Healthcare Delivery System Model Term Paper

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A Model Healthcare Delivery System

Introduction

The healthcare delivery system also referred to in short as the HCDS is the most effective system that works for most healthcare organizations in all countries with fair, effective and efficient distribution of resources. It is a fast growing service that demands attention from various quarters and domains. At the optimal level, the service program presents relief and hope to the individual, and the general population. The system offers a balanced quality care service through efficiency and fairness. HCDS varies across the world but its focus is constantly on enhancing healthcare access, quality of service and coverage. The success of the program is dependent on the availability of certain basic resources (Kumar & Bano, 2017, p. 1).

HCDS is how the society has responded to the health determinants. The idea of a healthcare system contemplates involving the people that are likely to be served by such a system, agencies and organizations that offer products and service to meet the healthcare goals and health needs of the population under focus (Mills, 2014, p. 553). The central aim of HCDS is to hold human life in high esteem and to enhance health at individual, community and societal level (Starfield & Macinko, 2005, p. 500). The efficiency of a healthcare system is determined by materials, humans, finance and availability of safe healthcare options (Nishtar, 2006, p. 5). The nature of a balanced healthcare system is such that individuals are provided with a continuum of healthcare promotion, diagnosis, disease prevention, treatment and its management, the general course of life and palliative health care via the various sites and levels of care in the healthcare system. These are also based on their needs through their life (Hirshon et al., 2013, p. 387). Any healthcare system should aim at fostering easy access to healthcare by making it affordable, patient-centered and with emphasis on service provision. Healthcare systems should be made in such a way that they motivate both care providers and the patients alike. All decisions made should be in line with the intention of achieving the latter objective (AAFP, 2018).

Measurement of care quality

It is extremely important to measure and report on the quality of healthcare. Such practice enables employers and consumers alike to choose and decide, based on factual determiners, what care is suitable for them. However, assessment of healthcare is beyond simply informing consumers regarding their choices. Feedback to the plans for health is a central component in the whole process. Such feedback can be used by stakeholders to improve on the areas of need. There are several methods of assessing the quality of healthcare. Site surveys carried intermittently, surveys for satisfaction, audits and clinical performance checks can all be applied for the purpose (NCQA, n.d.).

EMR records are essential in facilitating exchange of information. They encourage higher level of patient engagement. If the EMRs are to be used optimally and to facilitate communication that is patient centered, it is imperative to exercise due care in the use of EMRs. There are mixed findings regarding the attitude of physicians and other healthcare providers towards the use of EMRs. It is important to evaluate the perception of patients towards the use of EMR by the provider and the healthcare quality ratings associated with it as a strategic way of understanding the workings and effectiveness of the EMRs. It is evident that EMRs are increasingly in popular use in healthcare facilities. Therefore it is essential to track the perception of patients towards to EMR, their usage levels and their quality ratings. A sample of adults from across the USA was examined to check whether the use of EMR as reported by patients has a connection with the care quality ratings (Rutten et al., 2014, p. 17).

Health policy formulators over time have been considering the designing of technologies that enable healthcare so as to solve a myriad of healthcare issues (Haux et.al, 2008, p.78). Technology is seen as one of the channels for introducing changes into the healthcare system. IT is equally significant in this respect. ICT gives room to access user-friendly health information online (Cramer, 2009, p. 13). The integration of technology and healthcare is credited for the generation of health enabling technologies.
ICT can help to resolve many health challenges (Gauld, 2005, p. 103). It is also critical to the delivery of healthcare (Chassin and Galvin, 1998, p. 1004) and for guaranteeing provision of safe health (Bates, 2001, p. 301). The future and current healthcare services rely on e-Health (Novillo- Ortiz, 2010, p. 227).

Designing a model

Sticking to traditions that have been held for a long time in medicine in the realities of quality and cost has provided the field of medicine with the literature of many examples of models that are successful but without any theories or principles underlying. Ideally, the import is that there is a good reason for developing a model from the onset; based on the models that have succeeded for theory elements. Apart from weaving in the sustainability for the long term, there is a rare and unique chance to build a vision that is shared between the stakeholders; something that could have been impossible to do when times were more stable (Kepros & Operanu, 2009).

Providers need to look for care models that are innovative; those that can cut down on costs and deliver results. It should be realized that health plans also offer the same benefits. The Commonwealth Fund, in March 2012, shared performance findings on healthcare systems. It used 43 indicators to evaluate US health communities. It used four dimensions of performance in health systems, i.e. prevention, treatment, access and healthcare outcomes. The results confirmed what has been known for a long time. It has been known that places where people reside have an effect on how easily they access healthcare. The survey revealed that there are differences in health outcomes, costs and quality based on where people live (Wren, 2012).

