Organizational Change, 72(2), 24-26. Kanten, P., Kanten, S., & Gurlek, M. (2015). The Effects of Organizational Structures and Learning Organization on Job Embeddedness and Individual Adaptive Performance. Procedia Economics and Finance, 23, 1358 -- 1366. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2212-5671(15)00523-7 King, G. (1999). The Implications of an Organization's Structure on Whistleblowing. Journal of Business Ethics, 20(4), 315 -- 326. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006028417000 Maguire, E. R. (2012). Organizational Structure in… Continue Reading...

Alcohol Use and Sex Crimes

various methods such as case studies, ethnographic studies, phenomenological studies, grounded theory, narrative and/or content analyses (Neuman, 2009). On the other hand, social science researchers can use quantitative strategies such as observational studies, correlational research, experimental, quasi-experimental and survey designs (Neuman, 2009). While both qualitative and quantitative research questions seek to gain new insights into a given phenomenon, there are also basic differences between the types of data that are used. By definition, quantitative research involves the analysis of numeric data in some form while qualitative research uses words, graphics and other data to formulate answers to guiding research… Continue Reading...

Home Invasion and Crime Spree

escape, he committed other killings and was recaptured. He was sentenced to death by electrocution in 1980. The personality theory was the major theory that can explain the factors that pushed both Ted and Jeffery in indulging in serial killing because both the killers had been diagnosed with the multiple personality disorders. Reference Castle, T., & Hensley, C. Serial killers with military experience: Applying learning theory to serial murder. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, (2002). 46(4), 453-465. Daily Mail. 'I thought if I killed myself, I wouldn't meet my family in the afterlife': Home invasion survivor's… Continue Reading...

Veterans’ Mental Health Problems and the Affordable Care Act

Clinical ''Dualism'' Through the Espousal of an All-Inclusive ''Whole Person'' Outlook The aforementioned recommendation is based on the theory of comfort, and concentrates on mental-physical wellbeing integration. Obamacare exemplifies a ''whole individual'' outlook on wellbeing and healing, equally emphasizing the ailing person's psychological and physiological wellness, together with the significance of morale, family, environmental and sociocultural elements (Boudiab & Kolcaba, 2015). The above is partly apparent by Obamacare's provisions addressing equality and the assimilation of culturally-sensitive, cooperative services and by promoting a range of multidisciplinary healthcare coordination which includes transitions entailing career, medical homes and health. These largely reflect the… Continue Reading...

Democratic Theory in American Politics

due to inequality in the distribution of wealth, resources, knowledge, and social status. Contrary to the assertions of democratic theory, policy making on key issues is in reality governed by alliances that comprise elected and unelected individuals and groups (Bartels 1). These individuals and groups have immense power and resources at their disposal, which they use to influence policies and the actions of elected officials. In other words, elected leaders vote to fulfill the interests of certain individuals and groups, not necessarily the average citizen. Disconnect between the wishes of the electorate and the policies that legislators actually push… Continue Reading...

Child’s Play

child growing up, leading to healthy, strong child-parent bonds (Hughes, 2013). Piaget's Cognitive Development theory indicates the toddler under study is in his Preoperational Stage (2-7 years of age). The following chief developmental modifications and traits may be noted: • Commencing symbolical thinking and learning to represent things through the use of images and words. • Egocentricity and a struggle to view things from others' standpoint. • Improved thought processing and language, although they normally continue to think concretely about things. While in case of the child in question, the mainstays of linguistic development might have been established in the… Continue Reading...

Criminology in America

to crime in America? Give a specific example. Under the theory of learning how does the media play a role? Explain. A term popular to psychologists is "backfire effect" and this explains that normal expressions have a higher probability to be seen as correct by humans as against uncommon expressions. A continuous listening of crime-related news from media houses would lead to total belief and trust in their reports. Factoring in the normal human dread of criminal acts and the mind-set that crime is on the rise and people begin to create opinions (Brown). The FBI in 2013 published… Continue Reading...

Applying Criminology Theory in Iceman

back and left behind a self-confession of innumerable murders. The man’s own account and popular theory indicate that he was a happily married man with children who served as a contract killer for New York mobs prior to separating from them and continuing his gruesome work. His victims included acquaintances and friends. Psychiatrists claim he had a tendency to murder those who antagonized him (Anderson). Family Background and Education Born on 11th April, 1935 into a poor Jersey City household to a railroad brakeman (father) and a meat-packing factory worker (mother), Kuklinski demonstrated a preposterous degree of nastiness towards… Continue Reading...

Holistic Victim Restitution Plan

victim may actually be started by the victim. Lifestyle theory is the second theory. The basis of this theory is that contact with law breakers is significantly caused by the way of living of the law-breaking victim. The third is the Deviant place theory which is another hypothetical basis and it states that the level of exposure of the victim to misconduct and ferocity is determined by their regularity in unsafe localities. Victims lives in communally jumbled, crime prominent localities where they have the highest threat of having interaction with law breakers which is not dependent on their own… Continue Reading...

Ethics and Business Information Systems

process, the quantitative research is appropriate in validating the theory and replicating the research findings. Moreover, the knowledge derived from the quantitative research can be used for the quantitative prediction assisting in enhancing the research validity and credibility. The statistical technique is one of the features of quantitative research that involves analyzing data using the descriptive statistics, and regression analysis with the goal to test the hypothesis. The results will be presented in report, tables and chart. Organization of the Proposal The proposal will be organized as follows: Chapter 1 will discuss the study background, develops the hypothesis, research… Continue Reading...

Autocratic and Transformation Leadership

"The Princess Bride" was the contingency model proposed by Fiedler. This theory claims that leadership efficacy is contingent on the circumstance. The theorist posits that group climate ought to be evaluated independently of its leader. Theories classified under this group are founded on the supposition that approaches to leading subordinates are quite inflexible. Hence, it is not likely, (or at least, is extremely hard) for task-focused or dictatorial managers to alter their approach and adopt a more personnel-focused or participative strategy. Thus, this category indicates that to ensure school principal success, Ministry of Education authorities tasked with deploying and… Continue Reading...

Performance Based Management Synthesis

are ultimately aimed at driving performance. Based on management control theory, PBM is about evaluating outcomes with the aim of creating value for the end consumer and other important stakeholders (Pihl-Thingvad, 2017). PBM processes relate to not only individuals or employees, but also organisational processes (Brudan, 2010). Indeed, performance-based management means that all organisational processes, internally and externally, are pegged on performance or results -- from personnel management to supply chain management. Selviaridis & Wynstram (2015), for instance, demonstrate the relevance of PBM in supplier management. PBM determines aspects such as supplier payment, incentive design, performance specification, and risk… Continue Reading...

Media Theory Essay

illicit behavior, transforming the relationship between actors and objects in ways that could alter political and social realities. Actor-network theory is an ideal lens and process by which to better understand the complex gamut of cybercrime. Developed initially in the 1980s and solidified in the 1990s, actor-network theory views technology within a social science framework. With actor-network theory, technology and media are both viewed as extensions of social and cultural realities, which is why the theory can potentially offer solutions to the problems of cybercrime. Theoretical Framework Actor-network theory is an ideal framework for studying the causes, mechanisms, and… Continue Reading...

Intelligence Simulation Essay

largely held true since its formulation in 1965 and Church’s theory suggests that it is possible (Churchland & Churchland, 1990), it is certainly conceivable that within a few years artificial intelligence will have advanced to the point where human reasoning can be successfully simulated, and that these applications can “learn” over time and become even more proficient at this type of simulation. There has been some progress made in this area already, with artificial intelligence applications demonstrating “phenomenological equivalence” (Ray, 2011, p. 203). Therefore, the answer to this question does not depend on the refutation of the main claim.… Continue Reading...

Torture and Interrogation Essay

autonomy of the body, on the other hand, then interrogational torture is also an important problem in normative political theory.”4  Despite these growing concerns, proponents of the global war on terrorism maintain that the use of torture is justified given the potential for future terrorist attacks on the scale of those of September 11, 2001 and the need to protect the country’s interests at home and abroad. For example, former Vice President Dick Cheney acknowledged in an exit interview that he was directly responsible for authorizing the CIA’s use of torture. When questioned concerning the CIA’s treatment of Khalid… Continue Reading...

Performance Management and Maslows Hierarchy Of Needs

The Extent to Which Motivation theory Underpins Performance Management Systems Performance Management Systems attempt to answer questions about employee work objectives and their overall role within an organization. The performance manager system is designed to assist the manager in developing, assessing and monitoring a plan by which an employee’s contributions to the organizational strategy and strategic objective are identified, measured and reviewed. The questions that the Performance Management System will are: What is the role of the employee? What is the objective of the employee? How well is the employee meeting… Continue Reading...

Human Theory Of Caring

Introduction theory guides practice. This is true of many things, but is especially true of nursing. While many processes, actions, and rules are involved in becoming a great nurse, understanding and applying theory must be the most important aspect. Nursing theory allows for one to examine concepts and then attempt practical application of these concepts when theories are tested. Evidence-based practice for example, is the wonderful lovechild of theory and application in that when theories are constructed, they are then tested,… Continue Reading...

The Origins and Types Of Behavioral Therapy

Psychological Association. Hayes, S.C. (2004). Acceptance and commitment therapy, relational frame theory, and the third wave of behavioral and cognitive therapies. Behavior Therapy 35, 629-665. Herkov, M. (2016). About Behavior Therapy. Psych Central. Retrieved on November 7, 2017, from https://psychcentral.com/lib/about-behavior-therapy/   Continue Reading...

The Role Of Roy’s Adaptation Model in Nursing Theory

infants born at less than 37 weeks gestation reduce feeding intolerance? Given the increased prominence of theory-based nursing, identifying an applicable nursing framework is important. One model that can be used in addressing the identified problem is Roy’s adaptation model (RAM). Indeed, RAM is one of the most common nursing models. Essentially, the model emphasises patient adaptation to the environment (Saini et al., 2017). As per the model, the nurse focuses on improving the patient’s ability to interact with the adjacent environment. Viewing the individual as an adaptive system, RAM asserts that the role of the nurse during the care… Continue Reading...

Supply Chain Management and Logistics

4-4. Describe the Hierarchical and Matrix Organizational Design. The hierarchical organizational theory has its roots in the command and control of the military institution. In such a structure, decision making and communication follow a top-down pattern. Employees are expected to respond to their supervisors. In a matrix design, employees have cross-functional responsibilities. Therefore, employees report to different supervisors in different departments such as logistics, marketing, and production (Murphy & Knemeyer, 2014). 4-10. Discuss The Reasons Why Logisticians Might Be Concerned With Theft. Theft is a global issue affecting not only logisticians but also business owners and consumers alike.… Continue Reading...

Gaap and Ifrs Convergence Pros and Cons

reduce the transaction costs associated with the flow of capital. In theory, this would spark an increase in cross-border investment, and that in turn would provide greater opportunity for all companies, by reducing the friction associated with translating and understanding financial statements produced under different standards. While there were over 100 nations using IFRS, the US, Canada, and a few other major industrial nations still used their own set of accounting standards. The US decided that convergence with IFRS would be a positive for the US economy, and began the project. Fundamental Differences Yet, there were fundamental differences that… Continue Reading...

Expectancy Theory Of Motivation

Expectancy theory is a main theory for the explanation of how people are motivated. Victor H. Vroom, is one of the leaders that best explain the theory and holds that the main motivation behind reaching a goal for any individual, is a person seeing and experiencing the worth of the goal, believing and witnessing what they are doing will lead to achieving said goal. “people’s motivation towards doing anything will be determined by the value they place on the outcome of their effort, multiplied by the confidence they… Continue Reading...

Kant and the Question Of Murder

philosophical theology: Drant on God: Exploring the notion of the Divine in the Critical Philosophy. Cahn, Steven; Peter Markie. Ethics: History, theory and Contemporary Issues (5th Edition). UK: Oxford University Press, 2011. Kant, Immanuel. Theoretical Philosophy after 1781, edited by Henry Allison, and Peter Heath, Cambridge University Press, 2002. ProQuest Ebook Central. “Kant’s Philosophy of Religion.” Stanford Encyclopedia. Web. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant-religion/   Continue Reading...

Obstacles Of Organizational Development Theorists

encounter, namely that public sector organizations do not have continuous improvement and OD theory as part of their inherent worldviews. Bureaucracy rather than what will be more efficient often dictates policy. Government regulations may limit what practitioners can accomplishment, which can frustrate OD specialists. The ability to use a wide array of rewards to motivate employees, including increases in salary to superior workers, may be stymied by government policies. Employees are aware of the fact that promotion is based upon a civil service system or seniority rather than upon demonstrated excellence. Unlike private organizations like Apple, Google, and Facebook… Continue Reading...

Theory Of Motivation and Maslows Hierarchy Of Needs

Both observation and experiment provided the underpinning for Abraham Maslow’s theory of human motivation. Maslow (1943) posits, “man is a perpetually wanting animal,” leading to the constant striving to fulfill goals (p. 370). If and when anything prevents the fulfillment of a goal—whether the obstacle is internal or external—discomfort or psychopathy can occur (Maslow, 1943). Although Maslow’s original research was conducted decades ago, recent research on motivation and human behavior continues to substantiate Maslow’s core claims. Researchers continue to operationalize Maslow’s definitions of needs and motivation, leading to a strengthening of the original theory and expanded applications in the… Continue Reading...

Karoru Ishikawa Contributions to Quality Control

control, quality assurance, and quality management are taken for granted as essential components of organizational theory and behavior. Although Karoru Ishikawa framed quality control from a Japanese perspective, his suggestions have become entrenched in international business, particularly in manufacturing and industrial engineering sectors. The Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers (JUSE) already had a quality control division in place when Ishikawa joined the organization; yet his contributions to quality control in science and engineering were so tremendous that over 50 scientists at JUSE recently contributed to a book commemorating the Ishikawa. Ishikawa’s primary contributions to quality control include integration… Continue Reading...

Altruism Vs Rands Selfishness

himself (Rand 6). A fair amount of truth exists in Rand’s concept that the default ethical theory of our society is altruism. This notion is rooted in the longstanding belief that doing things for others is somehow much better than doing something for oneself. In fact, she states that popular conception is that there is a notion of sacrifice which is an integral part of ethical behavior. Sacrificing oneself for others is the core of the idea of altruism. The specific reason the author contends that the default ethical theory for Western society during the 20th century when she was… Continue Reading...

Psychology and Behaviorism Essay Outline

of Pavlov's conditioning. Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science, 39(4), 279-294. Green, C. D. (2009). Darwinian theory, functionalism, and the first American psychological revolution. American Psychologist, 64(2), 75-83. doi: 10.1037/a0013338 Moore, J. (2011). Behaviorism. The Psychological Record, 61(3), 449-464. Watson, J. B. (1913). Psychology as the behaviorist views it. Psychological Review, 20(2), 158-177. doi:10.1037/h0074428 Continue Reading...

History Of Psychology Annotated Bibliography

of psychology. Other implications have to do with the ethical dimensions of all psychological research. Green, C. D. (2009). Darwinian theory, functionalism, and the first American psychological revolution. American Psychologist, 64(2), 75-83. doi: 10.1037/a0013338 This article focuses on functionalism, a branch of psychology contemporaneous with behaviorism. Functionalism is typically relegated to the history pages of psychology textbooks, or simply described as being the antipode to structuralism as Green (2009) points out. According to the author, functionalism is a lot more important than most historians of psychology give it credit for. One reason is that functionalism was a theoretical extension of Darwinism.… Continue Reading...

Behaviorism As a Separate School Of Thought

to human behavior, and Pavlov was the first to present the theory of operant conditioning (Clark, 2004). It was Skinner who then added to the field of behaviorism by making it more relevant as a field of psychology. All of these theorists contributed equally to the evolution of behaviorism as a distinct field of research. Behaviorism was soon shown to have pragmatic implications for helping people to learn new habits or get rid of bad habits, or to show how specific phobias might be developed over time. The information learned through behaviorism would later be fully integrated into comprehensive… Continue Reading...

Public Administration and Finance

decision-making and implementation procedures. References Ekstedt, H. (2013). Money in economic theory. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis Group. Holzer, M. & Schwester, R.W. (2011). Public administration – an introduction. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe. Mikesell, J.L. (2011). Fiscal administration: analysis and applications for the public sector (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.   Continue Reading...

Keeping Driving Age at or Above 16 Years Old

depending on who is offering the ideas or scholarly opinions. However, the part of the theory that is clearly geared towards the topic of this report is the fact that the brains of teens that are entering the driving age realm are clearly still developing. One part of the brain that is still developing at the age of 16 would be the frontal lobe. This is part of the brain that is essential for driving. This confluence of factual information clearly indicates that children at the age of 16 that are driving should be tightly regulated and surveilled. So… Continue Reading...

An Effective Strategy in Dealing with People with Mental Disorders

the DNA system and educators, I will be able to enjoy a meaningful, swift journey that holds regard for theory and practice within any given domain. The institution has cultivated a rich community in which stakeholders, students and educators strive constantly towards improving and excelling. In the learner’s role, I will experience simultaneous development in the areas of research, content, leadership mentoring and expertise, from major stakeholders and ex- students. Social dealings with the new doctoral community will assure development of program life, geography and discipline. This promotes quality evaluation, improvements, and correction in domains where educators may experience… Continue Reading...

National Security Impact Of Immigration Policy

of borders, barring migration for individuals hailing from high- risk foreign territories, and putting a stop to refugee resettlement. theory of Migration Migration represents mankind’s story from the outset to the current age. It has its roots in mankind’s adventure- seeking spirit and quest to follow one’s dreams. The growth in individuals undertaking perilous, cross- border journeys across the globe dates back to the world’s Stone Age. Statistical figures reveal several millions continually moving from their motherland in search of more superior living conditions and opportunities at performing services. Other reasons for migration include societal divide, fear of hunger, excess violence,… Continue Reading...

Improving Public Relations Between the Police Department and the Citizens

Point of a First Line Police Officer and to Use that Understanding to Develop a theory of Police Officer Stress In seeking to understand job-related stress from the point of view of a first line police officer, it would be prudent to formulate a hypothesis. Stress is in this case taken to be a consequence of both work-related issues and outside-of-work factors. In the society in which we live, stress is commonplace. In essence, it manifests itself in various ways and as a result of factors unique to an individual. Contrary to popular belief, police officers also encounter stressful… Continue Reading...

