CDC Measure of Associations Essay

Total Length: 522 words ( 2 double-spaced pages)

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Measure of associations

Exercise 3.7

1. Rate ratio comparing current smokers with nonsmokers

Rate ration = rate of current smokers/rate of nonsmokers

(Rate of current smokers = rate of smokers per 1000 persons-years = 1.3)

(Rate of nonsmokers = rate of nonsmokers per 1000 persons-years = 0.07)

Rate ration = 1.3/0.07


2. Rate ratio comparing ex-smokers who quit at least 20 years ago with nonsmokers

Rate ration = rate of ex-smokers quitting at 20 years/rate of nonsmokers

(Rate of ex-smokers quitting at 20 years = rate per 1000 persons-years = 0.19)

(Rate of nonsmokers = rate per 1000 persons-years = 0.07)

Rate ration = 0.19/0.07

= 2.71

3. What are the public health implications of these findings?

Based on the calculation above, it is evident that the rate of lung cancer incidences among smokers is way too high, 18 times, as compared to nonsmokers. This leads to the conclusion that, smoking is a factor contributing to the risk of lung cancer.
This conclusion is further evidenced by the fact that, rate ration of lung cancer among those who quit smoking after 20 years as compared to nonsmokers is significantly less, approximately 3 times (CDC, 2006). This finding points to the fact that, smoking is a risk factor for lung cancer. Public health implications for these findings are that, those who are smoking should be encouraged to stop forthwith as every puff is a step towards developing lung cancer. More importantly, those who haven’t smoked should be encouraged not to start.

Exercise 3.8

Odds ration of tuberculosis

Odds ration = (exposed ill × unexposed well)/ (exposed well × unexposed well)

= (28 × 133)/ (129 × 4)

= 3724/516

= 7.22

Odds ration as compared to rate ration

Rate ration = rate ration of exposed/rate ration of unexposed

(Rate ratio of exposed = ill in East wing/total number of inmates in East wing)

= 28/157

= 0.19

(Rate ratio of unexposed.....

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2006). Principles of epidemiology in public health practice: an introduction to applied epidemiology and biostatistics. Retrieved from on 29 February 2018

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