The unique factors that influence the health outcomes in each community are helping to drive innovation that is now manifest in the various system models. The Affordable Care Act, health systems, clinics, physicians, private payers and hospitals have been looking for ways to offer better care, better health for the population and reduced costs. The quest has led to several innovative initiatives in the private sector. Some of the initiatives include collaborative model systems of delivery based the partnership between payers and providers, shared investment in various respects from stakeholders and extended care networks (Wren, 2012).

Model Components

One of the factors to consider when configuring delivery systems for healthcare is mould the organization to align to such microsystems. It begins with putting them in categories informed by the clinical nature of the population of patients. These may include strategic importance, prevalence and common need. The next stage is to represent roles, the processes and the people in the Microsystems using teams that are cross functional. The Abbreviation CPT (Collaborative practice Teams) will be used to denote to teams that represent Microsystems. They will show a recognized, formal organizational outfit that resembles a system of a business entity where a steady interdisciplinary team works as a team to offer healthcare. Patients continue being provided with personal care delivery teams in the microsystem. Oversight and supervision of the collective aspects of the microsystem’s care are given to the CPT (Cowen, et al., 2008 p. 409).

Another core ideology embraced by stakeholders is likely to constitute patient based outcome improvements that can be measured and public health improvements. Each of the stakeholders has a chance to make a significant contribution, based on their main competencies, to the shared vision. Some of the competencies associated with the hospital are the facility to facility funding opportunity, improvement of the quality of the institution, identity and strategic planning. Hospitals usually have identities that are distinct from medical training schools and the doctors, although the relationships are invaluable (Cowen, et al., 2008, p. 410).

The need to provide better incentives for change of behavior keeps urging. While providers on salary are not very likely to overuse services, they may underutilize services that are effective. While paying for good performance may be effective, incentives must be sufficient and they should target the outcomes the intended for improvement.....

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References

AAFP, (2018). Healthcare delivery systems. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/about/policies/all/care-delivery.html

Bates, D. W. (2001). Reducing the frequency of errors in medicine using information technology .J Am Med Inform Assoc, 8, 299-308.

Brailer, D., & Thompson, T. (2004). Health IT strategic framework. Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services.

Chassin, M. R., & Galvin, R.W. (1998). The urgent need to improve health care quality. Institute of Medicine National Roundtable on Health Care Quality, 280, 1000-5.

Cook, M. (2010). Building the care delivery model of the future. Retrieved from http://www.chartis.com/resources/files/whitepapers/pre-2013/chartis-health-care-reform-future-care-model-healthcare-consulting.pdf

Cowen et al., (2008). Organizational structure for addressing the attributes of the ideal healthcare delivery system. Journal of Healthcare Management, 53(6)

Cramer, T. (2009). Elsevier challenges contestants to solve information overload dilemmas. EContent, 32(2), 12-13.

Gauld, R. (2005). Health care information and communications technology: Promises and challenges for government and health services. Journal of E-Government, 2 (1), 99.

Haux, R., Howe, J., Marschollek, M., Plischke, M., & Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik. (2008). Health-enabling technologies for pervasive health care: on services and ICT architecture paradigms. Informatics for Health & Social Care, 33 (2), 77-89.

Hirshon, J. M., Risko, N., Calvello, E. J., Ramirez, D., & Narayan M. (2013). Health systems and services: the role of acute care. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 91, 386-388.

Kepros, J. P., & Opreanu, R. C. (2009). A new model for health care delivery. BMC Health Serv Res. 9 (57).

Kumar, S., & Bano, S. (2017). Comparison and analysis of health care delivery systems: pakistan versus bangladesh. J Hosp Med Manage, 3(1).

Mills, A. (2014) Health care systems in low-and middle-income countries. New England Journal of Medicine, 370, 552-557.

Nishtar, S. (2006). The gateway paper: Health systems in Pakistan, a way forward. Pakistan\'s Health Policy Forum.

Novillo-Ortiz & David, El. (2010). Sanidad digital y gestión del conocimiento: nuevos escenarios asistenciales para un sistema sanitario de excelencia. (Spanish) Profesional de la Informació, 19 (3), 225-229.

Rolland, K. H. (2003). Reinventing information infrastructures in situated practices of use. An interpretive case study of information technology and work transformation in a global company. (Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Department of Informatics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Oslo, Norway).

Starfield, B., Shi, L., & Macinko, J. (2005). Contribution of primary care to health systems and health. Milbank quarterly, 83, 457-502.

Volpp, K. G. (2007). Designing a model health care system. Am J Public Health, 97(12), 2126–2128. doi:  10.2105/AJPH.2007.124461

Wren, A. (2012). Three care delivery models transforming health care. Retrieved from https://www.optum.com/resources/library/three-care-delivery-models-transforming-health-care.html

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