Annotated Bibliography on Neo Freudianism

a repository of cultural symbols. However, Hall & Lindzey (1957) also stress Jung’s contributions to personality theory. Not an experimental study, Hall & Lindzey’s (1957) work is meaningful in that it encapsulates the major issues that emerged in the post-Freudian era. This source acknowledges Freud’s contributions to social psychology, which are frequently overlooked. What is interesting about the Hall & Lindzey (1957) analysis is that the authors show how Adler, Fromm, Horney, and Sullivan became interested in humanistic issues like self-realization. The concept of self-realization was only implicit in Freud’s work, which was more focused on the processes and… Continue Reading...

Letter Of Recommendation for Manager

finance. Harvard educated, he has studied substantially on various topics—such as theory of Probability, Statistics for Applications, Stochastic Calculus, Econometrics, Math Topics for Finance, and Analysis. At the Lycée Louis-le-Grand in Paris, France, he studied in mathematics, physics and engineering. His background is deep and he is very knowledgeable and articulates well with regard to a number of areas that have helped us all here at BAM to better do our jobs and act in the best interest of the company and its clients. As an IT Developer and Researcher, Mark helped to introduce new trading strategies at the… Continue Reading...

Assessments Of Personality Types and Careers

lines of authority. Also, I like working with data and details, not theory or abstract issues. I prefer concrete evidence. I also prefer having a set routine in my daily life. My interest in enterprising suggests that I do like to take initiative, and have strong leadership potential. Finally, an interest in investigations means that I do like thinking critically and solving problems with the data that I have researched, which is why I selected the three careers that I did. Top three values for me include independence, support, and achievement. Although I do not mind working in an… Continue Reading...

Dreams the Unconscious Mind and Defense Mechanisms

Psychodynamic and Psychoanalytic theory suggest that early stages of human development have a significant impact on our relationships and our ego throughout the life span. According to Freudian theories, manifested behavior is based on latent problems of the past. The therapeutic process of psychoanalysis is designed to help the client become aware of past problems or latent desires that have been suppressed during the process of psychological development. Key themes that emerge in the literature on psychoanalytic theory include the role of the unconscious mind in… Continue Reading...

Organizational Analysis for Veterans Health Administration

highest number of employees than all the other elements of VA combined. Human Relations theory Human relations theory is a management approach that is based on the idea that all employees are motivated not only by financial rewards, but by a range of social factors like praise, pride in one\'s work, a sense of belonging, and feelings of achievement. This theory was developed from empirical studies that were conducted in the 1920s and 1930s. The empirical studies are referred to as the Hawthorne studies because they were developed in the Hawthorne plants in the 1920s (Landsberger, 1959). Human relations theoryContinue Reading...

Servant Leadership Style and Leadership Philosophy

not being served. My leadership philosophy is consistent with the theory of servant leadership. Though servant leadership has been in existence for centuries or even millennia, the concept was first described by Robert K. Greenleaf in his 1970 essay “The Servant as Leader”. Greenleaf describes servant leadership as leadership that “begins with the natural feeling that one wants to serve, to serve first” (Northouse, 2013, p. 220). A servant leader is consciously or naturally motivated by the need to prioritise the needs of those he/she serves (Greenleaf, 2003). In other words, servant leaders put the wellbeing of their followers before… Continue Reading...

Parents Sexuality and the Psychoanalysis or Psychodynamic

fixation or stagnation, a neurosis that is due to a previous difficulty at one of the stages of development. Freud’s theory is interesting, certainly, and has its own internal logic. However, Freud’s model is not at all scientific. Freud also focused almost exclusively on male libido, being personally perplexed by female sexual desire and by women in general (“Modules on Freud: On Psychosexual Development,” n.d.). Without any substantial research to back up his theories, Freud’s work remains theoretical. Therefore, I do not necessarily agree with the details of the theory. However, there is no doubt that Freud is correct that… Continue Reading...

The Community Aspect Of Business

best of all, it filled a gap in the neighborhood. As Ganescu (2012) notes, corporate social performance from a contingency theory perspective allows one to see how environments impact leadership and organizational achievement—and that argument certainly applies to the case of Wurstkuche in L.A. A quick PESTLE analysis of the setting shows that the environment in the L.A. Arts District was perfect. The politics were liberal and creative. The economic incentive was there: the district was entering into a revitalization phase. The social element expressed a need for this type of business. The technological factor was minimal and provided an… Continue Reading...

Selingo and Museus College Costs

discusses how racially diverse student populations achieve success in college through the theoretical framework of Tinto’s theory. While Selingo aims to discuss the struggles with academic and job success in and after college for students in general, Museus focuses on racially diverse students and what they specifically do in relation to success in college. “provides an overview of alternative culturally relevant frameworks of success that have been generated from the voices of racially diverse communities and proposed to explain success among diverse student populations” (Museus, 2014, p. 189). Overall, both authors aim to understand what can be done to… Continue Reading...

Mainstream Media and Science

vision of a scientist is having had formulated and developed a scientific theory that had massive impact. A second characteristic of a scientist is someone who is extremely smart and intellectual and lastly I consider scientists to be revolutionary. 3. Which famous people or characters from the media come into your mind? What characteristics do they have in common? With the visualization of the term “science”, there are different famous people and characters from the media that come to mind. One of them is Albert Einstein who is considered to be one of the most renowned scientists in the… Continue Reading...

Antwone Fisher

childhood events. But they continued into adulthood and have since posed serious challenges (Schultz & Schultz, 2009). Trait theory assessment of Fisher: Trait theorists widely adopt Costa and McCrae’s Five-Factor Model for evaluation; the five elements of this instrument are neuroticism, candidness, amicability, scrupulousness and extraversion (Schultz & Schultz, 2009). Because of his aggression in the face of potential threats, Fisher would display a high ‘neuroticism’ score, in addition to a fairly high ‘openness’ score, since he endeavored to fine-tune his artistic skills and learn Japanese, which suggests a certain degree of creativity in his tough persona. Trait theorists hypothesize… Continue Reading...

Theory Of Competitive Advantage

Robert Grant’s “The Resource-Based theory of Competitive Advantage: Implications for Strategy Formulation” is about exploiting an organization’s internal resources to propel its business model. The author explores the concept of how by simply assessing and becoming aware of a company’s resources, organizations can use that material to optimize their competitive advantage. The author details this information from a scholarly perspective in which he reveals that this approach was a long neglected one for strategy. Originally, organizations simply focused on the external environment and how best… Continue Reading...

Clinical Issue in Psychiatric Nursing Practice

K.A. (2008). Issues and Trends in Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing. In Psychiatric mental health nursing: an introduction to theory and practice (chap. 2, pp.21-38). Retrieved from http://www.jblearning.com/samples/0763744344/44344_ch02_021_038.pdf Bickford, C. J. (Ed.). (2008). Nursing informatics: Scope and standards of practice. Silver Spring, MD: American Nurses Association. Blumenthal, J.A., Smith, P.J. & Hoffman, B.M. (2012, July/August). Is Exercise a Viable Treatment for Depression? ACMS’s Health & Fitness Journal, 16(4), 14-21. Topaz, M. (2013). Invited Editorial: The Hitchhiker’s Guide to Nursing Informatics theory: Using the Data- Knowledge- Information-Wisdom Framework to Guide Informatics Research. Online Journal of Nursing Informatics, 17(3). Retrieved from http://ojni.org/issues/?p=2852   Continue Reading...

Psychoanalysis and the Different Types Of Research

do leave lingering memories with deeply rooted emotions attached to them. Therefore, the Freudian theory of psychosexual development can be applied to a contemporary society. The post-modern worldview allows for a considerable degree of nuance in the way Freud’s theories are interpreted and applied to each person. In fact, contemporary researchers have revisited and revised Freud’s theories to synchronize them with postmodern sensibilities and social norms. Tauber (2012), for example, suggests that postmodernism interjects a more optimistic worldview and tenor into Freud’s original theories with “celebration of desire at the expense of reason and sublimation,” (p. 1). Whereas Freud… Continue Reading...

A Contingency Model Of Leadership and Follower Self Esteem Leadership

aspects in contingency leadership theories such as situational leadership theory, Fiedler’s contingency theory, and path-goal theory. Yun, Cox & Sims’s (2006) findings have important implications for practice. Self leadership is a product of not only the context of leadership (extrinsic factors), but also individual characteristics (intrinsic factors). Accordingly, it is imperative for organisations to cultivate an empowering leadership style, which can in turn enhance self leadership behaviour amongst followers. Empowering leadership is a style of leadership in which leaders empower followers or subordinates to take initiative and to attain high performance. In other words, leaders delegate more decision authority… Continue Reading...

Criminal Law Cases Analysis

in mind. A specific intent crime is one where in theory the mens rea goes beyond the actus reus, in the sense that the defendant has some ulterior purpose in mind. In the case at hand, the actus reus is to infect the three women with the virus with the intention of causing them some suffering and harm. The defendant must not only be shown to have mens rea for causing infection but also a more specific mens rea in the form of causing suffering and harm. Motive remains very essential to prove this kind of case because it… Continue Reading...

Achieving Tenure for Professors

this study and the research it entails is underpinned by Critical Race theory. Although this theory encompasses a number of different facets, the most significant one to the article is that racism is institutionalized and considered normal in the United States (Diggs et al, 2009, p. 316). The self-study was supported by both group discussions and individual interviews. What are the main findings? To what extent are they expected or surprising? How so? The main findings were largely expected. They were that race, ethnicity and gender play a substantial role in impacting the ability for minority faculty members to… Continue Reading...

Definition Of Learning

of social interaction as traditional classroom experiences, too. Moreover, there are different types of learning including learning theory, learning by doing, and learning by watching others. The differences between a physical and virtual classroom are minimized through active engagement with the material. All students, no matter whether they are learning online or in a classroom, need to apply themselves. We can also contextualize our knowledge, sharing with other students from around the world instantly to better understand diversity of experiences and points of view. Although the potential to be distracted or to procrastinate may be greater in an online… Continue Reading...

Education Classroom Design and Literacy Development

for conceptualizing a collaborative and “active learning community” in each classroom (Neff, n.d., p. 1). Vygotsky’s theory undergirds classroom design that “maximizes the learner\'s ability to interact with each other through discussion, collaboration, and feedback,” (Neff, n.d., p. 1). Discussion is encouraged via the arrangement of seats as well as by scheduled time for interactivity. Collaboration occurs through exercises and pedagogical methods, while feedback can combine feedback from teacher, peers, and self-assessment methods. In addition to social learning theories, constructivism provides a framework for optimal classroom design to stimulate literacy. As Land, Hannafin & Oliver (2012) point out, “shifts… Continue Reading...

European Global Perspective

on other societies around the world – even the stronger ones.  Human progress should in theory work a lot like economic progress – the greater the diversification of ideas, and ability for different ideas and value systems to compete, the more likely that the optimal system will be the one that rises. It is no stretch to suggest that the paradigm under which European expansion occurred was not just European but religious and male. Thus, while there were some differences between how this expansion was implemented by different European powers, there are many common themes that can be drawn. First… Continue Reading...

How Diversity Functions in the Organization

gravitate towards one another, and end up having rapid decision-making processes, whereas cognitive diversity theory holds that some cognitive friction is good for organizations – a multiplicity of viewpoints will result in better decision-making skills overall. These two underlying explanations of how diversity functions within a society are important because they reflect the trade-off with diversity in general, and thus influence how an organization wants to conceptualize diversity. A more homogenous group can work more quickly, with less conflict, but there are situations where more conflict is beneficial because it will overall result in better-decision making. Thus, there is… Continue Reading...

Role Of Privately Owned Media in a Democracy

Since the 17th century, the media plays this role because of its ability to transmit information at scale. In theory, anybody can gather information, but dissemination at scale has until the Internet required a certain amount of capital investment (Coronel, n.d.). First, it was printing presses, then broadcast towers, but there was always some capital investment required. So while information had previously traveled through informal channels (i.e. word of mouth), media allows for the transmission of messages consistently across large audiences. The ability of the media to transmit information at scale also gives it considerable power. Consistent messaging at… Continue Reading...

Michelangelo and the Sistine Chapel

be the virgin Mary with her child Jesus.[footnoteRef:3] This theory may be more appropiate, as one can see that the child is looking away from the interaction between God and Adam, as though knowing the sacrificial role he himself will have to play in making things right again. [2: Leo Steinberg, “Eve's idle hand.” Art Journal 35, no. 2 (1975): 130.] [3: Leo Steinberg, “Who's Who in Michelangelo's Creation of Adam: A Chronology of the Picture's Reluctant Self-Revelation.” The Art Bulletin 74, no. 4 (1992): 552.] Finally, the focal point of the painting is what really gives the viewer a sense of the… Continue Reading...

Reminiscing on My Teens

ecosystem at the time. The best way to categorize this environment is in accordance to Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory, which includes a number of different stratifications for a child’s milieu. Contextualizing my teenage years through this psychological lens, as well as others such as social learning theory andPiaget’s childhood cognitive development theory, I am able to clearly explain certain facets of my behavior and personality traits. The crux of Bronfenbreener’s ecological systems theory is that there are a number of subtle layers to the overall ecology which influences people as they mature and age. The first of these is… Continue Reading...

Reflection and Research Essay on Augustine: Saint Augustine on Evil

Evil-An Introduction to Different Views on Catastrophes." Catastrophes, 2015, 1-14.] In contrast, the philosophical theory on the origin of evil I have outlined acknowledges that other factors inform the choices of people in their free will[footnoteRef:6]. Free will is not entirely free since it is influenced by a combination of other factors. The most fundamental factor that affects choices in free will relates to knowledge. People make choices depending on what they know or what they do not know[footnoteRef:7]. Therefore, knowledge is a factor that drives the choice of good or evil in free will. [6: Melchert, Norman. The Great… Continue Reading...

Cell Phones Can Cause Cancer

I tend to look for facts that will support that theory. So it could be argued that my use of the articles published by the researchers cited herein was just an example of my confirmation bias. However, if you wanted to think that, you would still have to prove that what is shown in the articles is not true or meaningful in any way, shape or form—and that cannot be done. So I do not believe the biases created a barrier to my thinking. My own background shaped the way I felt about the topic I presented in the… Continue Reading...

The Tourism Industry in Mexico

to the locals about how great their experience was and help boost the local economy. It sounds great in theory, but the reality is that the development of new roads to support the growing tourism industry means that the region is changing and losing its native color and character. New immigrants are arriving and the traditions and customs and memories that made Oaxaca special and unique will soon be gone. Whenever the tourism industry arrives, it alters the region and spoils it. At first it seems like everything will be good, but “we in Oaxaca can feel that the… Continue Reading...

Behaviorism and Neo Behaviorism Approaches

who not only refuted Hull’s efforts to develop formal theory and returned to John Watson’s of developing science based on observation of behavior (Weidman, n.d.). Watson introduced the concept of classical behaviorism that focuses on stimulus-response behaviors on the premise that all behaviors are influenced by interactions with the environment. Watson’s classical conditioning focuses on creating a link between a naturally existing stimulus and a past neutral stimulus. On the contrary, Skinner introduced the concept of radical behaviorism, which postulates that the main aim of psychology should be to forecast and control behavior. He also introduced the concept of… Continue Reading...

The Organization and Structure Of Fire Department

be structured in a way that combines the best of new management theory with the best that the paramilitary model has to offer. As Carter (2015) points out, job definition is extremely important in fire departments: “we break our fire department down into such functions as engine and truck companies, fire prevention and public education planning, service and staff functions.” Given this, the structure of the proposed fire department will reflect the different roles the department plays in the community. Fire chiefs will remain in key positions of leadership. However, it is recommended strongly that two new positions be… Continue Reading...

Music and Gym Workout

C.I. (2006). Psychophysical effects of music in sport and exercise: An update on theory, research and application. In M. Katsikitis (Ed.), Psychology bridging the Tasman: Science, culture and practice – Proceedings of the 2006 Joint Conference of the Australian Psychological Society and the New Zealand Psychological Society (pp. 415-419). Melbourne, VIC: Australian Psychological Society.   Continue Reading...

Bin Laden Al Qaeda Financing Crime

The fight against terrorist financing. Political Science Quarterly 121(4): 569-596. Freeman, M. (2010). The sources of terrorist financing: theory and typology. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 34(6): 461-475. Jacobson, M. (2009). Terrorist financing and the internet. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 33(4): 353-363. Naylor, R.T. (2004). Wages of Crime. Cornell University. Schaefer, S. (2003). The wages of terror, an interview with R.T. Naylor. Counter Punch.https://www.counterpunch.org/2003/06/20/the-wages-of-terror-an-interview-with-r-t-naylor/ Zdanowicz, J.S. (2004). Detecting money laundering and terrorist financing via data mining. Communications of the ACM 47(5):http://www2.econ.uu.nl/users/unger/papers/Zdanowicz%202.pdf Continue Reading...

Strategies to Enhance Patient Satisfaction

Application: Systems theory Healthcare organizations provide nursing services centered on multiple theories. For instance, the Open Systems theory established in 1978 by Katz and Kahn considers the healthcare organization as social systems divided into interconnected subsystems (Meyer & O’Brien-Pallas, 2010). Meyers and O’Brien-Pallas (2010) provide that these interrelated subsystems include outputs, throughputs, inputs, negative feedbacks and a cycle of events. The primary care hospital environment has various units that handle different cases including the intensive care, intermediate care, medical-surgery, emergency department (ED) etcetera. This paper delves into… Continue Reading...

Proposed Immigration Bill

as well. The previous system has unfairly created a class-based theory of immigration, whereas this new bill empowers all people to achieve their goals. Likewise, the BEST part of this bill is Section M, which allocates funds to immigrant integration programs. Language classes, social meetups, and networking opportunities will ensure the success of all immigrants. We also agree to the provision lifting the limitations on any country-specific quota, which is an unethical and immoral reference to a racist and colonial past. We need more STEM workers badly, and this provision benefits all Americans by raising the bar for our… Continue Reading...

Tools for Organization Development and Change

and discuss the tools needed to make organization development and change possible. theory and strategy are two primary tools needed for organization development and change. theory and strategy provide the support and framework for the change management and culture building process, and they can consist of various approaches to the issue: there theories like appreciative inquiry, experiential learning theory, intentional change theory, and more; there are strategy development techniques that strategic swarming and Three Horizons (Camp, 2012). theory helps to give a basis of understanding about how the organization development process should be perceived, and the strategy helps to give… Continue Reading...

Historical Perspective on Supervision

from teaching methods to student achievement. References Dewey, J. (1938). The theory of inquiry. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Wiston. Lewis, H., & Leps, J. M. (1946). When principals supervise. Educational Leadership, 3(4), 160-163. Melchior, W. T. (1950). Instructional supervision: a guide to modern practice. Heath. Spaulding, F. E. (1955). School superintendent in action in five cities. RR Smith. Sullivan, S., & Glanz, J. (2005). Supervision that improves teaching: Strategies and techniques. Corwin Press. Sullivan, S., & Glanz, J. (2013). Supervision that improves teaching and learning: Strategies and techniques. Corwin Press. Swearingen, M. (1946). Looking at supervision. Educational Leadership, 3(4), 146-151. Taylor, F. W. (1914). The principles of scientific management. Harper.… Continue Reading...

