Diversity and Cultural Assessment Essay

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.....leader is someone that has confidence, enthusiasm, and vision. Many leaders exist in the world. However, most leaders can only lead well at home. Global leaders transcend cultural diversity and differences and provide effective leadership behaviors within any context. This is because they are aware of the key differences cultures have and can group them in such a way that allows for easier understanding and successful strategy implementation. Because cultural style can dictate the ethical perception of a leader in terms of authority, power, and influence, this paper will focus on diversity and ethical decision-making and its influences on leadership models. Additionally, the paper will explore certain commonly accepted leadership traits and how servant leadership may be used as an effective tool for influencing organizational culture.

Followers see an inspirational leader as more beneficial than a transactional leader across any cultural setting. However certain behaviors leaders may perform within one context may be motivating to the team (Indonesia), but in another may come across as bragging (Japan). Awareness of cultural differences is essential in producing the kind of effectual leadership needed across multiple cultures to build an effectual international leadership pipeline. Cultural style can dictate ethically, a leader's use of authority, influence and power.

However, per researchers of a 2014 cross-cultural study of effectiveness and managerial skills, effectiveness is not in unique skills, but rather, emphasis on basic management skills.
"The model of managerial skills and effectiveness was validated across five cultures. Managing successfully across cultures may require fewer unique skills, with more emphasis placed on using basic management skills having positive impact" (Hoffman, Shipper, Davy, & Rotondo, 2014, p. 372). While culture is hard to identify, and define due to it being comprised of numerous levels, there are certain actions and behaviors that work within almost any cultural context. Effective leaders must evaluate when and how their attitudes, beliefs, and values affect a subordinate's behavior. One can do so with the Hofstede's cultural assessment model.

The model can be used as an effective means of evaluating various cultural contexts. "It is proposed that a model adapted from the work of Hofstede offers one useful framework for assessing groups from different cultural contexts, which can strengthen the practice of adventure programs to better meet the needs of participants" (Chang, Tucker, Norton, Gass, & Javorski, 2016, p. 1). There are 4 basic characteristics that would make up a global leadership model, to consider. These are uncertainty avoidance, individualism….....

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Chang, T., Tucker, A. R., Norton, C. L., Gass, M. A., & Javorski, S. E. (2016). Cultural issues in adventure programming: applying Hofstede's five dimensions to assessment and practice. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 1-14. doi:10.1080/14729679.2016.1259116

Hoffman, R. C., Shipper, F. M., Davy, J. A., & Rotondo, D. M. (2014). A cross-cultural study of managerial skills and effectiveness. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 22(3), 372-398. doi:10.1108/ijoa-06-2012-0593

Mittal, R., & Dorfman, P. W. (2012). Servant leadership across cultures. Journal of World Business, 47(4), 555-570. doi:10.1016/j.jwb.2012.01.009

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