Common Property and Animal Testing Essay

Total Length: 726 words ( 2 double-spaced pages)

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Q1. List ten real-world common property resources with which you are familiar. Describe an example of one of these common property resources that is not (tragically) overexploited (use the term “institution/s” in your discussion).



The so-called tragedy of the commons is defined as the fact that people tend to exploit common resources to the maximum degree possible for their own benefit, thus indirectly harming other or future people who could benefit from the resource (“Tragedy of the Commons,” 2018). Examples of common property include public parks, fish in the ocean, public monuments, highways, clean water, clean air, public bathrooms, trees, schools, and public playing fields. Although some of these resources are, indeed, exploited, this is not the case with all of them.



For example, public monuments are usually relatively respected by individuals (although there is a risk of them being defaced). But one of the reasons for this may be the fact that people are aware of the fact that their tax dollars go to support the cleanliness and upkeep of such monuments. There is also the question of respecting structures with historical significance. Finally, there is also the question of benefits derived from taking advantage of the public area. While there is relatively little personal or economic benefit to be derived from defacing a public monument, on the other hand there is often great benefit to be derived from practices such as over-fishing (both in terms of the financial benefits of a company may derive from the exploitation and the personal pleasure that an individual may derive from consuming fish that is the result of over-fishing).
Using environmental resources, unlike doing damage to a publically-enjoyed area, is often a much more subtle act of destruction that will not draw negative consequences or obvious censure. Also, unlike graffiti or littering, it is more socially acceptable. Thus, the tragedy of the commons is not inevitable but certain commonly-shared areas are at higher risk.



Q2. One of the longstanding, high-profile overtly ethical debates about nature and society is whether or to what degree animals should be used in medical and commercial research and testing.



The debate over animal testing is often framed in black-and-white terms, or a pro versus con debate. But there are many nuances and shades of grey within the debate. Animal testing has been used since the….....

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References

Crawley, W. (2006). Peter Singer defends animal experimentation. BBC. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/ni/2006/11/peter_singer_defends_animal_ex.html

Hajar, R. (2011). Animal Testing and Medicine. Heart Views?: The Official Journal of the Gulf Heart Association, 12(1), 42. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3123518/

Tragedy of the commons. (2018). Investopedia. Retrieved from: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/t/tragedy-of-the-commons.asp

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