The U.s Economy and Health Care

will have access to better information than they have in the past. This theory relies on education as the cornerstone of prevention efforts, especially where lifestyle habits come into play. Huang, Wang and Wang (2017) also argue in favor of prevention as a means of cutting health care costs, which is why prevention was one of the important, but seldom-discussed elements of the ACA. Societies that focus more on preventative health tend to have lower overall healthcare expenditures than those that approach healthcare from more of the break-fix model as in America. Fuchs makes a different case, that there… Continue Reading...

Psychology Of Motivation and Oxytocin

How can Deci and Ryan's (2008) self-determination theory assist individuals in their personal or professional goals? Deci & Ryan’s (2008) self-determination theory is a theory of motivation that can help individuals set and achieve personal and professional goals. The theory can be applied to almost every area of life, including health choices or interpersonal relationships. One of the most unique features of self-determination theory is that it can be adapted to different applications. As Deci & Ryan (2008) show, self-determination theory distinguishes between different types of motivation including… Continue Reading...

Freeman Brown Private System

financial security or growth a factor of motivation for the employees during closure. For the human relations theory of management, productivity is the key factor for decision making – and people are the resources to ensure good quality of production (Perry, 2017). Hence, according to this theory, people want to be part of a system that is encouraging, participatory, supportive, allows development and showcases value for good work (Schermerhorn, 2014). Good quality or productivity is dependent upon high morale of employees. Keeping this approach in mind we can analyse FBPS and how it handled its relationship with the stakeholders during… Continue Reading...

Impact Of Meditation on Addiction Therapy

synthesis of what the studies reveal about the current state of knowledge on the question developed The mindfulness meditation theory appears to have the potential to treat addictive disorder patients. Zgierska and coworkers (2009) state that such models seem to be safe if implemented within the context of clinical studies. One can find considerable methodological shortcomings in a majority of existing works on the subject. Further, which addiction-diagnosed individuals may derive maximum benefits out of mindfulness meditation isn’t clear. But, of late, related initiatives and practices in the role of complementary clinical aids for treating multiple physical and psychological ailments… Continue Reading...

Is Nursing Theory Important to Profession

Although ultimately nursing is about patient care, theory is ultimately what guides best practices, ensures consistency of care across multiple modalities, and also informs how nurses view themselves, their colleagues, and their role in healthcare. Nursing theory might seem like an abstract issue, but throughout the history of the profession, nurses have consistently demonstrated the importance of clarifying their theoretical perspectives and nursing philosophies. Nursing theory is important to the nursing profession because theory undergirds practice. Research shows how important nursing theory is for nurse education. One Finnish study shows… Continue Reading...

Economic Impact Australian Mining Boom

curve. This leads to the positioning of a new equilibrium price. The comparative theory best explains the exportation of minerals by Australia and the importation of other commodities from other nations. In this regard, Australia is considered to have a comparative advantage in the production of minerals because it can produce minerals at a relatively lower opportunity cost compared to China. Another aspect that was influenced during the mining boom is the minimum wage. In the period, the minimum wage increased and in 2010 the policy set the price at $15. The marginal revenue product curves provides insight as… Continue Reading...

Nursing Theory Importance

It is important to understand nursing theory for a couple of reasons. The first is that nursing theory forms the basis for how the nursing role has evolved in health care today. There is a saying that in order to understand where one is going, it is necessary to understand where one has been. For this reason alone, it is important to understand how nursing theory has evolved over time, and how nurses today see their roles, and how those roles fit within the greater context of the health care system. If we look at… Continue Reading...

Adidas Market Entry

the transnational corporation: An analysis of international law and legal theory. University of Melbourne Law Review. Vol. 19, 893-923. Nachum, L. & Song, S. (2011). The MNE as a portfolio: Interdependencies in MNE growth trajectory. Journal of International Business Studies. Vol. 42 (3) 381-405. Tregakis, O, Edwards, T., Edwards, P., Ferner, A. & Marginson, P. (2010). Transnational learning structures in multicultural firms: Organizational context and national embeddedness. Human Relations. Vol. 63 (4) 471-499. Continue Reading...

Coca Cola Mission Vision and Values

really the one that matters most. Coca-Cola could in theory change its business away from beverages. The third element of the mission statement is a combination of the obvious and the banal. Really the focus on optimism and happiness is the only valuable element. This is not something normally seen in a mission statement, but it reflects directly not just on brand personality but on organizational culture. That can be quite meaningful to people, not just in their duties, but across the company as well. A mission statement, to have value, should pull the entire company together around some… Continue Reading...

Personal Philosophy Of Educational Leadership

the aim is to help stakeholders reach the level of self-actualization, as Maslow (1943) showed in his theory of the hierarchy of needs. Self-actualized human beings are motivated, inspired, confident, capable, determined, focused, and honed in achieving their goals. Leadership is needed along the way to ensure that people’s needs are met so that they can work their way up the ladder (Lazaroiu, 2015). Leadership Practice For me, servant leadership is a style of leadership that I feel best helps to empower followers. The essence of servant leadership is that it puts others’ needs before your own. A servant… Continue Reading...

Preaching James and Related to Poverty

passage about violence and inequality, it is true that conflict theory and strain theory do account for the motivation that leads people to commit heinous deeds. Desperation, poverty, and systematic disenfranchisement causes animosity, which is exactly what James was trying to say. The poor are those who have been systematically deprived of access to power. The burden now falls upon those who have power, those who can help others in need. A preacher can inspire each person, each member of the congregation, to discover individual talents and apply those talents to helping others. Whether helping others comes from devoting… Continue Reading...

Police Brutality and Behaviorism

to showcase stereotypical masculine behavior, police officers might use violence. Self-determination theory shows how behavioral concepts can be used to show how police might develop intrinsic motivation to behave in certain ways. Basic operant conditioning is extrinsic motivation: the reward versus punishment method of learning. When a person is motivated not by things external to them like rewards and punishment, but by internal values, they act autonomously (Deci & Ryan, 2008). Although cultivating autonomous motivation is psychologically beneficial and can be used to motivate employees, it may also be far more difficult to change autonomously motivated behaviors that are… Continue Reading...

Coca Cola Analysis

the concept was proposed in the year 1979, Porter’s 5 Forces theory has remained the de-facto industrial analysis basis, with market competitiveness gauged by deducing market attractiveness. Conclusions from this assessment help ascertain extant and imminent industry risks for a given firm. Porter’s 5 forces are as follows: (1) Threat of Fresh Entrants, (2) Competition between Extant Companies, (3) Threat of Substitutes, (3) Suppliers’ Bargaining Power, and (4) Buyers’ Bargaining Power. The Coca-Cola brand’s 5 Forces analysis (Valuation Academy, 2018): Threat of New Entrants/Potential Competitors: Medium Pressure The beverage sector has fairly low obstacles to entry owing to the… Continue Reading...

How Organizational Behavior Impacts Health Care

they will evaluate employee behavior and workplace conditions. The theory of Maslow’s (1943) Hierarchy of Needs, for example, presents an order of needs that humans must have met before they can become self-actualized. Using a theoretical framework such as this will give leaders a way to focus attention, in this case, on ensuring that worker needs are being met so that organizational behavior can be optimized and both worker and patient satisfaction achieved. Leadership can be an important approach to the issue of organizational behavior as well, since leaders are the ones tasked with inspiring, motivating, and communicating the… Continue Reading...

Clipboard Tablet Co Marketing and R&d Analysis

of Coca-Cola Ever since the concept was proposed in the year 1979, Porter’s 5 Forces theory has remained the de-facto industrial analysis basis, with market competitiveness gauged by deducing market attractiveness. Conclusions from this assessment help ascertain extant and imminent industry risks for a given firm. Porter’s 5 forces are as follows: (1) Threat of Fresh Entrants, (2) Competition between Extant Companies, (3) Threat of Substitutes, (3) Suppliers’ Bargaining Power, and (4) Buyers’ Bargaining Power. The Coca-Cola brand’s 5 Forces analysis (Valuation Academy, 2018): Threat of New Entrants/Potential Competitors: Medium Pressure The beverage sector has fairly low obstacles to entry… Continue Reading...

West Coast Transit Case Study

Denson must be more proactively listening and expressing his emotional support. Motivation Issues and Theories Motivation theory is based on a number of works by scholars in the past. Maslow’s (1943) hierarchy of needs, for instance, posits that when individual’s basic needs are met first, they can climb to a level of self-actualization that is more conducive with achieving goals. Schyns and Schilling (2013) illustrate that employees are also motivated by managers who are positive, supportive and friendly. Motivation theory holds that by motivating persons by first providing for their basic needs, they can become self-sufficient and honed in on achieving… Continue Reading...

Why Is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Cbt Effective?

(Gatchel & Rollings, 2008). In keeping with the psychiatric medical theory, CBT’s efficacy, on the whole, is governed by its ability to alleviate symptoms and the ailment in general, and improve functioning. For attaining the above objective, clients are engaged actively in a concerted process of issue resolution for testing and challenging maladaptive cognitions’ validity and amending maladaptive behavior trends (Hofmann et al. 2012) In a nonclinical sense, how can CBT or behavior analysis help a learner succeed? Behavioral assessment facilitates a grasp of the fact that CBT’s underlying principle is: environmental elements have no part to play in an… Continue Reading...

Cohort Study on Risk Factors for Obesity in Childhood

postnatal development, breast-feeding, infancy/toddlerhood behavior and adiposity rebound. The life-course theory’s abstract foundation stresses illness and health’s developmental origins, concentrating especially on long-run health impacts of fetal and babyhood exposures (Hu, 2008). Of late, one can witness the alarming issue of the childhood obesity pandemic. It is alarming due to the fact that it has short- as well as long- run negative impacts. Risk factor determination forms the main solution to preventing it. While scant literature on childhood obesity risk factors can be found, experts are becoming increasingly aware of the significance of early life settings. However, hardly any… Continue Reading...

How Obesity Affects Epidemiology

has been designed to analyze macro as well as micro environmental obesogenic aspects (Drucquer, 2007). References Drucquer, N. (2007). theory and Research in Promoting Public Health?Edited by Sarah Earle, Cathy E. Lloyd, Moyra Sidell and Sue Spurr and Health Promotion Practice: Building Empowered Communities?By Glenn Laverack. Health & Social Care in the Community, 15(6), 605-606. Egger, G., Swinburn, B., & Rossner, S. (2003). Dusting off the epidemiological triad: could it work with obesity?. Obesity reviews, 4(2), 115-119. Hu, F. (2008). Obesity epidemiology. Oxford University Press. Korbonits, M. (2008). Obesity and metabolism. Basel: Karger. Mela, D (2005). Food, diet and obesity. Elsevier. Continue Reading...

Consumer Behavior and Puffed Rice

of Health Education, 39(5), 272-282. Smith, J. B., & Colgate, M. (2007). Customer value creation: a practical framework. Journal of marketing theory and Practice, 15(1), 7-23. Tversky, A. (2003). Elimination by aspects: A theory of choice. Preference, Belief, and Similarity: selected writings, 463. Appendix Consumer Description Aisle Decision Making Factor A1 Elderly Man Baking Walked to and fro across the aisle several times. Found the product on sale and decided to add it to his shopping cart. A2 Young Couple Baking Extremely health- conscious yet cost-driven. Didn’t look at any brand of flour except those that were gluten free and organic. Paid attention to promotions… Continue Reading...

Leadership Personality Traits and Organizational Behavior

diversity and organizational objectives. This article first outlines various theories of organizational psychology including job demands-resources theory, which shows how top-level management decisions can mitigate the detrimental effects of personality diversity on organizational commitment. At the same time, employee commitment can positively enhance team cohesion and the ability for teams to achieve their own and the organization’s main goals. Job crafting, the bottom-up, employee-driven behaviors, are linked with reduced stress, reduced rates of burnout, and greater work engagement, according to the author. The implications of recent research on team diversity and achievement of organizational goals are to help managers… Continue Reading...

Margaret Newman\\\'s Theory Of Health

(Nursing Theories, 2011). Over the years she refined this theory in order to help explain the core ideas that support it. This paper will explain the theory, critique it, and supply answers from articles about the theory. It will also include an overview that explains the main point of the theory and use non-theoretical terms to explain the theory’s overall goal for nursing and core ideas. Newman’s theory developed from the theory of unitary human beings put forward by Rogers—namely that “man is a unified whole possessing his own integrity and manifesting characteristics that are more than and different… Continue Reading...

Teaching Using Multiple Intelligence

A. A., Awang, M. M., & Sulaiman, F. (2014). Application of multiple intelligence theory to increase student motivation in learning history. Asian Culture and History, 7(1), 210. Ba?, G., & Beyhab, Ö. (2017). Effects of multiple intelligences supported project-based learning on students’ achievement levels and attitudes towards English lesson. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 2(3), 365-386. Hanafin, J. (2014). Multiple intelligences theory, action research, and teacher professional development: The Irish MI project. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 39(4), 126-141. Lai, H.-Y., & Yap, S.-L. (2016). Application of Multiple Intelligence theory in the Assessment for Learning Assessment for Learning… Continue Reading...

Nursing Mindfulness and Its Impact

generating a clinical setting that diminishes risk such as mindfulness meditation. Summary of Literature Review The mindfulness meditation theory is deemed to the most prospective one in treating addictive disorder patients. The safety of these models is guaranteed if carried out in the framework of clinical studies. In recent periods, associated interventions together with practices in the role of corresponding clinical aid for the treatment of several mental and physical sicknesses have become more popular. In particular, two of the practices that have been analyzed include the mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) and mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) having all-encompassing participants demonstrating that… Continue Reading...

Media\\\'s Role in Defining Gender

of equality and equitability is going to be produced in our era. From a feminist theory point of view, mass media is culpable for engendering stereotypes that reduce women to roles of subservience and of little importance in society, and this contributes to male-oriented hegemonies being perpetuated in modern culture. I would say, however, that today TV is far more representative of women than it was in the 1970s when Tuchman wrote the article. In the article entitled “Gender and the Media” it is shown that over the decades, the media has been responsible for projecting images and portrayals… Continue Reading...

Morality Relativism and Beliefs

times. References Fishman, S., & McCarthy, L. (2013). Conflicting uses of ‘happiness’ and the human condition.” Educational Philosophy and theory, 45(5), 509-515. Goodman, L. (2010). Some moral minima. The Good Society, 19(1), 87-94. Midgely, M. (1981). Trying out one’s new sword. Chapter Three: Ethical Relativism, 159-165. Rachels, J. (1999). The challenge of cultural relativism. In Elements of Moral Philosophy. NY: McGraw-Hill. Continue Reading...

Anne Mulcahy Leadership Style

leadership attributes that can be effective in today’s business environment. The leadership theory that best describes Mulcahy’s approach to leading people is authentic leadership theory, which posits that leaders who are honest, open, “real,” and trustworthy can have the most positive impact on an organization. For Mulcahy, her character and experience were two of her biggest assets. Prior to being welcomed in as CEO at Xerox, she had headed the company’s HR department—not exactly a place where CEOs are groomed. However, because of her integrity, organizational skills, and openness, she attracted the right kind of following and the Board at… Continue Reading...

Du Bois Vs John Lennon Sociology

they cannot win, no matter what. A number of modern sociological theories, including conflict theory and labeling theory, validate Lennon’s song. Conflict theory suggests that society is in an internal power struggle between different class interests; labeling theory suggests that labeling certain individuals as deviant causes a cycle whereby they feel they have no recourse other than to behave in a deviant manner, thus reaffirming their marginalized identity. The concept of a working class hero in Lennon’s song is ironic, because no member of the working class is truly allowed to be heroic based upon social constraints. Works Cited Du… Continue Reading...

Eating Disorders in Women from the Christian Point Of View

factors that can cause and emanate from the disorder. Theoretical Approaches Typical theoretical approaches to understanding eating disorders include: sociological/environmental theory, family systems theory, and psychogenetic theory. Sociological/environmental theory posits that women suffer from eating disorders as a result of social pressure put on them by media publications of idealized figures of womanhood that emphasize body image (instead of virtue, which is more in line with the Christian perspective). Family systems theory posits that individuals are not acting independently on their own but rather as a result of and in response to complex familial issues and interactions that are part of… Continue Reading...

Sex and Gender in Media

to analyzing gender in various texts. We learn about content analysis, semiotics, ideological critique, discourse analysis and discourse theory. We also come to know about postmodernism, postcolonial theory and queer theory—all of which can help to explain how things are the way they are and why people communicate, act and express themselves through their actions in particular manners. For example, what can be learned from analyzing the number of times a female news interviewee is interrupted compared to the number of times a male news interviewee is interrupted? What does the media tell us about gender? These theoretical and… Continue Reading...

Health Information Systems Assessment

Health Information Systems and Technology. Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning Bringham, E. & Ehrhardt, M. (2007). Financial Management: theory and Practice (12th ed.). Mason, OH: Thomson Higher Education. Chandra, P. (2008). Financial Management (7th ed.). Bangalore: Tata McGraw Hill. Porter, G. & Norton, C. (2007). Using Financial Accounting Information: The Alternative to Debits and Credits (5th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning. Shekelle, P., Morton, S.C. & Keeler, E.B. (2006). Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments: AHRQ Evidence Reports (No. 132). Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US) Continue Reading...

Climate Change and Corporate Environmental Policies

The allocation of emission rights. Analyse & Kritik: Journal of Philosophy and Social theory, 28(2), 223-249. Poore, R.Z., Williams, R.S., Jr., and Tracey, C. (2000). Sea level and climate: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 002–00, 2. Retrieved from https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/fs2-00/ Continue Reading...

The Relationship Of Csr and Employee Attitudes Essay

of Marketing, 70, 1-18. Miles, S. & Friedman, A. (2002). Developing Stakeholder theory. Journal of Management Studies, 39(1), 1-21. Natarajan, T., Balasubramaniam, S. A., & Srinivasan, T. (2016). Relationship between Internal Branding, Employee Brand and Brand Endorsement. International Journal of Business and Management, 12(1), 95. Nyadzayo, M. W., Matanda, M. J., & Ewing, M. T. (2015). The impact of franchisor support, brand commitment, brand citizenship behavior, and franchisee experience on franchisee-perceived brand image. Journal of Business Research, 68(9), 1886-1894. Neckermann, S. & Frey, B. (2013). And the winner is…? The motivating power of employee awards. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 46, 66-77. Pearce, J. &… Continue Reading...

