• Current nursing issues related to globalization of healthcare
The term ‘globalization’ has been used in the description of increasing social and economic interdependence among and between countries (Bradbury-Jones & Clark, 2017). The shifting disease and health patterns have been linked to globalization. Global health means the health issues that are not geographically contained and that no one country can handle them alone (Bradbury-Jones & Clark, 2017). As an answer to the global issues of health and globalization itself nurses have had to practice their profession in the context of emerging and new transnational situations (Bradbury-Jones & Clark, 2017). For this reason nurses have to proactively respond to the dynamic global changes and comprehend the consequences of globalization on health.
In this era of healthcare globalization, it is necessary to underscore the positive changes in biotechnology and communication (Da Silva, 2008). Globalization, however, seems to have more negatives on the health of the poorer populations globally. This is because poverty is associated more with health expectations and conditions (Da Silva, 2008). It is important to mention that close to 2.8 billion people out of the approx. 6 billion people globally live under $2 each day. Another 1.2 billion people live with under $1 every day. Of all the people living in poverty 44% of them are found in Southern Asia (World Bank, 2012). Owing to these facts 90% of global diseases are accounted for by the poor countries. This said the poor countries only command less than 10% global healthcare resources (Da Silva, 2008). This is evident in the slow development of the poor countries because of the poor health and loss of life for the productive young people.
African children who are less than 5 years have seven times greater chances of dying than children from Europe. In similar manner people aged between 15 years and 59 years of age from Africa have a 4.5 times higher chance of dying than the people living in Europe. Maternal mortality in Africa is 16 times more than Europe (World Health Organization, 1999). Transnational trade is one of the major risks to global health. This is because globalization through transnational trading has led to increased spread of disease (Da Silva, 2008). Hepatitis B and other viruses can be transmitted internationally through transnational blood product trade. The trade of food products, disease variation of Creutzfeldt-Jakob and bovine spongiform encephalopathy are other ways diseases can be transmitted internationally (Da Silva, 2008).
Environmental harm due to the unsustainable industrial actions of the developed nations is another negative impact of globalization. Environmental harm has resulted to depreciation of the social quality of the environment hence greatly affecting the health of the people (Da Silva, 2008). These consequences have a great meaning to the Advance Practice Registered Nurse because the profession has to participate in the making of some strategic program to contain the negative consequences of globalization on healthcare.
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The growing rate of urbanization supported by industrial development and economic growth has brought change to the political, economic and social spheres of the society and resulted to more healthcare risks. The outcome of urbanization is negative impact on health of the people especially because of the risk associated with increased communicable diseases and worsening problems relating to the social violence and disintegration.
Good health is dependent on health investment and health policies (Milstead & Short, 2019). Technology, techniques, education and ideas also influence healthcare outcomes. The developing countries have little investment in education and health due to the lack of professional human resources and financial abilities…
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…strategy will entail policymaking and the implementation of those strategies through a conceptual framework. Assuming that the issue is already popularized and the legislative arms of government are willing to seek a solution. It is at this point that expert advice and proposals will be tabled before the legislature. The formulation of the policy will involve experts in healthcare and the economy. Collaborative efforts from the government, healthcare sector, and the finance sector will be required to make the policy journey a reality. A conceptual framework of implementation will be designed thereafter. The pharmaceutical industry will be required to comply with the new policy regulations within specified time duration. It will be made clear to the pharmaceutical manufacturers, distributers, and retailers that new regulations limiting the amount of profits they can make have been put in place (World Health Organization, 2005).
• Evaluation strategies
This stage will involve assessing whether the new policy has had a real impact on the patient’s ability to afford prescription medicine. The nurse will be involved in determining whether patients are able to comfortably follow medication instructions and afford medication (World Health Organization, 2005). Further the nurses will be used in determining whether the general health of patients is improving as a result of better affordable healthcare. The effectiveness of the new policies will be determined by comparing the initial cost of pharmaceutical products and the current costs.
Although the healthcare industry has been commercialized excessively leading to unrealistic healthcare costs for low income earners, the situation can still be salvaged. Failure to restore commercial discipline in the healthcare industry with particular attention at making healthcare more affordable a time will come when healthcare services will be a reserve of the financially able and the high income earners. This is….....