Neurological Disease Essay

Total Length: 1927 words ( 6 double-spaced pages)

Total Sources: 7

Page 1 of 6

Week 1

The field of neuroscience that interests me most is a research position at a hospital or university. I believe that being attached to a research facility within the medical community has the potential for high demand in the future, as a growing segment of the population ages and develops Alzheimer’s and dementia. Neurological disorders have a devastating effect on the person affected, and those around them. I see neurological diseases of the aging process as particularly devastating because the person slowly loses their life and their special connection with those who love them. I am interested in two areas in particular. I am interested in Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia, and disorders of memory that occur at any age.

To be successful in this career path, it will be essential to focus on the research methodology and procedures for both human and animal studies. Any projects available that pertain to the specific area study will be essential in gaining a position at a research facility. Most of these programs require specialization in the research topic. There are also typically part of a team. Ph.D. research into Alzheimer’s and dementia related issues can be found almost anywhere in the country. It is one of the most prominent areas of research currently, and a quick search reveals a numerous supply of beginning level and advanced positions.

Week 2 – Video Presentation Narrative

The article chosen from the provided list for this review is:

Henry, J. D., von Hippel, W., Thompson, C., Pulford, P., Sachdev, P., & Brodaty, H. (2012). Social behavior in mild cognitive impairment and early dementia. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 34(8), 806-813.

Brief Overview

Social behavioral abnormalities are common in the later stages of dementia, but behavioral changes in the early stage of dementia, or those with only a mild cognitive impairment have not received considerable attention in the way of academic research. Henry and associates (2012) used the experience of informants to identify either socially inappropriate or prejudicial behavior in persons with early-stage dementia. One example of this is when people with dementia interrupt someone because they have difficulty holding what they wish to say in their memory until the other person is finished. The research aimed to examine if there was any relationship between memory and social impairment.

An Analysis of the Research Methodology

The study involved 107 community-dwelling participants and Sydney, Australia. Of them, 26 met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM-IV) criteria for dementia and 37 met the criteria for mental cognitive impairment. The other 44 participants were without cognitive impairment and served as controls. All of the participants had adequate eyesight, hearing, and English language ability. In addition, all of them had an informant with whom he had at least weekly contact.
Exclusionary Criteria included those with a previous diagnosis of psychiatric or neurological illness. The participants were asked to nominate an informant who they felt doom them well and this person within provide a proxy measure of social functioning in the form of a survey. Once the surveys were complete, they were returned to the investigator in a stamped addressed envelope.

Independent and Dependent Variables

In this study the independent variable is the condition of either having dimension or another cognitive impairment or being free from such an impairment. The be dependent variable involves the persons reported social behavioral functioning.

Study Design

The Minim Mental State Examination (MMSE), was used…

[…… parts of this paper are missing, click here to view the entire document ]

…biomarkers for Alzheimer’s are present (Alzheimer’s Association, 2019). It is important to note that not all persons with the biomarker go on to develop the later stages of the condition. A brain scan will typically demonstrate the presence of Lewis Bodies, but the presence of biomarkers is the most widely used clinical marker. Brain scans are seldom needed to confirm the diagnosis. It is important to provide significant clinical evidence to differentiate Alzheimer’s from other forms of dementia and mental cognitive impairment (Alzheimer’s Association, 2019).

Symptoms of Alzheimer’s includes memory loss, challenges in planning, challenges in problem solving, difficulty completing tasks at home or work, confusion as to time and place, trouble understanding visual images or spatial relationships, problems with words when speaking or writing, misplacing things, losing the ability to retrace steps, poor judgement, withdrawal from social activities, and changes in mood or personality (Alzheimer’s Association, 2019). The most common trigger for assessment and diagnosis is when these symptoms become so advances that they interfere with daily tasks at home or work. Many times, input from a close family member can provide valuable information about changes in the person’s functional level.

Treatment of Alzheimer’s includes medications that may slow or stop the progress of the damage and destruction of neurons (Alzheimer’s Association, 2019). It may also include occupational and physical therapy. Often tasks to stimulate the brain and improve overall quality of life is used. In many cases, both pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical methods are used in combination. The goal of the treatment protocol is to slow the cognitive decline and allow the individual to stay as active and mentally able for as long as possible. There is no known cure and the best that can be done is to slow the progress….....

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References

Alzheimer’s Association. (2019). Alzheimer’s Disease Facts and Figures. Alzheimer’s & Dementia. 15(3), 321-387.

Culpepper, L. (2014). The Diagnosis and Treatment of Bipolar Disorder: Decision-Making in Primary Care. Primary Care
Companion for CNS Disorders. 16(3). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4195640/

Hirschfeld, R. (2014). Differential diagnosis of bipolar disorder and major depressin. Journal of Affective Disorders, 169; S12-6.

Henry, J. D., von Hippel, W., Thompson, C., Pulford, P., Sachdev, P., & Brodaty, H. (2012). Social behavior in mild cognitive impairment and early dementia. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 34(8), 806-813.

Miller, C., & Hynd, G. (2004). What ever happened to developmental Gerstmann's syndrome? Links to other pediatric, genetic, and neurodevelopmental syndromes. Journal of. Child Neurology, 19 (4): 282–9.

Vallar, G (2007). Spatial neglect, Balint-Homes' and Gerstmann's syndrome, and other spatial disorders. CNS Spectr. 12 (7): 527–36.

Villemagne, V, Burnham, S., Bourgeat, P., Brown, B., Ellis, K.A., & Salvado, O. et al. Amyloids deposition, neurodegeneration, and cognitive decline in sporadic Alzheimer’s disease: A prospective cohort study. Lancet Neurol., 12: 357–367

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