Domestic Violence and the Effect on Children

what has been identified as internal strain. According to strain theory, Sophia was a victim of an environment that had been rife with conflict and, unable to process that conflict in a healthy way, she lashed out at every new environment that she encountered. Sophia did not begin to turn her life around in a more positive direction until she came into contact with Life Space Crisis Intervention, an after-school program designed to help children from troubled backgrounds and give them the tools to help them develop positive traits, confidence, self-esteem and the capacity to achieve self-actualization. By allowing… Continue Reading...

The Good and the Bad Of Capitalism

there is no way equilibrium could be attained. In basic terms, according to the labor theory of value, a specified good’s value is fixed or ascertained not by way of the ability of the said good to satisfy a specified want, but by the labor it takes to procure it. How accurate is this theory? It should be noted that his theory, in essence, ignores consumer preferences. In my opinion, consumer preferences are a key factor in the determination of a specific good’s economic value. The relevance of their ‘vote’ cannot be overstated. Continue Reading...

Virtual Teams

it was not intuitive for the subjects. It also used grounded theory analysis and coding of different transcripts of team interactions to study how trust-building is conducted on virtual teams. Questions: · Are webcams an adequate replacement for the value of face-to-face discussions and under what conditions? · What other technological methods exist to humanize interactions between virtual team members? Continue Reading...

Social Construction Theories on Serial Killers

sociological factors proves crucial to distinguishing between fact and fiction (Hickey, 2013). Social Structure theory This class of theories concentrates on the socioeconomic status of a person and suggests that the poor perpetrate more offenses owing to their struggle to achieve social or monetary success. They are, particularly owing to their subcultural, racial, or ethnic status, restricted in several ways from lawfully attaining the great “American Dream\". Thus, they resort to deviant techniques to succeed. Structural theories provide convincing justifications for numerous offenses, with the exception of serial killing. Normally, serial killers lack financial or social motivation, and aren’t members… Continue Reading...

The Impact Of Social Media on Teenage Girls

research design will take a social constructivism stance. This type of design refers to a sociological theory of understanding and perspective where human development is based and connected via engagement with other humans, as noted by Peter Berger and Thomas Luckmann. The specific research design will be an interview format, with each participant being interviewed on camera in a one-on-one format. This method of data collection will go hand in hand with the grounded theory that the research is centered in. Grounded theory will ensure that all interpretations emerge from the exact data collected. The interview process will help… Continue Reading...

Immigration in the United Kingdom

scarcities of workers. Averagely, immigrants are more educated and knowledgeable compared to their UK-born workers. In accordance to economic theory, a surplus in the level of immigration, emanating from the inflow of labour in the market, is delineated as an advantage and gain in national income accumulating to natives. When immigration related to work tales place, transforming the skills composition of the labour market, it is projected that national income is bound to increase (Home Report, 2014). In the course of strong economic growth in the UK, migration played a fundamental role in filling gaps within the labour market.… Continue Reading...

Utilitarianism and Environmentalism in Ethics

business practices, and personal behaviors can be viewed in utilitarian terms. Explanation of theory Utilitarianism is a consequentialist ethical theory, which essentially means that its proponents focus more on the consequences of actions than on the motivations for the actions (Haines, n.d.). There are several types of utilitarianism, including act-utilitarianism and rule-utilitarianism. Act utilitarianism suggests that any act is morally right when it leads to consequences that are better than (or no worse than) any other potential action (Singer, 2003). Rule consequentialism suggests that any act is morally right when it follows the rules that reflect the best interest of… Continue Reading...

Personal Leadership Development Plan

personal leadership development plan is based my intention to use transformational leadership theory to promote healthcare-eldercare advocacy in my organizational behavior. As Shanks and Buchbinder (2012) show, “leadership development includes both formal and informal efforts” (p. 279). Completing courses online or at a university are formal ways to develop one’s leadership skills, while informal efforts can include anything from mentoring others to coaching and guiding staff members in new tasks or cross-discipline work. No matter the method employed, a personal leadership development plan should utilize a strategy for maximizing leadership effectiveness by implementing an appropriate theoretical support for the… Continue Reading...

Organizational Behavior

will describe the organizational behavior of this department and show how factors like theory, emotional intelligence, and the relationship between employee and organizational behavior (as represented by management) were manifested. Employee Behavior and Organizational Behavior As Schyns and Schilling (2013) note, bad leaders and managers are individuals who do not take an interest in their employees or who do not engage with them on civil or sympathetic terms. They lack empathy, integrity or interest in their work. They bring negative stimuli to the workplace instead of positive stimuli. The effect of their influences is that workers become discouraged and… Continue Reading...

Globalization and Neoliberalism Pros and Cons

empirical evidence to support this claim, instead offering the reader an abundance of theory. An angry tone and a lack of concessions detract from the author’s overall argument, but the author makes some sound points. The main points of the anti-globalization perspective center on the notion that almost all neoliberal policies that sustain globalization and free trade are designed to benefit corporations and centralize capital accumulation rather than distribute profits equitably to achieve goals of global equality. Capitalism and neoliberalism also undermine the power of governments to provide sustainable growth policies domestically, as governments collude with multinational corporations and… Continue Reading...

How the Internet Has Changed Society

heritage through the Internet: A study based on Framing theory. Communication and Society 31(1): 1-21. Rainie, L. & Anderson, J. (2017). The Internet of things connectivity binge. Pew Research Center. http://www.pewinternet.org/2017/06/06/the-internet-of-things-connectivity-binge-what-are-the-implications/ Zhang, Y., Tu, B. & Kim, T. (2017). A comparative analysis of internet law in developed countries: implications for China. The Korean Journal of Security Affairs (KJSA) 22(2)http://www.papersearch.net/thesis/article.asp?key=3570023 Continue Reading...

Virtual Team Theories and Research

it will be something that happens every time. Many people familiar with sociology, management theory and other such spheres know this implicitly. However, it is still wise to be precise and ensure that there are limitations and scopes to any theory, whatever it may be. References Brown, H. G., Scott-Poole, M., & Rodgers, T. L. (2004). Interpersonal Traits, Complementarity, and Trust in Virtual Collaboration. Journal of Management Information Systems, 20(4), 115-137.  Krumm, S., Terwiel, K., & Hertel, G. (2013). Challenges in norm formation and adherence: The knowledge, skills, and ability requirements of virtual and traditional cross-cultural teams. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 12(1), 33-44. doi:10.1027/1866-5888/a000077 Continue Reading...

Organizational Diagnostic Models Jakks Pacific

out elsewhere in this text. References Burke, W.W. (2010). Organizational Change: theory and Practice (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: SAGE. Cummings, T.G. & Worley, C.G. (2014). Organizational Development and Change (10th ed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning. Falletta, S.V. (2005). Organizational Diagnostic Models: A Review & Synthesis. Sunnyvale, CA: Leadersphere, Inc. Harrison, M.I. (2005). Diagnosing Organizations: Methods, Models, and Processes (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks: SAGE. Hung, P.C. (Ed.). (2015). Mobile Services for Toy Computing. New York, NY: Springer. Parr, R.L. & Smith, G.V. (2015). Intellectual Property: Valuation, Exploitation, and Infringement Damages 2015 Cumulative Supplement. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Continue Reading...

Grounded Theory and Ethnography in Doctoral

approaches to qualitative research design include narrative research, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, and case studies (Creswell & Poth, 2018). This paper will focus exclusively on two of those qualitative research designs, grounded theory and ethnography, to showcase the strengths and weaknesses of each. Grounded theory and ethnography are similar designs and approaches to research questions. Even some of their methodological considerations are alike, particularly in that both grounded theory and ethnography use observation as the primary tool of data collection (Najafi, Roudsari, Ebrahimipour, et al, 2016). Therefore, clarifying the differences between grounded theory and ethnography can help researchers understand… Continue Reading...

Personal Self Assessment and Self Awareness

and models of care. https://www.med.unc.edu/phyrehab/pim/files/Concepts%20of%20Healing.pdf Henriques, G. (2015). The biopsychosocial model and its limitations. Psychology Today. https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/ theory-knowledge/201510/the-biopsychosocial-model-and-its-limitations Sakallaris, B.R., MacAllister, L., Voss, M., et al (2015). Optimal healing environments. Global Advances in Health and Medicine 4(3): 40-45. University of Maryland Medical Center (2018). Mind-body medicine. https://www.umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/treatment/mindbody-medicine   Continue Reading...

Mindfulness Health, Healing, and Self Awareness

(2004). Concepts of healing and models of care. https://www.med.unc.edu/phyrehab/pim/files/Concepts%20of%20Healing.pdf Henriques, G. (2015). The biopsychosocial model and its limitations. Psychology Today. https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/ theory-knowledge/201510/the-biopsychosocial-model-and-its-limitations Sakallaris, B.R., MacAllister, L., Voss, M., et al (2015). Optimal healing environments. Global Advances in Health and Medicine 4(3): 40-45. University of Maryland Medical Center (2018). Mind-body medicine. https://www.umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/treatment/mindbody-medicine   Continue Reading...

H&m Trade Comparative Advantages

sense that such deals are not supported by trade theory, that free trade should be fostered. However, there are specific political and social goals that the EU is serving with the OPT policy. For one, it staunches the flow of low-skilled labor from poorer EU nations into wealthier ones, which will help those countries maintain a greater degree of fiscal and social stability. Further, OPT helps the new EU member win immediate gains from membership, something that is likely to bolster political support for the EU in that nation, and likely others as well. So in the short run,… Continue Reading...

Effects Of Immigrants on the Uk Economy

impact on wages of native-born, but found that this was not the case. The arrived at a new theory, which is that these two labour pools are poor substitutes, and that the arrival of more educated immigrants had a much stronger impact on the wages of other educated immigrants than on the wages of native-born. They could have also explored a different hypothesis as well, which is that the arrival of educated immigrants leads to greater job creation; the highly educated are more likely to start their own company if they cannot find work, than to go on the… Continue Reading...

Research Design in Psychology

downside to operational definitions is that they are limited; they are necessarily generalizable to theory. For instance, performance on an IQ test cannot be used to predict global intelligence, social skills, or reading intelligence. References “Conducting Research in Social Psychology,” (n.d.). http://open.lib.umn.edu/socialpsychology/chapter/1-3-conducting-research-in-social-psychology/ Legg, S. & Hutter, M. (2006). A collection of definitions of intelligence. http://www.vetta.org/documents/A-Collection-of-Definitions-of-Intelligence.pdf 2. External validity and generalizability are distinct concepts even if they are related. Generalizability refers to the ability of the researcher to extrapolate theory or practice from the results of the study. Externally valid studies yield results that can be applicable to populations beyond… Continue Reading...

Financial Reports and Lending Decisions

I would not make the decision based on these numbers alone, but in theory a current ratio of 3.1 points to a company that is solvent. That asset turnover is improving is also a positive sign, in terms of the cash conversion cycle. If net income and EPS are up, that is also good, though as a creditor I\'m much more concerned with free cash flow and whether my debt is subordinated – but it is definitely a good sign that these numbers are going in the right direction. However, there are definitely some other things I would need… Continue Reading...

Professional and Personal Development in Education

of accountability at my school. References Gorlewski, J.A., Gorlewski, D.A. & Ramming, T.M. (2012). Standard 5. In: theory into Practice. Constructing Knowledge (Curriculum Studies in Action), vol 3. SensePublishers, Rotterdam. Ryan, J. & Rottman, C. (n.d.). Educational Leadership and Policy Approaches to Critical Social Justice. https://www.oise.utoronto.ca/cld/UserFiles/File/Educational%20Leadership%20and%20Policy%20Approaches%20to%20Critical%20Social%20Justice.pdf   Continue Reading...

Conflict Resolution Education and Theory Bible

human behavior and decision-making (Cunningham, 1998). Many theories of conflict resolution at some point refer to human needs theory, which helps clarify sources of conflict as being traceable to unmet needs. Conflict arises when fundamental needs are not being met, and resolutions are more likely to arise when parties recognize what their needs are as well as those of their opponents. Conflict resolution theories based on needs theory focus on how multiple parties with differential needs can reach peaceable and mutually beneficial solutions (Burton, 1990). The goal of conflict resolution will be to attain win-win outcomes, which may ironically… Continue Reading...

Motivation and Morale Police Administration

the ease of workflow. The conceptual framework of the research study will be based on the Two-Factor theory. Also referred to as the motivation-hygiene theory, the theory which was developed by Frederick Herzberg provides comprehensive views regarding work morale and motivation. Herzberg classified different factors as either being satisfiers or dissatisfiers, also considered to be hygiene and motivation factors. On one hand, hygiene factors are the different factors within the job setting, which are indispensable for existence of morale and motivation at the workplace. They do not result in positive satisfaction for the longstanding period. Nonetheless, in the event that… Continue Reading...

Personal Philosophy Leadership and Innovation

to use the transformational leadership concept. Via official education, I am going to discover every aspect of the theory before implementing it within my practice as being a registered nurse leader to impact my followers for the accomplishment of institutional objectives and goals (Hiuhu, 2017). My objective of dealing with groups as a leader with the adoption of techniques that encourages constructive change is consistent with the transformational leadership concept. Based on Denker (2014), this idea is critical in assisting nurse practitioners to use transformative methods via the development of substantial modifications in both the lifestyles of the followers… Continue Reading...

Diabetes Mellitus in Rural Settings

broad and all-encompassing than so-called grand theories of nursing such as Jean Watson’s theory of Human Caring and seek to offer a more technical and practical approach to applying theory in daily practice (Alligood, 2018). This paper will specifically examine the application of Kristen Swanson’s theory of Caring to the treatment of patients suffering from diabetes mellitus living in rural settings without adequate access to healthcare. Virtually all nursing theories are composed of four essential core definitions, that of person, environment, health, and nursing itself. Swanson’s theory, however, specifically focuses on nursing, which Swanson defines as a very specific… Continue Reading...

Nature Vs Nurture Essay

last few decades, new theories have emerged to explain how humans learn. Social learning theory posits that human behavior stems from the integrated point of view of behavioral, environmental, and cognitive influences.  Modeling allows for continuous reciprocation of these influences. “Bandura’s work emphasized the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others from the assumption that most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling.” (Baker and Brandell 128) If humans see something, they understand how it is done and can learn how to do it themselves. For instance, a person sees another person fishing.… Continue Reading...

Global Ecological Civilization Essay

harmony, balance, and democracy” (Heurtebise, 2017). This notion of ecological civilization reinforces and intensifies the sustainable development theory, creating strong practices and innovations for promoting the progress of civilization to an advanced level. The important demand of ecological civilization is the fact that nature should be safeguarded, assimilated and respected. Clear, clean water and hills which are green should be considered as precious valuables. The obsolete perspective is that people could vanquish nature and disregard the bearing limit of assets. The obsolete perspective is that the environment could be totally neglected. Reliable efforts have to be made to live… Continue Reading...

Facebook Data Breach Essay

In this Facebook data breach essay, we discuss how Facebook allowed applications to mine user data.  The essay will explain what data was breached, how it was breached, and how that data was used.  Furthermore, the essay will also discuss the repercussions of the breach, including Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg’s hearing in front of the United States Senate, issues involving Cambridge Analytical, and information that is being revealed about additional data breaches. In addition to explaining the data breach, the essay will also discuss whether Facebook has a responsibility to users to keep data safe, and the steps that Facebook… Continue Reading...

Culture Essay

young students.  At least, that is the idea in theory.  The reality shows that multiculturalism makes it difficult for uniformity of ideals to be embraced across the board, whether one is talking about an organization or a community or a nation.  In general terms, different cultures may share similar ideals, such as freedom, human rights, and so on; but in terms of how these ideals are pursued or possessed, a great deal of difference will be manifest from one culture to another  based on the cultural background and history of the people concerned.  The more diverse an organization, community,… Continue Reading...

Intimate Relationships in Britain

health and ability to survive in the coming generations Ulrich Beck and Elizatbeth Beck-Gernsheim The theory of Beck and Beck-Gernsheim (1995) is that a zeitgeist of individualism has turned the once relatively stable concept of intimacy into a chaotic one where there is endless choice when seeking to develop intimate relations—yet no guarantee of longevity, as every option is accompanied by its own set of insecurities in a risk society where “love” is “subject to recall” at any time. While Beck and Beck-Gernsheim (1995) state that “a kind of universal Zeitgeist has seized hold of people, urging them to do their… Continue Reading...

Obesity Childhood Prenatal Conclusion

is comprehensive and generalizable, applicable to multiple populations and adaptable to different populations. Life course theory also shows that public health strategies need to focus on early childhood as well as prenatal and postnatal care. The results of this study highlight the importance of various parental care factors, helping to improve health outreach and advocacy. The physiological pathways of obesity begin as early as the fetal stage, with maternal dietary and lifestyle choices impacting the development of the fetus. The mother’s dietary and lifestyle choices also impact the infant’s feeding and later, the child’s overall nutritional and exercise regime. The… Continue Reading...

Warehouse Internship

the tutelage of supervisory staff, I was able to link theory and practice. I learned the rubric of materials management at all levels of the supply chain. Likewise, I learned how senior logisticians handle essential and sensitive materials to meet core objectives. I also gained a greater awareness of logistics overall, as my duties did entail integrating the warehouse systems into the overall operations of the organization. Learning Objectives Among the multitude of learning objectives, the most important were those that integrated private and public sector regulations. As Rutner (2000) points out, logistics creates value for private sector organizations,… Continue Reading...

Sexism in Advertising Media

in the crime of sexism and in their own exploitation. Post-feminist theory argues that women are not applying their sexuality to the trade of commerce in order to line the pockets of advertisers, but rather they are doing it to line their own pockets—and essentially they are saying that if you cannot beat them (and the Feminists have certainly tried for decades to do so) then join them. The post-feminist culture celebrates when females show their forms and call it empowering—though nothing has really changed in the equation other than that these women are supposedly being well-compensated for their… Continue Reading...

An Age Of Revolutions in Europe and America

Declaration of Independence, he did so not out of nowhere, but within the overall context of Enlightenment theory. The Declaration of Independence is frequently considered a political document, but in fact it is also a precursor of Romanticism in literature and a clear exhibition of neoclassicism, too. Romanticism is in fact defined by its revival of classical Greco-Roman themes, which emerge just as much in the arts as in political culture. In the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson is both neoclassical and Romantic in its idealism. The document is grounded on the belief that “these truths are self-evident,” and based… Continue Reading...

