Mao Zedong and Defense Philosophy Research Paper

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Active defense is a real defense and passive defense is a spurious defense by Mao Zedong

Active defense

Active defense can be simply explained as a defense launched with an objective of counter attacking the enemy.

Passive defense

Passive defense can be defined as defending for the sake of it.

Analysis:

Mao Zedong, in explaining active defense, referred it to as offensive defense, or defending through resolute engagements (Mao, 1965). In referring to passive defense Mao (1965) referred to it as pure defense or defensive defense. Mao (1965) noted that passive defense is a spurious or an inauthentic type of defense. According to Mao Zedong the only real defense was active defense. Active defense according to Zedong was defending with the intention of launching a counter attack and taking on the offensive. The difference between active and passive defense is in the reaction (Mao, 1965).

Mao contrasted passive defense with active defense. In his opinion prolonged defensive war was a temporary measure that was only necessitated by the adverse balance of the war forces. This was never to be the foundational strategy used by the red army. It was never to be a strategy either (Mao, 1965).

China has had an approach to war that considers the view by the west that their tactics are those of denial and anti-access (Cheng, 2011). China’s PLA (People’s Liberation Army) has been carefully observing the west in their approach to local wars in the high-tech modern conditions or what is now termed as local wars fought under the informationalized conditions.

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The defense planning mechanisms used by PLA have been shaped by lessons learned from observation of how potential opponents like the U.S. have been executing their wars (Cheng, 2011). During the Mao Zedong era, PLA anticipated early wars, nuclear wars or major wars that would detail prolonged fighting on the Chinese. The expectation was that guerrilla tactics would be relied upon in these wars. Since the times of Deng Xiaoping, this anticipation has changed to more of limited and localized conflicts (Cheng, 2011).

The analyses by PLA of high-tech local wars and then informationalized local wars suggest of future wars that will be much shorter and may be last for only a single campaign (Cheng, 2011). The future war may not include occupation of the Chinese territory although the military, economic and political environments are likely to be attacked. These future wars will entail joint operations over the land, air, sea, outer space, and cyberspace. The war may even entail use of advanced technology especially in information systems (Cheng, 2011).

The analysis of the possible wars has driven PLA to come up with actionable lessons. The evolution of war has made it necessary for PLA to pay particular attention to active defense against long range missiles, stealth aircrafts, and helicopters. The PLA is also attentive on defending against possible electronic warfare, precision strike, surveillance and reconnaissance.….....

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References

Cheng, D., (2011). China’s Active Defense Strategy and Its Regional Impact, The heritage foundation. Retrieved 4 November, 2018 from https://www.heritage.org/testimony/chinas-active-defense-strategy-and-its-regional- impact

Holmes, J. & Yoshihara, T., (2005). The Best Defense is a Good Offense for China\'s Navy, The National Interest. Retrieved 4 November, 2018 from https://nationalinterest.org/article/the-best-defense-is-a-good-offense-for-chinas-navy- 2755

Mao, Z. (1965). Problems of strategy in China\'s revolutionary war. Peking: Foreign Languages Press.

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