Pathophysiology of Gastric Acid Stimulation and Production Essay

Total Length: 894 words ( 3 double-spaced pages)

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The digestive fluids that are secreted by the stomach glands aimed at breaking down solid food and to kill bacteria in the stomach are referred to as gastric juices. Gastric acid is produced by the gastric parietal cell located on the walls of the stomach. The region where the gastric juices are secreted into the lumen is the most acidic environment in the human body and is known as the secretory canaliculus (Schubert & Peura, 2008). The secretion of the gastric acid into the lumen occurs in response to a variety of messages from the paracrine, hormonal, and neurocrine inputs. Gastrin, produced by the G cells that are located in the pyloric mucosa of the stomach is the primary hormonal stimulation for gastric acid production. There are various inputs that will stimulate the parietal cells in order for them to secrete hydrogen ions that will flow into the gastric lumen, have varied functional importance. However, the Histamine 2 receptors are thought to be the primary stimulus for gastric acid secretion. The G cells will release gastrin in response to a meal, where it binds to cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors on both the ECL and parietal cells. The combination of gastrin and the parietal cells will result in the discharge of intracellular calcium and the eventual translocation followed by the activation of the proton pump. When gastrin and ECL cells will promote the formation and creation of histamine which will then bind to H2 receptors on the parietal cell to increase the production of the cyclic AMP (Schubert & Peura, 2008), that is followed by the translocation and activation of the proton pump at the canalicular membrane.

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During GERD, PUD, and gastritis disorders, there are some changes that occur in the stimulation and production of gastric acid. GERD disorder causes the increase in the stimulation and production of gastric acid, which therefore increases the GERD condition because of the defective lower esophageal increases the volume of gastric acid that is refluxed into the esophagus. In gastritis disorder, the stomach mucosa will undergo inflammation causing the erosion of the secretory glands. Therefore, gastric acid stimulation and production will reduce due to the absence of gastric glands. Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD) refers to the disturbance of the integrity of the mucosal in the stomach. This disturbance is mostly caused by inflammation that eventually leads to a mucosal defect. PUD results in….....

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References

Nasseri-Moghaddam, S., Nokhbeh-Zaeem, H., Saniee, P., Pedramnia, S., Sotoudeh, M., & Malekzadeh, R. (2012). Oral nitrate reductase activity and erosive gastro-esophageal reflux disease: a nitrate hypothesis for GERD pathogenesis. Digestive diseases and sciences, 57(2), 413-418.

Park, S.-H., Choi, J. Y., Park, E. J., Lee, J. J., Lee, S., Na, J. O., . . . Kim, E. J. (2015). Prevalence of gastrointestinal diseases and treatment status in noncardiac chest pain patients. Korean circulation journal, 45(6), 469-472.

Rao, V. L., Micic, D., & Kim, K. E. (2016). Primary Care Evaluation and Management of Gastroenterologic Issues in Women. Obstetrics and gynecology clinics of North America, 43(2), 347-366.

Schubert, M. L., & Peura, D. A. (2008). Control of gastric acid secretion in health and disease. Gastroenterology, 134(7), 1842-1860.

Wen, Z., Li, X., Lu, Q., Brunson, J., Zhao, M., Tan, J., . . . Lei, P. (2014). Health related quality of life in patients with chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer and factors with impact: a longitudinal study. BMC gastroenterology, 14(1), 149.

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