Businesses in Kuwait

right products. This paper will evaluate the GM Case Study, discuss the role of demand theory in GM’s decision to lower prices, and examine how the Case Study applies to Kuwaiti businesses and what lessons can be learned. The GM Case Study The GM Case Study is important to understand because it shows how a major foreign brand can run into hard times when it applies the wrong pricing to its products. For a company like GM, there is a need to protect its margins, which is one reason why it generally has higher prices in the first place… Continue Reading...

American Television Sitcoms Representation Of Asian Women

feminine, submissive, and sensual. The ideology of Orientalism, a literary theory first advanced by Edward Said, thus takes on a particularly reductive emphasis when applied to women, according to postcolonial literary criticism, as it “suggested all women were inferior to men; and that oriental women were doubly inferior, being both women and Orientals” and Asian women could be doubly exploited both as women and as the fruits of empire (Shabanirad and Marandi 24). Even today, despite the increasing globalization of modern commerce, the assumption is that the gaze upon Asian American women is white, male, and can easily possess the… Continue Reading...

Good and Bad Experiences with Leadership Essay

whether we were getting it or not.  Her style of leadership, I felt, was like the old Great Leader theory—except there was nothing really great about her and she did not even have good leadership skills.  She did not try to help us to reach our potential.  She did not try to identify our individual strengths and weaknesses.  She was just interested in getting through the material, as that was what she considered to be her end of the deal.  Whether or not we got it was not her problem—that was our problem.  And if we did have a… Continue Reading...

United States Markets Essay

Essay Prompt Consider the following. The theory of market efficiency is based on the premise that a market is considered efficient when stock prices are an actual reflection of information known about a company. U.S. markets are generally viewed as semi-strong form market efficient. •What would happen if U.S. markets became less efficient? •What might lead to markets becoming less efficient? •How do markets in other countries compare to the U.S. in terms of efficiency?   The efficient market hypothesis is based on the idea that… Continue Reading...

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Essay

Symon, K. A., & Bow, T. E. (2016). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Postdisaster Distress: A Promising Transdiagnostic Approach to Treating Disaster Survivors. Psychological Trauma: theory, Research, Practice, and Policy. doi:10.1037/tra0000221 Kaiser, D., Grundmann, J., Schulze, C., Stubenvoll, M., Kosar, M., Junker, M., … Schäfer, I. (2015). A Pilot Study of Seeking Safety in a Sample of German Women Outpatients with Substance Dependence and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 47(5), 401-408. doi:10.1080/02791072.2015.1090644 Lowe, C., & Murray, C. (2014). Adult Service-Users’ Experiences of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 44(4), 223–231. Mannarino, A. P., Cohen, J. A., & Deblinger, E. (2013, October 9). Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy - Springer. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-007-7404-9_10 Tsai, J., Harpaz-Rotem, I., Armour, C., Southwick, S. M., Krystal, J. H., & Pietrzak, R. H. (2015). Dimensional… Continue Reading...

Artificial Intelligence and Eternal Life Essay

thinks that Kurzweil should take a more moderate approach. Conversely, Ben Goertzel, an AI engineer, supports Kurzweil's theory, but also warns that such a blending of man and machine could lead to some sort of dystopian society. Similarly, Kevin Warwick, a professor of cybernetics at the University of Reading, sees a Terminator-like scenario developing, while Dean Kamen thinks that advances in technology may, in fact, make immortality possible at some point in the future. What do you think? Is Kurzweil correct in assuming that we (humans, that is) will, sooner or later, have to be artificially augmented in order… Continue Reading...

Special Education and Technology Integration Essay

Shin, & Graham, 2013, p. 101). Although a relatively new framework, it has helped influence theory, research, as well as practice in relation to teacher professional development and teacher education. The TPACK framework enables teachers to consider technology application in their design thinking processes. This is because 21st century learning has produced different opportunities and requirements that were not seen in the past (Koh, Chai, Benjamin, & Hong, 2015). Originally created/outlined in 2006 by Matthew Koehler and Punya Mishra, TPACK or TPCK builds on the work produced by Shulman. Shulman stated information of a content or subject area void… Continue Reading...

Theory Vs. Practice in Small Business Setting Essay

chasms that becomes clear here is the relationship between theory and what is practiced in a small business setting. To truly look at and assess that paradigm, the author of this report has interviewed an owner/manager at a small business to discuss what they do to make things work, what is suggested in theory and scholarly literature and how those frameworks and lessons do or do not work for their particular situation. The author of this report will personally be making a comparison and contrast between what is asserted within the literature and compare it to the feedback and… Continue Reading...

It's Learning Cloud Based Learning Management System Essay

Essay Prompt: 1. Using module theory and specific examples from the case provided identify and critically analyze the strategic issues confronting the 'IT'S LEARNING' as it expands beyond its home country (1000 words) 2. Using appropriate module frameworks and specific examples from the case critically analyze the advantages and disadvantages of the Norway as the home base for a global developer of Digital Learning Platforms. (1000 words) 3. Using module theory and examples from the case, demonstrate how 'IT's LEARNING' has used its resources and competences to scale up and develop competitive advantage in… Continue Reading...

Leadership Essay (free Example)

McKee, R.  (2014).  Advances in leader and leadership development:  A review of 25 years of research and theory.  The Leadership Quarterly, 25:  63-82. Eubanks, D. L., Antes, A L., Friedrich, T. L., Caughron, J. J., Blackwell, L. V., Bedell-Avers, K. E., & Mumford, M. D. (2010). Criticism and outstanding leadership: An evaluation of leader reactions and critical outcomes. The Leadership Quarterly, 21(3) 365-388. Hunter, E. M., Neubert, M. J., Perry, S. J., Witt, L. A., Penney, L. M., & Weinberger, E. (2013). Servant leaders inspire servant leaders: Antecedents and outcomes for employees and the organization. The Leadership Quarterly, 24(2),… Continue Reading...

Marketing Plan for Vietnamese Business Essay

action plan which includes standardised and adaptive strategies, where necessary and relevant marketing theory. 4. Conclusions Summarises the key points already made and link to the task set. NO new information. 5. Reference list (at least 20 references, with at least 15 academic, please separate) Give full details, following CASE Harvard Referencing guidelines. 6. Appendices must be linked to the body of the work – do not include if not referred to. Introduction The following a marketing plan for entering the Vietnamese market. There will be several issues covered, including the market and product analysis, external analysis, an internal… Continue Reading...

Ambulatory Service Centers Essay

malpractice lawsuits. The American Journal of Medicine. Vol. 118 (10) 1126-1133. Walshe, K. & Rundall, T. (2001). Evidence-based management: From theory to practice in health care. The Milbank Quarterly. Vol. 79 (3) 429-457. [mashshare] Continue Reading...

Cognitive Psychology Essay

cognitive behavioral therapy.  This therapy is based on cognitive theory and behavioral theory because the cognitive perspective in psychology suggests a strong link between cognition, emotion, and behavior.  This therapy basically refers to a set of psychological treatments that are based on scientific evidence and utilized to treat different psychological disorders or mental health problems (Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, 2003).  When using this approach, the therapist seeks to understand a client’s problems from a cognitive or behavioral perspective or through a combination of these two frameworks. In Amy’s case, the use of cognitive behavioral therapy will entail… Continue Reading...

Cryptocurrency

logged by Bitcoin miners who race to solve a cryptographic puzzle (Simonite, 2011). This process in theory guarantees security and trust in the transaction. The mining is the means by which Bitcoins are created, answering the supply part of the equation. The necessity for transactions to be verified and entered into the public log means that the system only works when there is incentive to perform these tasks, and the creation of Bitcoin for the miners is how that occurs. Blockchain technology is now being explored for other applications. Specifically, it is viewed positively by many for its ability… Continue Reading...

Patient Centered Care in Healthcare Nursing

active participants in their care,” (Lines, Lepore & Wiener, 2015, p. 561). The following strategy applies systems theory to show how the organization can become more patient-centric regarding education and information. Applying Systems theory Systems theory encourages a broader view of the information and education shortcoming. Using systems theory also helps to involve the entire organization in creating the patient-centered care model. Because information and education can be considered global issues in the organization, it is important to create the needed changes in the organization’s culture and operations. Systems theory allows the change to be embedded in each and… Continue Reading...

Women S Health and the Issue Of Abortion

principle found in the Hippocratic Oath). Those who support it view it from a socio-political perspective, typically informed by Feminist theory, which holds that a woman alone has the right to determine what she will do with her body and whether or not she should carry a pregnancy to term. As Clio History shows, the politics of the body have been formed by generations of social evolution from the Age of Enlightenment forward, when the notion of “rights” began to replace in society the notion of “morals” as handed down by previous generations that existed in mainly religious societies, such… Continue Reading...

Five Principles Of Management

In the contemporary age, management theory pertaining to proper management practice has undergone evolution. The ‘classical’ theories of management cropped up somewhere during the early years of the previous century. They include the scientific model of management that deals with matching activities with individuals for maximizing efficiency, and the administrative theory of management that emphasizes the identification of principles to help formulate the most effective management and organizational system. The behavioral theories of management were proposed prior as well as subsequent to World War II, and revolve… Continue Reading...

Models Of Policing

analysis. OMP is a model of policing that stems from the theory of “broken windows” defined by Wilson and Kelling (1982). The broken windows theory states that if a community allows itself to be physically neglected, it will attract crime. Graffiti, litter, abandoned buildings and broken windows are all signs that a community is negligent and therefore will not put forward much effort to oppose a criminal element in its midst. First, the crime will be small—acts of vandalism and theft; then it will escalate to drug dealing and violence. In order to prevent communities from falling to this type… Continue Reading...

Sexism and the Media

crime of sexism and in their own exploitation. Post-feminist theory argues that women are not applying their sexuality to the trade of commerce in order to line the pockets of advertisers, but rather they are doing it to line their own pockets—and essentially they are saying that if you cannot beat them (and the Feminists have certainly tried for decades to do so) then join them. The post-feminist culture celebrates when females show their forms and call it empowering—though nothing has really changed in the equation other than that these women are supposedly being well-compensated for their complicity while… Continue Reading...

Kent State Shooting

emotional content can either motivate or stifle dissent. Lewis, Jerry M. “A Study of the Kent State Incident Using Smesler’s theory of Collective Behavior.” Sociological Inquiry, Vol. 42, No. 2, April 1972, pp. 87-96. Approaching the Kent State University protest and shooting from a sociological perspective enables greater understanding of how to conceptualize the event historically. In this article, the author evaluates several theories of collective behavior including structural conduciveness, structural strain, and mobilization to help historians apply lessons learned from Kent to possible future issues involving the potential use of social control during political dissent. Lewis, Jerry M. and… Continue Reading...

Gender and Culture in Crime

purport merely to stand” in their application of feminist theory to real world examples of women and the workforce. In the realm of criminal justice, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Sonia Sotomayor and Elena Kagan represented three prominent women in the field of criminal justice as they sit on the Supreme Court of Justices. Yet they are outnumbered (2-1) in fact by male Justices, which indicates that Fahmy and Young (2017) are correct in their assessment of the seeming sense that women must be dependent upon men in the field of criminal justice. To better represent the perspective of women in… Continue Reading...

Ethics and Morality Of Intellectual Property Rights

socio-economic tool that creates a temporary monopoly", specifically as a means to allow creators to earn profit, which in theory will incentivize more creation. On the issue of digital rights management versus the public's right to fair use, there are several issues to unpack. First is that a person who creates intellectual property has no obligation to do anything with it. In fact, there are vast reservoirs of unpublished novels, unfilmed screenplays, photographs, drawings…a vast amount of the intellectual property that is created is never brought to the public at all, and still more would be if there were… Continue Reading...

The Active Shooter Crisis in America

Training programs need to be based on evidence, including bodies of theoretical knowledge grounded in protection motivation theory (Ford and Frei 438). Law enforcement at the local level can work together with federal partners to anticipate crises and respond to them immediately. Analyses of active shooter characteristics yield a plethora of evidence showing how to prevent crises or at least provide the tools for a more proactive intervention program. While Fox and DeLateur potentially undermine the significance of the active shooter crisis by claiming that, contrary to most other evidence, that the frequency of these events are not on… Continue Reading...

Development Of High Potential Employees

high-value employees. Symbolic interactionism refers to the ways individuals construct meaning from their interactions and experiences. When combined with signalling theory and social exchange theory, symbolic interactionism can illustrate some of the top organizational culture variables implicated in best practices for retaining high-potential employees. The “norm of reciprocity,” is also important in the construction of organizational culture variables that help to retain top talent (Van Zalk, 2016, p. 3). The norm of reciprocity refers to the practice of actively demonstrating respect and appreciation for high-potential employees, which leads to increased motivation and company engagement (Van Zalk, 2016, p. 3). Likewise,… Continue Reading...

Imperialism and the Industrial Revolution

in place can help cover many bases. One of the most common management theories is contingency theory. This theory holds that managers will make decisions on issues in the workplace based on the environment’s unique characteristics and issues (Hawthorne, 2018). Managers will use this theory if they are sensitive to the fact their every workplace is unique and requires its own special consideration. Another common management theory is systems theory, which states that a workplace is a system made up of parts and each worker is impacted by and in turn impacts the parts that add up to the whole.… Continue Reading...

Fantasy Genre Film Wizard Of Oz

Genre theory offers a useful means of classifying films according to their tropes and conventions. Although films constructed purposely to fit into a specific genre can be criticized for being overly commercial, genre theory does reveal how American audiences do react favorably towards familiar themes, actors, directorial styles, plots, and imagery (“Movie Genres”). Moreover, genres reveal the power of archetypes in storytelling. Even when a film does not fit neatly within one and only one genre, or when a film straddles many genres at… Continue Reading...

Colonialism in Higher Education Indigenous

Public Intellectual Essay The introduction of critical race theory and other anti-colonial approaches to academic discourse has obscured the fact that higher education itself remains embedded in colonial institutions and structures. Higher education is a vestige of colonial means of psychological and social control. The political implications of colonialism in higher education include the perpetuation of hegemony, the suppression and subordination of alternative epistemologies, the ongoing political dominion over what constitutes knowledge, and the use of higher education to promote structures and institutions that serve the dominant culture. Although often an… Continue Reading...

Understanding by Design Instructional Planning Framework

theories, which will provide the theoretical framework for the unit. One of these theories is the Multiple Intelligence theory, which postulates that people have various kinds of intelligences and the conventional psychometric views of intelligence are significantly limited (Cherry, 2018). Constructivism theory will also be utilized in this instructional unit since it considers learning as an active and constructive process. Using the Multiple Intelligence theory, the unit will focus on logical-mathematical intelligence since students will use knowledge from the learning material to engage in reasoning and critical thinking for problem solving. On the other hand, constructivism will be incorporated… Continue Reading...

Introduction to Sociology: the Lorax

held largely in private hands: the main incentive for economic activity is accumulation of profits” (slide 6). Domhoff’s theory of the power structure is that it is centered around a tight-knit ruling class that sits atop a hierarchical system in which the local power structure serves the interests of the national and international power structure. The power structure thinks it is independent of its surroundings, but in reality it is completely dependent upon them but convinces the lower classes that it is they who are actually dependent upon the power structure. In The Lorax, this theory of power structure… Continue Reading...

Nursing Theory

as well. In this course of time, nursing theories have elucidated, examined, delineated particular areas. The nursing theory considered for this paper is Imogene King’s theory of goal attainment. One of the basic suppositions of this nursing theory is that human beings are basically open systems that are in incessant interaction with their environment. Therefore, in that regard, he or she has a right to self-knowledge and taking part in decisions that have an impact on their health and life. Another key assumption of the theory is that the nurse and the patient communicate and relay information, set goals… Continue Reading...

The Relationship Between Parental Involvement and Student Success

constituted parental involvement was not consistent between studies. For example, one theory is that parental involvement enhances vocabulary development because of greater sophistication of adult conversation; other theories suggest parental involvement provides social reinforcement that counterweight potentially negative peer socialization in school. Comparing academic parental assistance emphasized in some studies versus parental social presence is challenging. The stage setting model emphasizes factors within the home environment which lay the groundwork for academic success. This begins with simply emphasizing that academic success is something desirable. While many parents may say this is the case, not all communicate this in a… Continue Reading...

Criminology and the Use Of Statistical Evidence

Criminological theory and Statistical Data Introduction Criminological theory is not always based on evidence—that is, on statistical evidence. Sometimes it is based on ideas that seem logical at the time. Theorists will notice correlations in the ways in which crime emerges in certain communities and they will base their theories of crime on these observances, though no statistical evidence is actually accumulated to verify the theory. The theory simply makes sense from a logical or rational point of view and in this manner it can be promoted. Its… Continue Reading...

Renaissance Italy

century that surely no one could find fault with his deviation from the norm in terms of astronomical theory. He even tells the Pope that he himself thought the theory to be “absurd” but that out of respect for the ancients and their wisdom he wanted to explore their notions. To explain his bold step still further, he wrote: “I knew that others before me had been granted the freedom to imagine any circles whatever for the purpose of explaining the heavenly phenomena. Hence I thought that I too would be readily permitted to ascertain whether explanations sounder than… Continue Reading...

Shakespeare in Love Gender Communication

Performative acts and gender constitution: An essay in phenomenology and feminist theory. Theatre Journal, 40 (4): 519-531. Retrieved from: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0192- 2882%28198812%2940%3A4%3C519%3APAAGCA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-C Charles, C. (1998). Was Shakespeare gay? Sonnet 20 and the politics of pedagogy. College Literature, 25 (3), 35-51. Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25112402 Cunningham, C. (1984). Wonder and love in the romantic comedies. Shakespeare Quarterly, 35 (3): 262-266. Retrieved from: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0037-3222%28198423%2935%3A3%3C262%3AWALITR%3E2.0.CO%3B2-B Artifact: Shakespeare in Love https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zqRccjKub2A   Continue Reading...

Literacy Rates Among Females in Developing Countries

to this research. The theoretical framework of constructivist developmental theory is useful because this perspective shows the way in which literacy as a vehicle for knowledge development is an important part in social development. It coincides with the feminist framework applied by Robinson-Pant, which uses gender as an approach for investigating the link between female literacy and economic development.[footnoteRef:3] However, the constructivist approach allows for a focus on the link between learning and socio-economic development based on the external factors within the community that supply the mechanisms for development, whether they be learning or investing. The same spirit is… Continue Reading...

Economic Outlook Of the Us Economy

May 1, 2018, from https://qz.com/1164158/the-us-dollar-just-had-its-worst-year-in-more-than-a-decade-and-2018-will-bring-more-of-the-same/ Nallari, R. (2010, March 1). Rethinking Macroeconomic theory and Policy. Retrieved May 1, 2018, from http://blogs.worldbank.org/growth/re-thinking-macroeconomic-theory-and-policy   Continue Reading...

