Conflict and Negotiation The Bophuthatswana Crisis of 1994 Research Paper

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Conflict & Negotiation

The Bophuthatswana crisis of 1994

The Bophuthatswana crisis of 1994 entailed a devastating political crisis which started when the Bophuthatswana president, Lucas Mangope, made an attempt at crushing the widespread demonstrations and labor unrest from the people of South Africa as they demanded incorporation of the Bophuthatswana territory into the South African region pending the first multiracial election in 1994 (Holomisa, 2011; Lawrence & Manson1, 1994). Lucas Mangope was a Bantustan (Lentz, 2014). The crisis provoked violent protests after President Mangope made an announcement in 7th March 1994 to the effect that Bophuthatswana was intending to boycott the general elections in South Africa (Appiah & Gates, 2010). The violence quickly escalated into mutiny from local based armed forces and striking of civil servants. The crisis was further complicated when the right-wing extremists arrived with an intention to push for the preservation of Manope’s Bophuthatswana government (Cawthra, 1997).

The confrontations lasted close to 4 days before Mangope succumbed to the pressure and consented to allowing the people of Bophuthatswana to participate in the forthcoming elections (Marina, 1993). A few moments afterwards Mangope reversed that decision. The defense force of South Africa responded to the sudden change of heart by deposing Mangope and taking over control of Bophuthatswana in 12 March 1994. This crisis in Bophuthatswana confirmed that the government of Mangope was unpopular and the fall of Bantustan system of government for most of the residents (Cawthra, 1997). The Bophuthatswana crisis is often remembered for the memorable shooting of 3 AWB (Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging) militants live on television. The shooting demoralized the AWB movement whose primary intention was to preserve the minority rule of the whites. The shooting of the AWB was done by a black South African police officer (Wood, 2007).

Reason for choosing this conflict

At the height of racial conflict and negotiations for South African liberation Lucas Mangope was obsessed about maintaining control of the Bophuthatswana region.

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His adamant determination to ignore the bigger picture of a united front against white minority rule led him to unite forces with the right-wing extremists in the quest to keep Bophuthatswana out of the 1994 multiracial elections. During his rule, Lucas Mangope deprived Bophuthatswana of political freedom and those who opposed the state were banished, subjected to extrajudicial…

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…aspects.

Sagan & Valentino (2015) found that the commitment by the public to principles of due care, proportionality, and distinction are biased fundamentally often favoring protection of Americans and selfish security interests that contravene the just war theory. Goldstein & Pinker (2016) point the diminishing of chaos and war carnage in 2016 hence resulting to global peace. The past war escalation seems to be abating. Goldstein & Pinker (2016) gave examples of the cease fire in Ukraine and he formation of a unity government in South Sudan. Goldstein & Pinker (2016) believe that peace talks are a current proof that war violence can be overcome. Marc, A., (n.d.) offers statistical facts proving that conflict and prolonged war keeps results to poverty. Since 2010 conflicts have increased sharply affecting more civilians in comparison to WWII. Korovin, Tsiskaridze & Voronkov (2009) assert that when conflict is identified and faced sooner than later the likelihood of escalation is alleviated fundamentally. Weinstein (2018) also discusses the principles of conflict resolution from the start of a conflict to its escalation.

These principles and perspectives from different authors will inspire an in-depth understanding of the Bophuthatswana crisis and….....

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References

Appiah, K. A., & Gates, H. L. (2010). Encyclopedia of Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cawthra, G. (1997). Securing South Africa\'s democracy: Defence, development and security in transition. Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Fisher, R., Ury, W., & Patton, B. (1991). Getting to yes: Negotiating agreement without giving in. Boston, Mass: Nathan/Tyler.

Galtung, J. (1990). Cultural Violence. Journal of Peace Research, 27(3), 291–305. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022343390027003005

Goldstein, J.S., & Pinker, S., (2016). The decline of war and violence, The Boston Globe. Retrieved 13 February, 2019 from https://www.bostonglobe.com/opinion/2016/04/15/the- decline-war-and-violence/lxhtEplvppt0Bz9kPphzkL/story.html?event=event25

Holomisa, N. S. P. (2011). A double-edged sword: A quest for a place in the African sun. Houghton [Johannesburg: Real African Publishers.

Klare, M. T. (2001). Resource Wars: The New Landscape of Global Conflict. Journal of Energy Literature, 7, 2, 79-103. Metropolitan Books

Korovin, K., Tsiskaridze, N., & Voronkov, A. (2009). Conflict resolution. In Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) (Vol. 5732 LNCS, pp. 509–523). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-04244-7_41

Lawrence, M., & Manson1, A. (1994). The ‘dog of the boers’’: The rise and fall of mangope in bophuthatswana.’ Journal of Southern African Studies, 20(3), 447–461. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057079408708413

Lentz, H. M. (2014). Heads of states and governments since 1945. London : Routledge

Marina, O. (1993). South Africa: The struggle for a new order. Washington, Dc: Brookings Institution.

Marc, A., (n.d.). Conflicts and Violence in the 21st Century: Current Trends as Observed in Empirical Research and Statistics. Retrieved 13 February, 2019 from https://www.un.org/pga/70/wp-content/uploads/sites/10/2016/01/Conflict-and-violence- in-the-21st-century-Current-trends-as-observed-in-empirical-research-and-statistics-Mr.- Alexandre-Marc-Chief-Specialist-Fragility-Conflict-and-Violence-World-Bank- Group.pdf

Ramsbotham, O., Woodhouse, T., & Miall, H. (2016). Contemporary conflict resolution. Cambridge ; Malden, MA : Polity Press

Sagan, S.D., & Valentino, B.A., (2015). Use of force: The American public and the ethics of war, Open Global Rights. Retrieved 13 February, 2019 from https://www.openglobalrights.org/use-of-force-american-public-and-ethics-of-war/

Wood, E. J. (2007). Forging democracy from below: Insurgent transitions in South Africa and El Salvador. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Weinstein, L. (2018). The 7 principles of conflict resolution: How to resolve disputes, defuse difficult situations and reach agreement. Harlow, England : FT Publishing/Pearson

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