What Happened to the Lost Colony Of Roanoke

looked like him. George Percy, another colonist, reported seeing a white boy with blonde hair among the Indians.”[footnoteRef:5] This theory concurs with evidence found in John Horn’s 2011 overview of the colony, Kingdom Strange: The Brief and Tragic History of the Lost Colony of Roanoke. There is some tenuous evidence for this theory in the greater technological sophistication of some of the tools used by natives after the period of the colony’s dispersal, which may indicate that they were in contact with European cultures and assimilated European use of metals and other tools.[footnoteRef:6] [4: Edward La Fuente, “What Really… Continue Reading...

The Declaration Of Independence and Freedom

with every other as a subject. The independence of every member of a commonwealth as a citizen.”—from “ theory and Practice” by Immanuel Kant 2 The idea of freedom in the 18th and 19th century was divorced from the centuries that preceded them—centuries in which the concept of freedom was attached to the concept of “free will” and thought of primarily in a spiritual sense—i.e., a religious sense. With the Protestant Reformation, a break from the religious doctrines of the Middle Ages, and the rise of the Enlightenment and Romantic Eras came a new approach to freedom. Freedom was thought… Continue Reading...

Spirituality Mind Body Spirit and Transpersonal Psychology

(2010). Healing, efficacy and the spirits. Journal of Ritual Studies, 24(2), 7–20 C. Integral theory Integral theory is a “metatheoretical framework that simultaneously honors the important contributions of a broad spectrum of epistemological outlooks,” (Marquis, 2011, p. 164). In other words, integral theory allows for multiple ways of knowing. A person’s religious and cultural belief systems and worldviews provide certain types of knowledge and insight. Multiple sources of knowledge, including a sense of self, or the experience of the body, contribute to the construction of the whole person and the person’s identity. One of the tenets of integral theory is that spirituality… Continue Reading...

Personalized Learning Assessment

possible, it is guided mainly by two theories as previously mentioned; the Multiple Intelligence theory and constructivism. Constructivism theory in this instructional unit considers learning as an active and constructive process. On the other hand the Multiple Intelligence theory in this unit will focus on logical-mathematical intelligence since students will use knowledge from the learning material to engage in reasoning and critical thinking for problem solving (Philips H., 2010). The assessment will assume three main approaches; a pre-test, a formative check, and a summative assessment. Pre-test assessment This will aim at finding out what the students know and what… Continue Reading...

Green Plants and Employee Outcomes

in interior office spaces, I conducted a survey that examined building design theory and connection to nature. The assessment also focused on exploring the option of adding green plants to E’s Boston headquarters building. The first step involved examining the impact of green plants in office spaces through reviewing studies and publications that looked at physical and mental health impact of interior green plants in offices, schools and hospitals. Through my research I looked at design trends nationally as well as locally in Boston to find examples of companies choosing to use green plants in their office spaces. Encouraged… Continue Reading...

Indwelling Urinary Catheter Care

for all participants”this can help controlpotential confounding variables” (Melnyk&Fineout-Overholt, 2015, p. 464). Theoretical Framework Overview and Guiding Propositions The research theory for this study would be a quantitative research design since there will be number of patients who will be involved in the research and their results tabulated in an excel tracking sheet and the number compared to the pre-test results. Application of theory to Study Focus The qualitative research approach will be the best in this particular case since the only reflection of the efficiency of the intervention will be the reduction in the numbers of in-hospital patients with CAUTI. If… Continue Reading...

Workplace Psychological Testing and Measurement

most part, people work best when they feel empowered to do so. According to Hersey-Blanchard leadership theory (2018), the four dominant modes of leadership include telling, selling, supporting and delegating. All too often, leaders assume that more telling is needed than actually is required. Employees need to be empowered and motivated to make positive choices to act autonomously, and even when they are inexperienced, coaching and mentorship is often more effective than dictatorial management. Even someone with the technical title of manager can often benefit from focusing more upon leadership than short-term organizational goals. A theory Y approach should… Continue Reading...

Africa from Colonialism to Neocolonialism

thwart Africa’s development agenda. This is known as the dependence theory, and it is largely founded on the resulting negative balance of payments resulting from warped transactions of an economic nature. There is also the foreign aid theory. In this case, neocolonialism is deemed to be a consequence of foreign aid, whereby after the exit of colonial powers, former colonies deemed it fit to enlist foreign aid so as to further advance the development agenda. Soon a veritable link was created between the providers of aid and the countries in need of such aid. Those advancing this point of… Continue Reading...

Diversity Training in Law Enforcement

of different policing models and theories of policing. He mentioned broken windows theory, community policing, and racial profiling and of the three he said that he felt community policing was most effective in building trust and positive relationships. The interview also showed me that open discourse and questioning are valuable skills to develop when it comes to critical thinking and researching in areas of diversity because I learned from asking basic questions how important an actual law enforcement officer takes diversity training and views it positively since we all live in a diverse community and have to be mindful… Continue Reading...

Southwest Airlines Boarding Process

early bird check-in option (Southwest Airlines, 2009). 3. Explain how Southwest Airlines used the game theory approach to increase its profits. The Airlines employed the game theory approach to increase the profits generated owing to the $10 paid by the travelers as extra fees. It is imperative to note that a huge percentage of consumers are inclined to pay for the privilege of getting automatically placed in the seating. Notably, Southwest Airlines has generated significant profits. For instance, in the 2010 financial year, the financial reports of the company generated an additional $98 million in sales from Early-Bird Check-In, surpassing… Continue Reading...

Using Evidence Based Practice to Resolve a Nursing Issue

to generate new knowledge or for the validation of existing knowledge based on a theory. Evidenced-based practice (EBP) is the translation of evidence and applying the evidence to clinical decision-making. Most of the evidence used in EBP stems from research. However, EBP will go beyond the use of research and it will include clinical expertise together with patient preference and values. EBP will make use of the evidence developed or knowledge discovered using research to determine the best evidence that can be used or implemented in clinical practice. Research and EBP go hand in hand in that while one… Continue Reading...

Theories Of Humanistic Psychology History

well with other healing modalities, combined with other psychological interventions as well as with pharmacological or medical treatments. Humanistic Psychology theory Humanistic psychology has been driven by a set of core theories that have defined the field. The luminary theorists in early humanistic psychology include Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow, Rollo May, and Erich Fromm. Car Rogers is most known for his contributions in developing what is known as client-centered therapy. Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs model has practically defined humanistic psychology, and remains one of the most influential contributions overall in the social sciences. Coinciding with other developmental theories, the… Continue Reading...

Blockchain

who have access to that same contract. There can be no dispute, in theory, about what the contract contains. This is obviously an oversimplification of how blockchain contracts would work, but it shows the potential of the technology to perform everyday functional business tasks in a complete different way, basically crowdsourcing trust. What are the Benefits of Blockchain? The reason that blockchain technology holds so much promise in business is because it offers certain benefits that are of interest to those in the business community. The three main ones are transparency, immutability and efficiency. The argument that blockchain is… Continue Reading...

Multicultural Negotiation Strategies Between the United States Germany and Japan

issues at a future date. Dynamics of Multiparty Negotiations The science of game theory was originally generated to deal with the conflicts which can occur during multiparty negotiations, which can be fraught with the potential for conflict. The greatest danger is when two of the parties forge alliances with one another to the exclusion of the other entity to share information or spread misinformation to leverage an advantage. Given that two of the negotiating parties, that of Germany and the United States, come from more similar cultural frameworks and may have a higher innate level of trust of one another, this… Continue Reading...

The Teaching Of Evolution and Religious Beliefs

Religion and the teaching of evolution It has been argued by some factions that teaching of evolution theory of existence of the universe contravenes the religious belief of some people as well as the ethnic beliefs of some people. It is argued by these groups that the teaching of the evolution theory is tantamount to demeaning their religious beliefs and their ethnic upbringing hence a breach on their freedom of religion. They say, that each religion or ethic group needs to be left alone with their belief unadulterated so that they can believe what they are taught by their… Continue Reading...

Disparities and Diabetes Among Latinos

effective (López & Grant, 2012). It is important that DSM incorporates principles that are based on theory and promote feedback that is custom customized, has allows for communication between the patients and the HCPs. There is a national policy aimed at reducing disparities in targeted communities by use of translation research. Ome of the information available from research suggests that it is hard to reach Latinos for purposes of clinical trials or intensive management of chronic ailments. The combination between the notions that there is a digital divide along socioeconomic lines and that Latinos are hard to reach compounds the… Continue Reading...

The Role Media Plays in Relation to Gender Stereotypes

stance is what the agenda setting, tendency by the media, theory explores. In short, he media decides what is to be talked about and what will not. The radio, TV, music, drama, movies, discussions, reality TV, newspapers, magazines and other electronic media sources, includes the internet all present the public with the agenda that they pursue their social deliberations. The content presented may play a reinforcement role or help to reset previous stereotypes, values and beliefs with regard to gender roles. At the same time, there is research to the effect that when media exposes individuals to groups with… Continue Reading...

Apple

incarnate abstractions of governance and then judge them in ways that are consonant with constitutional theory. These emerging realities have produced societal constitutionalism. But like conventional constitutionalism, societal constitutionalism seeks the comfort of equilibrium and stasis as the basic operating premises of self-constituting governance systems (Backer, 2013, p. 805). Kindle Case Study The Kindle e-Reader was first unveiled on November 19, 2007 (Smith, 2011). The initial price of it was $399 and various versions went down making the Kindle 5 only $69.99. The only exception to the multiple generations of Kindle is the Kindle DX at $489. A product… Continue Reading...

Apple Finance Department

when a company operates around the world and earns tens of billions of dollars every year. Modern Portfolio theory One of the key elements of modern portfolio theory is that risk mitigated through diversification. The finance department advises and executes risk mitigation in a few different ways, in line with this principle. The influence of MPT can be seen to the greatest extent in how Apple manages its surplus capital. A central idea in MPT is the idea of the efficient frontier, the area where the balance between risk and return is achieved. Investments can lie anywhere along the efficient… Continue Reading...

The Formation Of Virtual Teams

the concept of intelligence. Of key consideration here is the theory f Multiple Intelligences that was forwarded by Howard Gardner. In this theory, Howard indicates that human beings have more than one type of intelligence. He further indicated that these intelligences are cognitive in nature, though by then (1983) and the existing models at the time could not fully define the concept of multiple intelligences. Later came the standard models like the intelligence Quotient (IQ) which made further advancement in the study of the different types of intelligences. The Howard model of multiple intelligences paid much attention to; interpersonal… Continue Reading...

Classroom Management

one of the basic needs that they require according to Maslow’s (1943) hierarchy of needs and motivation theory, which posits that there are various levels that human beings must go through before they can reach the ultimate level of self-actualization—the level at which maturity and ability co-exist so as to allow the individual to make good and right decisions independently of any authoritative person. Praise is a motivating factor in Maslow’s paradigm Relationship building. Teachers who demonstrated a greater capacity to build relationships with students were found to have a higher level of instructional quality overall and a better… Continue Reading...

Cultural Identity Essay

Cultural identity defined b. Cultural identity examples c. Cultural identity theories i. co-cultural theory ii. cultural contract theory iii. identity negotiation theory iv. cultural identity and trauma     III.       Conclusion Introduction Becoming acquainted with one’s identity is the life’s work of the individual. One’s identity is a delicate soup of childhood experiences, family life, geographical background, pop cultural influences, aspirations, talents, flaws, habits, and cultural influence. That last detail of one’s identity is perhaps the trickiest to pinpoint. The impact that one’s culture has had on one’s identity can seem nebulous. Likewise, the aspect of one’s self that… Continue Reading...

How to Be a Successful Student

road somewhere else. Works Cited Dunkle, Sue. “Five qualities of successful students.” Beyond Today, 2011. https://www.ucg.org/vertical-thought/five-qualities-of-successful-students Maslow, A. H. “A theory of human motivation.” Psychological Review, 50.4 (1943): 370.   Continue Reading...

Impact Of Mainstream Media on Perception Of Events

& Philo, 2013). Content analysis This research approach is founded on the theory that all controversial areas are characterized by conflicting means of giving explanations for occurrences and their associated history. They are linked, typically, with diverse political stands and may be considered ideological when they are related to legitimating means of understanding their connection with social interests. Thus, ideology (an interest - related outlook) and groups’ legitimacy struggle are closely related. While news, at times, seems like a chaotic debate and information flow, it is supported by major assumptions concerning societal linkages and how one must understand them. Lying at… Continue Reading...

Behaviorism Psychoanalysis and Hte Psychology

the origins of pathological thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Freud’s theory divides the human mind into the superego, ego, and id. Psychoanalytic theory also emphasizes the importance of unconscious psychic content, which a psychotherapist can help coax from a patient through the analysis of dreams. Freud and other psychoanalytical theorists also focused on the formative years, during which children progress through psychological stages. Therefore, Freud also promoted developmental psychology. Psychoanalysis influenced many other movements within psychology, including more modern revisions of Freudian theory like psychodynamics. Finally, psychoanalysis has been critical for various therapeutic interventions based on talk therapy and therapies… Continue Reading...

Self Management in Nursing

the psych nursing field. These theories include Maslow’s (1943) theory of human motivation and the needs hierarchy that he developed to explain the progression of motivation by having lower level needs met first as the individual grows to a level of self-actualization. Other theories included in this definition that help to expand its meaning and give it new application are the theories of classical conditioning developed by Pavlov (1927) and Skinner (1953). These two theories helped to lead the way to cognitive behavior theory, which was then developed into one of the leading psychoanalytic therapies today—cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).… Continue Reading...

Postpartum Depression and Gilman Yellow Wallpaper

also present several different theoretical orientations that can be used to frame postpartum depression, including the medical model, feminist theory, attachment theory, interpersonal theory, and self-labeling theory (Beck 282). The narrator of “The Yellow Wallpaper” can also be analyzed in light of these various theories. Feminist theory highlights the means by which the men in the narrator’s life effectively punish and imprison her for not expressing the emotions deemed suitable for a new mother. She is forbidden to “work,” but the “rest treatment” prescribed to women like the narrator accomplishes an overarching goal: to suppress the individuation and self-empowerment… Continue Reading...

Healthcare Delivery System Model

onset; based on the models that have succeeded for theory elements. Apart from weaving in the sustainability for the long term, there is a rare and unique chance to build a vision that is shared between the stakeholders; something that could have been impossible to do when times were more stable (Kepros & Operanu, 2009). Providers need to look for care models that are innovative; those that can cut down on costs and deliver results. It should be realized that health plans also offer the same benefits. The Commonwealth Fund, in March 2012, shared performance findings on healthcare systems.… Continue Reading...

Nursing Premise for Healthcare Delivery

One of the major theoretical models for healthcare delivery is the Parse theory of human becoming, created by Rosemarie Rizzo Parse—originally titled the man-living-health theory (2011). This theory focuses on healthcare and the human through the lens of quality of life. This theoretical premise for delivering and receiving healthcare was able to gain steam as a result of its alternative to the more standard bio-medical method and the biological-psychological-social and spiritual method contained in the bulk of other theories of nursing. This theory has enjoyed much attention and use when delivering healthcare as… Continue Reading...

Physical Education and the Zpd

Learning in theory and practice: Vygotsky’s ZPD and physical education in primary education Introduction Age-graded schooling is one of the most common and conventional features of today’s academic environment. For younger learners in the primary education levels, this separation of young children from adolescents may seem on the face of it like a common sense approach to education—yet, as Gray and Feldman (2004) point out, separation such as this actually is more restrictive to the educative experience than it is facilitative. The reason is found in Vygotsky’s zone of proximal… Continue Reading...

Systems Thinking in New Product Development

start-up reveals some of the challenges associated with implementing systems theory in new product development. This area of study hold promise, but there are some implementation issues in the real world that have been identified and perhaps in need of further exploration. Introduction Systems thinking focuses on the interrelatedness of different systems, different roles and different disciplines. The system is not simply a set of parts, but it is how the parts work together, how they interact with one another, that forms the system. By focusing on the integrated whole, systems thinking is a natural fit for new product… Continue Reading...

When Memory Speaks Autobiography by Jill Conway Essay

reconstructing gender identities and for shaping social norms and cultural values. The book also aims for an overarching theory of autobiography that literary critics and scholars of the genre, as well as historiographers, may find helpful. A lack of focus and a lack of substantiation for some of the author’s claims mar the validity of the text somewhat, causing Conway to miss the mark on many of the book’s main points. Nevertheless, Conway’s goal in When Memory Speaks is ambitious and certainly worthwhile as a starting point for exploring gender issues in self-reflective narrative. When Memory Speaks is divided… Continue Reading...

Investing in China

challenges between the host and home countries, and (d) base all advice on theory supported by academic literature, evidence-based practices, relevant data, and statistics wherever applicable. Context Global Altbach (2004) points out that “English-language products of all kinds dominate the international academic marketplace” (p. 11). Journals, books and other popular media formats in which English-language products are produced and disseminated can be found virtually everywhere in the world. Part of this expansive reach of English is the fact that approximately at any given time in today’s globalized world, there are 1.5 million students who are studying in some discipline… Continue Reading...

My Experience Of Traveling to China

academics, finances, economics, transportation and culture. This city’s history dates back 3,500 years. It contributes significantly to the contemporary theory of urban planning. China desires to improve and optimize land function through reducing its population density and construction activities in itsurban and oldest rural areas, safeguarding historical boulevards and surrounding areas, and increasing open space, green land, and land use of major infrastructural works. Local government is paying attention to the development of finance, administration, trade, academics, science, local tourism, recreation, culture and other regional services. The nation desires to reinforce urban landscape planning bymeticulously controllingevery urban architectural street,… Continue Reading...

Sue Monk Kidd\\\'s Invention Of Wings Literary Analysis

black folk. NY: Routledge, 2015. Kidd, Sue Monk. The Invention of Wings. NY: Viking, 2014. Wilson, Kirt H. "Towards a discursive theory of racial identity: The souls of black folk as a response to nineteenth?century biological determinism." Western Journal of Communication 63.2 (1999): 193-215. Continue Reading...

West Transit Organizational Management

motivated. He could motivate Tanney through the application of equity theory. As French (2011) points out, the equity theory postulates that pay alone does not impact employee motivation. Instead, employee feelings of equal and fair treatment do further enhance their motivation. Denson could, therefore, ensure that he is not dismissive of Tanney’s concerns. When it comes to Mahonney, Denson could embrace the prompt feedback approach whereby progress is constantly monitored with an aim of assessing the ground covered so far and the desired course of action in seeking to accomplish the overall objectives. This would come in handy in… Continue Reading...

Decision Theory

Decision theory Part One: I tend to be risk-neutral, as much as possible, but like most people I can be a little bit risk averse. The situations in which I am most risk averse are those when taking the risk does not have a payoff that makes the risk worthwhile. This is probably closest to the minimax approach. For me, risk is very much situational. There are a few variables that I take into consideration. The first is information. How much information I have… Continue Reading...

Training Program for Performance Management

S., Mat, N. B., & Awadh, M. A. (2013). Review of theory of Human Resources Development Training (Learning) Participation. WEI International Academic Conference Proceedings, 85. Douglas, A. (2017, March). New Zealand: Training and development in performance management. Retrieved from Mondaq: http://www.mondaq.com/NewZealand/x/578890/employee+rights+labour+relations/Training+and+development+in+performance+management Juneja, P. (2014). Methods of Training Employees at Workplace. Retrieved from Management Study Guide: https://www.managementstudyguide.com/methods-of-training-employees-at-workplace.htm Larkins, K. (2013). Performance management course. Retrieved from KSL Training: https://www.ksl-training.co.uk/in-company-training/management-training-courses/performance-management/ MSH. (2012). Management Sciences for Health. Medford. Continue Reading...

Training Program for Performance Management

support, and commitment. Bibliography AlYahya, M. S., Mat, N. B., & Awadh, M. A. (2013). Review of theory of Human Resources Development Training (Learning) Participation. WEI International Academic Conference Proceedings, 85. Douglas, A. (2017, March). New Zealand: Training and development in performance management. Retrieved from Mondaq: http://www.mondaq.com/NewZealand/x/578890/employee+rights+labour+relations/Training+and+development+in+performance+management Juneja, P. (2014). Methods of Training Employees at Workplace. Retrieved from Management Study Guide: https://www.managementstudyguide.com/methods-of-training-employees-at-workplace.htm Larkins, K. (2013). Performance management course. Retrieved from KSL Training: https://www.ksl-training.co.uk/in-company-training/management-training-courses/performance-management/ MSH. (2012). Management Sciences for Health. Medford. Continue Reading...

Training Program for Performance Management

and requires training, management support, and commitment. Bibliography AlYahya, M. S., Mat, N. B., & Awadh, M. A. (2013). Review of theory of Human Resources Development Training (Learning) Participation. WEI International Academic Conference Proceedings, 85. Douglas, A. (2017, March). New Zealand: Training and development in performance management. Retrieved from Mondaq: http://www.mondaq.com/NewZealand/x/578890/employee+rights+labour+relations/Training+and+development+in+performance+management Juneja, P. (2014). Methods of Training Employees at Workplace. Retrieved from Management Study Guide: https://www.managementstudyguide.com/methods-of-training-employees-at-workplace.htm Larkins, K. (2013). Performance management course. Retrieved from KSL Training: https://www.ksl-training.co.uk/in-company-training/management-training-courses/performance-management/ MSH. (2012). Management Sciences for Health. Medford.   Continue Reading...

Online Statistics and Probability Theory

Online Statistics Part 1 Probability theory is an aspect that is applicable on an everyday basis. A particular situation in which I may use probability theory to reach a decision in public management is to investigate equal employment prospects within the organization. For instance, there is a need to assess whether the organization hires women in the same manner as men, especially in positions that do not necessitate certain gender traits. Therefore, in this case, probability theory can be beneficial in probability theory, specifically Bernoulli process. That is, a… Continue Reading...

Philosophical Orientations and Theory

theory and Philosophical Orientations Part 1 An area of interest for a possible research topic that I consider is organizational performance. My topic of research interest is the effect of employee participation on organizational performance. The philosophical orientation that mirrors my worldview is the interpretivist research paradigm. In-depth inquiry is enabled by interpretivist research, which sees knowledge as subjective (Bryman, 2008). In other words, knowledge is not generalizable – it is contextual, situational, or circumstantial. This means that different individuals interpret their… Continue Reading...

The Significance Of Relational Contracts

shared and individual objectives. From the viewpoint concerning relational contract theory, “all contracts have a relational element in the sense that all economic exchanges happen in a relational context.” (Gil 145) Examining things at one end is the subject of discrete contracts and the emphasis on planning, precision, wholeness, and tight measurements of performance. These kind contracts suit situations where there is limited personal interaction and involve short-term transactions. (Gil) Whereas at the opposite end are intertwined or relational contracts with emphasis on reciprocity, cooperative behavior, and mutual dependence. Relational contracts are useful for long-term transactions in need of adaptability… Continue Reading...

The Five Stages Of Team Development

being met and support not being provided. Maslow’s (1943) hierarchy of needs theory for human motivation is one content theory. It explains how individuals cannot be motivated until their personal needs are satisfied. Pete needs to identify the individual needs of his team in order to effectively motivate them. Expectancy theory is one example of a process theory. It explains how individuals make decisions in an organization based on what they expect in return (Vroom, 1964). Pete should also understand what his team wants in return for their input. Skinner’s reinforcement theory explains how actions that are met with… Continue Reading...

Conducting a Security Assessment Of a Building

Then, when inside that floor, doors to the office areas are expected to remain locked, so in theory a person needs to pass two fob checkpoints and have a key to a floor In order to enter the building via this access point. This is not the weakest link in the security chain.   Continue Reading...

Tesla\'s Problematic Pricing Strategy

which is what Musk appears intent on doing with the Model 3. However, if Tesla draws on Porter’s theory of competitive forces, it may not need to change anything so long as it can maintain its brand appeal and continue to differentiate itself. As Wright (1987) notes, “Porter reasons that firms which compete through differentiation and focus strategies would observe higher returns on investment with smaller market shares” (p. 95). Because of competitive forces, Porter suggests numerous avenues to profitability that relate to pricing: (a) the low-cost pricing strategy—the lowest cost competitor wins the market; (b) the differentiation strategy which is currently Tesla’s—i.e.,… Continue Reading...

Palestine Her Story Documentary

one section of the larger story that I envisioned. In terms of Renov’s (1993) theory of what a documentary should do, Palestine, her story, achieves the first purpose—but still with the rest of my proposal I envisioned accomplishing the other three purposes as well. My film opens with Laila al Shawa, an artist born in Gaza-Palestine in 1940. Laila describes her background, her travels, and her profession briefly. She is from the oldest generation of women featured in the documentary. She speaks English well but has a strong accent. The film then introduces the next generation—a woman from Nablus,… Continue Reading...

Interstitial Cystitis (ic) Treatment Using Cam Modalities

links with the mystery of the ailment) and thus a placebo effect is achieved; that is, at least, one theory put forward by Kaptchuck (2002). Hyodo et al. (2005) for example have found that patients receive an emotionally supportive stimulus from CAM methods of intervention for ailments that seem untreatable via other interventions. However, other researchers have put forward evidence indicating that there is more to CAM than a mere placebo effect and that in fact the methods do work effectively in treating IC patients (O’Hare et al., 2013; Pang & Ali, 2015). For that reason, this study will… Continue Reading...

Interstitial Cystitis (ic) Treatment Using Cam Modalities

of the ailment) and thus a placebo effect is achieved; that is, at least, one theory put forward by Kaptchuck (2002). Hyodo et al. (2005) for example have found that patients receive an emotionally supportive stimulus from CAM methods of intervention for ailments that seem untreatable via other interventions. However, other researchers have put forward evidence indicating that there is more to CAM than a mere placebo effect and that in fact the methods do work effectively in treating IC patients (O’Hare et al., 2013; Pang & Ali, 2015). For that reason, this study will now describe the most… Continue Reading...

The Path-goal Theory and Practical Applications Essay

how achieving the task offers mutual benefits (Dixon and Kozloski, 2010).  It is notable that the path Goal Leadership theory is anchored on the situational approach styles of leadership and incorporates aspects of expectancy theory to motivation. It seeks to enhance productivity through employee motivation. I will study the practical application of the Path Goal theory to my current work as a machinist and my previous role as a sales associate for computer sales. Let’s first define leadership in order to lay the basis for its meaning (Bryant, 2018). The Path Goal theory is known for its emphasis on the… Continue Reading...

Goldman Sachs Open System Theory

1. What is open systems theory In essence, open systems theory, in the words of Chance and Chance (2002), posits/suggests “that organizations are dynamic systems involving constant interactions among the various formal and informal systems within the organization as well as exchanges (feedback and input) between the organization and systems outside the organization” (p. 7). It therefore follows that an organization’s structure as well as behavior is impacted upon by the permeating or surrounding environment. 2. How can open systems theory be used to understand an organization? As per the open… Continue Reading...

Virtual Team Life Cycle

whether localized or remote teams are more feasible or workable. Regardless, there is a lot of theory behind how to do virtual teams the right way. This is precisely what Hertel and the other two authors are describing in their review of the current empirical research. They describe a series of phases and steps that are integral to the process. While the parallels are not complete and definitive, assembling and disassembling a team is much like the product life cycle and project management steps. Article Summary As is mentioned in the introduction of this report, there are a number… Continue Reading...

Theory Of Knowledge in Math and Science

Name 4 Name Professor Class Date: theory of Knowledge “Without the assumption of the existence of uniformities there can be no knowledge.” One of the presumptions of acquiring knowledge, particularly knowledge in a scientific or mathematical context, is that there must be causal relationships that can be observed or intuited between different phenomena. Human beings base their behaviors on this presumption on a regular basis. We wake up in the morning to the sound of an alarm clock and assume we can shut off that alarm using that particular button because we did so on previous… Continue Reading...

Obesity Randomized Control Trial

that is better characterized. It defines an intervention that is based on a theory, and is feasible; one that assesses multiple measurements meant for the validation and interpretation of the effectiveness of the program. Obesity prevention seems more effective in the early years. In my considered view, this RCT is the first ever study that seeks to show whether an early intervention program based on eating healthy foods, reduced sedentary lifestyle and normalized patterns of sleep could work against obesity and overweight occurrence. If it proves as much, Early STOP will protect children from becoming overweight and obese (Sobko… Continue Reading...

Deontological Ethics

estimate at the outcomes. You don't actually know. Deontological ethics is different, because at least in theory you know what the duty is. The intruder scenario played itself out in a prominent court case in Canada this past week. The shooting of Colten Boushie highlights the contrast between the duty of the farmer to protect his home and family, versus a variety of greater issues – racism in the justice system, discrimination against minorities, and the debate about what Boushie's intentions were on the man's property. From a pragmatic perspective, acting out of duty is fairly easy to determine… Continue Reading...

Seinfeld Episode Native American

self image creates discomfort and can cause social disorganization. Likewise, Goffman’s theory of presentation of self shows how people try to save face when they are embarrassed or have embarrassed others. The television show Seinfeld is replete with examples of social faux pas moments, and how they impact interpersonal relationships and communication. References Goffman, E. (1956). Embarrassment and social disorganization. American Journal of Sociology 62(3): 264-271. Goffman, E. (1959). Presentation of self in everyday life. http://crossculturalleadership.yolasite.com/resources/Goffman%20%281959%29%20Presentation%20of%20Self%20in%20Everyday%20Life.pdf “Native American.” Seinfeld. Season 5, Episode 10. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cpGfyp6MxkM Continue Reading...

Chomsky Pinker Vs Whorf\\\'s Model

capacity of people for language development, based on evolutionary theory. According to Levinson, Pinker’s nativism rests on two assumptions. The first assumption aligns with Chomsky’s own research, and has to do simply with the “universal and innate” nature of language syntax (26). The second assumption in Pinker’s theory is that even semantics are innate: a so-called “language of thought” that underlies the outward expressions of language as communication (Levinson 26). Although Pinker’s theory has become prevalent in linguistics, it is not universally accepted. Pinker’s analyses like “Baby Born Talking” also seem more based on anecdotal evidence than on empiricism,… Continue Reading...

Strategic Controls

external to the company. The internal code of conduct would be the one that influences organizational culture, in theory. The Code of Conduct can definitely contribute to the culture in a sense, because it does provide behavioral guidance for employees, and specifically references "every action, every day", indicating that it is a documented that is intended to be applied universally. The problem with claiming that this document supports the company's strategy is that, when you actually read the Code of Conduct, it contains the usual statements one expects from a code of conduct. In other words, nothing about actual… Continue Reading...

Mission-based Management

on the subject of mission-based business practices on any formal research. Instead, he has simply come up with his theory by banking on his own vast experience and his twenty-year-long interaction with non-profits. A reasonable quantity of works may be found on the subject but a literature gap is evident owing to the fact that though a majority of authors have realized the need for non-profit companies to adopt for-profit approaches, Brinckerhoff is the only one to have proposed a methodology to shift from a program-centric to a performance-centric approach (Brinckerhoff, 2000). Analysis and evaluation of the book Mission-Based… Continue Reading...

Trump Tax Cut Effects

being a little careful about making strong economic assertions. So much about economics is interpretation and theory since proving anything definitively is often not possible. Defining patterns and causality at a local level is a lot easier than what could or should be said about national level economic systems. Even so, there are best practices and guidelines that are generally followed. For example, interest rates typically go down when the economy is struggling and go up when things are going well. This is one of many lessons that any educated economist has learned and has learned should apply given… Continue Reading...

Qualitative Design

methods so that the widest range of data is gathered (Andrade, 2009). References Andrade, A. D. (2009). Interpretive research aiming at theory building: Adopting and adapting the case study design. The qualitative report, 14(1), 42. Schweitzer, K. (2015, August 31). Writing Business Case Studies for Class. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/how-to-write-and-format-a-business-case- study-466324 Yin, R. K. (2017). Case study research and applications: Design and methods. Sage publications. Zott, C., & Amit, R. (2010). Business model design: an activity system perspective. Long range planning, 43(2-3), 216-226. Continue Reading...

Early 20th Century Chinese Economic Reform

embrace a categorically European approach to history and foreign affairs. Starting by explaining Darwinian theory and its implications for human society, Yan Fu shows how competition between societies is inevitable. Yan Fu reviews Darwin’s Origin of Species and explicates the other main component of the theory of evolution: natural selection. Humans are no different from the animals that Darwin analyzed for preparation of his thesis. Therefore, Yan Fu leaps quite dangerously into the territory of social Darwinism. Building on Spencer’s initial work on social Darwinism, First Principles, Yan Fu shows how societies form governments according to their environmental needs… Continue Reading...

Arguments for and Against the Existence Of God

are unable to conceptualize the beginnings of the universe beyond the spurious “Big Bang” theory which claims that all of the physical matter that comprises the known universe arose from a single, subatomic particle and this is when time began. These assertions, however, do not take into account what may exist beyond the limits of the observation universe nor do they account for what existed prior to the “Big Bang.” Therefore, the same types of a priori assumptions that are used to support the ontological arguments in support of the existence of God have been used to refute them.… Continue Reading...

Organizational Psychology

stress, affective communication, contextual performance, and turnover intent, have been addressed. The research is grounded in the resource conservation theory (Hobfoll, 2002), which stresses that political capabilities help tackle job stressors. Hence, an examination of its role relative to job outcomes and POP can aid employees in improving their political capabilities and avoiding the adverse impacts of workplace POP. Researchers surveyed three hundred staff members of service as well as public sector firms by utilizing self-report measures. While study findings are in line with hypotheses, researchers failed to establish a significant linkage between affective dedication and POP as hypothesized.… Continue Reading...

Obesity Epidemic

economy, and worldview (Hu, 2008; Mela, 2005). Third, developmental psychology and life course theory has been shown to be relevant to the etiology of obesity in some populations (Hu, 2008). Specifically, the results of the longitudinal ALSPAC (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents And Children) study shows that fetal exposure, breastfeeding, parental impacts, school atmosphere and transition into adulthood are all critical nodes or junctures in childhood development (Reilly, Armstrong, Dorosty, et al, 2005). Fourth, in addition to applying developmental psychology theories to the epidemiology of obesity, it is effective to apply systems theory. Systems theory takes into account family and… Continue Reading...

Skills Required Of a Leader and Manager

they link to my job in particularly in sales finance, and how applying theory to practice is crucial to being both a good leader and a good manager. Planning is a skill in which one arranges the goals, objectives, strategies, resources and budget of a department or team in order to achieve the desired outcome. Communicating is the skill by which one expresses in clear and precise terms the necessary information that is needed or that must be received by another. In some cases, managers must be able to pick up on non-verbal forms of communication in order to… Continue Reading...

Imperialism the Industrial Revolution and Management

influence organizational culture and organizational structure. The most common theories of management include systems theory, contingency theory, and chaos theory, although other theories are equally as applicable to the workplace. Management theory has a strong bearing on measurable performance outcomes as well as employee satisfaction (Hawthorne, n.d.). Therefore, organizations need to choose management theories that align with their business’s core values. Systems theory takes into account the interrelated nature of business operations. It is a popular management theory because managers can coordinate activities that involve multiple departments working together towards common goals. Because it takes into account the overall… Continue Reading...

Diabetes Education and Prevention Health Promotion

Health Promotion: Diabetes Education and Prevention Given the need for specificity in nursing theory for addressing a particular topic such as diabetes education and prevention, Nola Pender’s Health Promotion Model would seem to be particularly useful. The model is designed to assist people in making needed lifestyle changes. It is based upon the presumption that people wish to maximize their health potential and possess enough self-awareness to grow in their capacity to self-regulate (Pender, 2013, p.5). While health professionals can act as facilitators, ultimately the model focuses on people’s ability to engage in self-initiated changes in behavior and in… Continue Reading...

Investment

stock price, to identify opportunities. Like Daly, Kenneth French does not believe in efficient markets theory. He is convinced that the markets can be incredibly noisy and driven by emotion such as overconfidence. As a matter of fact, French, like Eugene Fama, is skeptical of the skill most active money managers proclaim to have. He is convinced that in some instances, performance is misinterpreted, largely because of the noisy nature of the market. Eugene Fama is also skeptical about modern investment and money managers. Fama is convinced that most investment managers are poor performers in the market, yet they… Continue Reading...

Deontology Theory\\\'s Application to Dnr

meaning ‘study/ science of’. Within the context of modern ethical philosophy, the normative theory of deontology involves prohibited, allowed, or ethically incumbent choices. That is, deontology is categorized under those ethical theories which drive and evaluate one’s choice of what one should do (i.e., deontic theories), as opposed to virtue/aretaic theories which drive and evaluate the type of individual one is or ought to be. In the context of ethical theories involving choice assessment, deontologists and consequentialists maintain opposite stands (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2016). Deontological Ethics or Deontology represents an ethical approach which concentrates on how right or… Continue Reading...

Healthcare Organization

Jones, G. R., & Schilling, M. A. (2014). Strategic management: theory: an integrated approach. Cengage Learning. Hill, C., & Jones, G. (2011). Essentials of strategic management. Nelson Education. Jetley, R., Sudarsan, S., Sampath, R., & Ramaswamy, S. (2013, February). Medical Software–Issues and Best Practices. In International Conference on Distributed Computing and Internet Technology (pp. 69-91). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. Kim, M. O., Coiera, E., & Magrabi, F. (2017). Problems with health information technology and their effects on care delivery and patient outcomes: a systematic review. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 24(2), 246-250. Nadzam, D. M., Atkins, P. M., Waggoner, D. M., & Shonk, R.… Continue Reading...

Research Methods for Sociologists

A sociologist might conduct this type of research when there is a need to refresh a perspective or theory based on the available literature. This method can also be helpful in explaining how a theory or perspective has evolved over the years. The researcher can trace its evolution by examining documents and publications and other research that has been conducted in the past to show how ideas impact one another and create changes in the way a perspective is held. This type of research is different from survey, interview, and observational research because it is not using any participants… Continue Reading...

Business Programs in Canada

means of communicating with instructors and submitting their assignments that lends credence to the theory of connectivism (Goldie, 2016). Similar to online schools, programs, or courses in the United States, these online resources have evolved in just a few short years to provide convenience and options to students (Braverman, 2017). Even a 2013 article noted how the growth of online learning has continued and will continue in the future. Having a distance learning option is crucial for many pursuing higher education goals. “As Babson’s research shows, total enrollment in online courses has consistently increased since 2002. Growth did decline… Continue Reading...

The Ftc Monopolies and the Market

greased by the monopolies it ignores and goes after the ones that are not lobbying enough. This is my theory and suspect there is some truth to it, otherwise why are there so many monopolies in existence today? That would be my question then: if the FTC is really concerned about monopolies, why does it allow so many to come into being? Perhaps the answer relates to the concept of the free market and how it is meant to operate: perhaps the idea is that if the FTC regulates too many businesses, it will kill the concept of a… Continue Reading...

How Scientific Research Works

might have understood that things fall—but it took Newton’s theory to help explain the why. Considering the history of human life, that is a relatively modern theory, which indicates that science is still very much a field that has a lot of room to grow. As Kuhn (1972) points out, “normal science” is that science which builds upon the work of others—i.e., “research firmly based upon one or more past scientific achievements, achievements that some particular scientific community acknowledges for a time as supplying the foundation for its further practice” (p.10). Kuhn’s point is that science is normal when… Continue Reading...

Language Barrier

and content. [4: J. Bown and T. Brown, To advanced proficiency and beyond: theory and methods for developing superior second language ability (Washington, District of Columbia: Georgetown University Press, 2014), 51] Because he has a good vocabulary, it is easy for him to identify appropriate word choices, especially when speaking. However, when applied to his writing and reading, he is not at the level where he needs to be to take AP classes. For example, some English words have Latin and Greek root words. Some examples of some Greek root words are: chrono, auto, biblio. I chose three literacy-based… Continue Reading...

Recruiting Candidates and Interview Types

and integrity tests) are best to identify applicants with the strongest job and organizational fit? Why? The Big Five personality theory is widely considered to be one of the most cross-culturally accurate methods of assessing personality. Although trait-based personality theories still remain controversial, the Big Five traits are broad enough and represented widely enough throughout the literature on psychometric testing to have some validity as a screening device. The five traits the Big Five inventories assess are openness to experience, conscientiousness or dutifulness, extraversion versus introversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism (Cherry, 2018). For workplaces which require interaction with customers, extraversion and… Continue Reading...

Management and Leadership Dream Job Cfo

to help me manifest a utopic career. For example, systems theory shows how the CFO fits into the overall organization and its interdependent, multilateral nature. Likewise, the CFO must have mastered the main management concepts like those we have studied in this class including control and coordination. The CFO is role that balances strategy, tactics, vision, ethics, and communication. To be a successful CFO, one must also master essential conceptual, interpersonal, and technical skills. Because the role of the CFO reflects both my strengths and my passions, it is an ideal and realistic utopia job. My Strengths My strengths… Continue Reading...

Veterans with Ptsd

Afghanistan and Iraq war veterans with reintegration difficulty. Psychological Trauma: theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 9(S1), 4. RAND Corporation. (2017). Changing landscape for Veterans’ mental health. Retrieved from https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_briefs/RB9981z2.html Vogt, D., Smith, B. N., Fox, A. B., Amoroso, T., Taverna, E., & Schnurr, P. P. (2017). Consequences of PTSD for the work and family quality of life of female and male US Afghanistan and Iraq War veterans. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 52(3), 341-352.   Continue Reading...

Developing and Evaluating a Lesson Sequence

olds in key stage 2 physical education. The pedagogical approach I will use will the learner-centered approach with the theory being Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development (ZPD) theory. The learner-centered approach puts the needs of the learner at the front and center of the lesson (Halstead, 2007)—and with the ZPD theory, I can focus on helping students to apprehend the lesson by way of seeing my helping assistants handle the balls and by observing how the games are played. Scaffolding can be employed in this lesson sequence as well, as this technique is one in which new lessons build… Continue Reading...

Measurement Geometry Representation in Math

about the same results of 2 meters if measured by a different individual (Morin, 2018). Part B The van Hiele theory can be used to promote the understanding of geometry for Pre-K 6 students. Levels 0 -2 for the theory comprise of visualization, analysis, and abstraction. It is imperative to note that every level within the theory encompasses its own symbols and language. In order to increase the learning and understanding of geometry, it is advisable for the students to follow the hierarchical order of the levels. Level 0 is visualization. At this particular level, the student can make use of… Continue Reading...

Education and Leadership in Perioperative Nursing

They can also engage in projects that benefit the campus and the surrounding communities. The transformational leadership theory best fits the student nurse intern. James MacGregor Burns was the one who initially outlined this theory. He sees transformation leadership as that which the leader and the follower psyche up each other to greater heights, which results in value system congruence between the follower and the leader (Krishnan, 2002). Transformation leadership is all about bringing change. Thus change agents are those who use whatever is in their hands to encourage the followers to meet their set goals. The health care sector… Continue Reading...

Unhealthy Behavior Drinking Inadequate Water

further be broken down to specifics such as academics, sports, parenting, etc. theory of Planned Behavior The theory of planned behavior dates back to 1980, when it was started as a theory of reasoned action. This tries to predict the intention of an individual when he/she engages in a particular activity. This theory was made in a bid to explain all acts over which people are able to exercise self control. (McLennan, 2000) Simpson & Mazzeo (2017) assert that attitude influences behavioral intentions, such that if a certain behavior will yield the expected outcome, and the accompanying risks be minimal,… Continue Reading...

Training Transfer and Human Resources Theory

theory-based information can help organizations to ascertain the most appropriate training and development programs for their employees. In fact, theory-based information helps human resources managers to structure training and development for specific groups of people. The most relevant theories include those that are related to learning, and those that are related to social relations and identity construction. Learning theories can be based on basic behaviorism, including patterns of reward and punishment that can be used to motivate specific behaviors and discourage undesirable behaviors that detract… Continue Reading...

Social Norms Conflict and Its Impact on Schooling

the norms and the content of the same. By description, social norms cut across such disciplines as sociology, game theory, economics, and legal studies so as to offer an integrated theoretical and scientific of the way norms emerge, persist, or ebb out (Hechter and Opp 4). The purpose of social norms is to act as the balancing device for the expectations of a people in their daily interactions that are complex. Norms determine a broad range of issues such as the right to property ownership, bargains, contracts perceptions and concepts regarding justice, communication forms and bargains. Norms ensure that… Continue Reading...

Classrooms Stem and Steam Implementation

some underlying thought process. This is basically what the theory of cognitivism states. The theory has it that humans normally process any kind of information they receive before acting. Human beings do not just subconsciously respond to stimuli. The cognitivism theory likens the learner’s mind to a mirror, from where he can reflect new ideas. The learner will normally seek to understand how the information he receives affects him. This is best done by comparing the new information with what is already stored in the learner’s subconscious.   The theory of cognitivism holds that one has to internally process… Continue Reading...

Do Not Resuscitate Orders

duty to act rightly. What is right may depend at times on the situation. The theory of moral relativity, for example, falls into the category of deontological ethics: it presupposes that in some instance it is right to lie—for example, if one is trying to save another from being found by a killer (Sen, 1983). Not all deontologists agree on that point: Kant would argue that lying is never right and that moral absolutism applies; the duty-based ethics perspective, however, posits that moral relativism is justified—but, of course, the bone of contention is how one defines what is right… Continue Reading...

Ethical Communication and Social Media

media has real, negative consequences on the general public. Ethical theory and Implications The main ethical theory to be applied to this topic would be consequentialism. The reason this ethical theory is the most appropriate for such a topic is because it is a very practical and straightforward way to determine the ethical consequences of something. “Consequentialist normative principles require that we first tally both the good and bad consequences of an action. Second, we then determine whether the total good consequences outweigh the total bad consequences. If the good consequences are greater, then the action is morally proper. If… Continue Reading...

Homeostasis Its Effect on the Critically Ill

paralysis, immunosuppression and chronic paralysis (Ingels, Vanhorebeek & Van, 2018). Another theory derived from data of gene expression concerning circulating leucocytes shows that early stimulation of the immune system that is innate beyond the phase of immune-paralysis can cause low inflammation. This will in turn cause mortality due to the irreversible organ damage (Cox, 2012). The causes of the immune variations are not yet properly understood. The reprogramming of leucocytes, acceleration of apoptosis and immune cells exhaustion are considered as possible contributors to damaged immunity. According to recent proposals immune dysfunction that is acquired can cause impairment of the body… Continue Reading...

Nursing Evidence Based Practice Research

identification of population variables related to health outcomes (Curley & Vitale, 2012). The theory behind population-based nursing is that similar populations respond similarly to similar treatment interventions, just as diverse populations may respond differently to the same intervention (Curley, 2012). Population-based nursing is evidence-based, and it also promotes the value of patient-centered care. Advance practice nurses identify population variables through communication with patients, families, colleagues, and administrators. By identifying the population as the first step in evidence-based practice, advance practice nurses can also find information specific to necessary treatment interventions or practice behaviors. As Dieterle & Hooper-Lane (2009) point… Continue Reading...

Personal Reflection on Leadership Book

in that it does not focus on any one theory, The Five Levels explains different types of leaders, explaining different situational and psychological variables that can impact leadership status or success. After each chapter of The Five Levels, Maxwell offers readers tips for how to develop the optimal mindset for expanding leadership potential and to reach the next stage of personal empowerment. Expanding spheres of influence means ultimately to reach beyond the self to create a legacy. One of the most important takeaways from Maxwell’s book is that anyone can develop practical skills necessary to be an effective leader,… Continue Reading...

Paleo & Archaic Periods

works of art and artifacts and the cultures that produced them can be viewed is the theory of the hierarchy of needs. Preliminaries Expectations Outline I. Introduction a. The story of the ancient world can be pieced together by the artifacts which have survived it. b. The spear points and the White Shaman Mural serve as two points of reference that tell a story of progress for the ancient world. c. From tools used to survive to tools used to create a myth for the people to believe in, this story can be seen. d. Thesis: This paper looks… Continue Reading...

Human Resources Talent Management

away, now is a good time to dive into the body of evidence and theory surrounding this important issue. Understanding how to identify, motivate, and develop high potential employees is something that can add value to an organization and increase its overall productivity, effectiveness, and competitiveness in a dynamic market environment. My research has thus far introduced me to a number of different theories and approaches to studying this topic. For example, some research focuses on theories of motivation and is more within the realm of psychology. Other studies take a more sociological approach or even the anthropology of… Continue Reading...

Involvement Of Professional Interpreters in Care Delivery Process

communicate, which implies that language is important. Therefore, this project is supported by Transcultural Nursing theory, which postulates that effective healthcare involves knowing and understanding the various cultural norms and beliefs relating to the individual patient (Wayne, 2014). Given the nature of the modern healthcare environment, healthcare providers need to provide transcultural care, which is an individual-centered care approach that is culturally unique and based on effective communication. The conceptual framework for this proposed project is as shown in Figure 1 below. Figure 1: Conceptual Framework for the Project Professional Interpreter Healthcare Provider/Staff Individual Patient Family Implementation of Change… Continue Reading...

New Jim Crow Mass Incarceration War on Drugs

is substantiated by research. While it may seem like a conspiracy theory, The New Jim Crow is simply an effective reframing of the issues. The three most memorable takeaways from Alexander’s book are all linked to the connection between desegregation, Civil Rights, the War on Drugs, and mass incarceration. Also, Alexander shows how frightfully gullible the American public can be, and how easy it is for politicians to manipulate minds with fear. Americans seem unwilling to engage in simple self-reflection, or to bring about a society that reflects the values and ideals of the Constitution. Since its release, The… Continue Reading...

Reliability Credibility and Validity

“Critical realism recognizes the role of case study research in empirical generalization, theoretical generalization, and theory testing” (Tsang, 2014, p. 174). Furthermore, it allows for theoretical generalization. Such actions can lead to easier means of transferability of data. c. Confirmability means the degree to which a researcher’s findings in a study can be confirmed. Confirmability established that interpretations and data are derived from data and not figments of imagination (Korstjens & Moser, 2017). One technique to establish confirmability is audit trail. Audit trail entails transparently describing research steps taken from beginning to reporting and development of findings (El Hussein,… Continue Reading...

Link Between Gender and Culture

that have become prevalent in recent times and the relationship it has with queer and feminist theory. Butler considers what it means to reverse or undo the restrictive and normative gender and sex concepts. It is true that the normative conception about gender can reverse personhood and undermine the ability of people to preserve livable life. The undoing of normative restrictions can overrule previous conceptions about newer normative perceptions that make better livability a target. In other words, if gender happens to be a doing or a persistent activity executed without knowledge or will, this cannot be used as… Continue Reading...

Infancy and Toddler Development

to explore. This is a major developmental need, based on Erickson’s theory of development; however, environmental factors also have a role in promoting the development of the child at this stage. The child’s environment must be one that offers an opportunity for exploration as well as the opportunity to observe others and develop connections with other human beings that facilitate cognitive, social and emotional development (Perry & Szalavitz, 2017). The absence of a supportive parent that offers security, an environment in which mimicry, engagement and exploration are possible, and other humans or children that can provide an opportunity for… Continue Reading...

Group Leadership and Formation

a whole was going to become self-actualized, as Maslow (1943) explains in his motivation theory and hierarchy of needs model. Vroom’s (1964) expectancy theory also explains what was going wrong with our group: no one’s expectations were being met, and according to this theory people make decisions based on what they expect to get in return. Dodd expected to be gone in two weeks, for example, so his decision to express complete indifference was based on the fact that he wasn’t going to be getting anything for his efforts. According to the Force Field (2016) model, the factors needed… Continue Reading...

Goya Rodin and Modern Art

pave the way for those in Dada, who would reject all art theory, all artistic pretensions and relish in the nonsense of pretension and the meaninglessness of all art. Rodin did not quite go this far, but he did at least somewhat open the door for a less rigorous approach to art, form and beauty. Aphrodite is a marvel because it seems to defy gravity; however, in terms of realistic beauty it does not even come close to something like the Madonna of Michelangelo in terms of realism. Aphrodite is a form, a phantom, a shape: there is nothing… Continue Reading...

Reading and the Achievement Gap

theoretical framework that will support my study is Vigotsky’s zone of proximal development theory, which holds that students acquire skills and gain understanding of concepts by being around others who already possess those skills and mimicking the behaviors they see (Barker, Quennerstedt & Annerstedt, 2015). This theory can help to show how the socialization of reading improves reading skills. The gap in literature this study aims to address is whether socializing reading can help to prevent the opening of the achievement gap in the first grade. The study by Moses and Kelly (2018) showed that promotion of reading can… Continue Reading...

Management in a School System

not the faintest idea of what it meant to be honest. Administrative Closure Options Organizational theory according to Weber’s bureaucratic approach should have been applied so that all stakeholders were in the know. This would be an example of classical organizational theory: structure, specialization, predictability, stability, rationality and democracy would have been its hallmarks (FAO, 2018). A modern management example would have been systems approach, linking communication with balance and decision analysis. And a behavioral example would have been servant leadership behavioral theory, which would have obliged the leaders of the school to focus on serving its clients instead of leaving… Continue Reading...

History Political Social Economic Culture African American

family structure. American Sociological Review 59(1): 136-151. Tate, W.F. (1997). Critical race theory and education. Review of Research in Education 22(1): 195-247. Thernstrom, A. & Thernstrom, S. (1998). Black progress. Brookings Institute. Mar 1, 1998. https://www.brookings.edu/articles/black-progress-how-far-weve-come-and-how-far-we-have-to-go/ Continue Reading...

Psychology Ethics and Law

are: (a) self concept, (b) prejudice and discrimination, and (c) attribution theory, which is the idea that a person will attempt to understand another’s actions by attributing feelings or beliefs to that person. A psychologist will make advice based on these concepts: the self concept is the image that the individual projects—the ideas that make up who the person is, was, and will be; the psychologist can determine whether or not the self concept of a potential juror will help or harm the case of the prosecution or the defense. Prejudice and discrimination are qualities that a psychologist will… Continue Reading...

Dynamic Network Theory Article on Psychology

striving via emotional pathways. The authors base their research on dynamic network theory, and the results can be applied to numerous practical or clinical settings including organizational-industrial behavior or even information science. The dynamic network theory orientation also sheds light on numerous types of social networks and organizations, illuminating both individual and collective behavior. Although not an experimental research or a meta-analysis, the study does direct psychologists and researchers toward potentially fruitful areas of investigation. The authors explain dynamic network theory in depth, centering their attention on the importance of emotional responses in social networks, and then outline the… Continue Reading...

Course Learnings

resources discussing power structures in organizations. The different lenses – structural theory, organizational theory, cultural theory – all provide a pathway to leverage knowledge that already exists about organizations and their cultures in order to diagnose key elements of the problem and point in the direction of the solution. In most case studies, most organizational problems, there is no need to reinvent the wheel. Using existing resources to understand the power dynamics that are at play in this organizational conflict, and how those dynamics can be leveraged to bring about a resolution, has been probably the most impactful learning… Continue Reading...

Lgbt Youth Social Ecology and Homeless

development progress and physical health status (Stokols, 1988). Social ecology theory lays emphasis on the significance of pinpointing different physical and social conditions within settings that can impact occupants (Stokols, 1988). The practice is characteristically classified into three interrelated levels, which include the micro level, the meso level and the macro level. To begin with, at the micro level, the smallest levels of interaction are examined. These analyses might comprise of one-on-one interactions between friends or couples. This might also take into account the manner in which an individual’s perception of himself or herself is impacted by his or… Continue Reading...