Psychology Journal Essay

Total Length: 1715 words ( 6 double-spaced pages)

Total Sources: 6

Page 1 of 6

Unfamiliar vocabularies relating to learning and cognition emerged in the course of Week 4's readings and research. These include "mnemonics," "mental representation," and "domain knowledge." Mnemonics may essentially be defined as the techniques an individual uses to enhance memorization. These techniques are useful for learning as they help retain crucial information in the long-term memory. When information is retained in the long-term memory, it is organized in a certain manner. This is referred to as mental representation. Mental representation plays an important role in learning as learning generally occurs when the learner has a clear picture of a given phenomenon in his/her mind. Domain knowledge simply refers to knowledge relating to a given area or field. For instance, seasoned doctors have extensive knowledge of the domain of medicine. They acquire this knowledge not inherently, but through continuous learning.



Part 2



A major focus of research in the area of learning and cognition is whether expertise is a trait acquired naturally or through learning. In an extensive review of literature based on learning and cognition theory, Sadideen et al. (2013) sought to answer this question. Focusing specifically on the field of surgery, the authors concluded that surgical expertise is acquired through continuous learning and practice, not innately or genetically. These findings are consistent with the broader body of knowledge suggesting that experts are made, not born (Hallam, 2010; Tashman, 2013). In other words, whereas some individuals appear to be born with superior capabilities than others, they become proficient over time, through an unwavering process of practice. This knowledge has important implications for scholars. As studies on expertise development have a tendency of centering on the individual, it is crucial for researchers to focus beyond the individual.



Part 3



Without a doubt, expertise, or the perception of it, influences our behaviors, actions, and knowledge development. Expertise affects our perception of self-efficacy as well as how we confront challenges, react to situations, undertake tasks, or behave towards others. Also, expertise makes us discern meaningful information patterns that may not be noticed by non-experts (novices). A real-life example from the author's personal life can be used to illustrate how expertise shapes our behavior. As an educational practitioner, I tend to apply teaching and learning knowledge in interpreting and solving day to day problems in diverse contexts -- from work to home. It is quite unusual for novices to solve problems in a similar manner.
As a result, I am constantly inspired to enhance my teaching and learning knowledge.



Part 4



The importance of expertise has important implications for education researchers. According to the American Educational Research Association (AERA) Code of Ethics, education researchers must demonstrate the highest level of professional competence in the tasks they undertake (AERA, 2011). This essentially means that the work they produce must be credible and accurate. As education researchers rely on the work of others, they must obtain information from reliable (peer-reviewed) sources, not secular sources such as newspaper articles. Information from secular sources may often be biased, hence misleading. Though peer-reviewed sources are usually reliable, they must also be evaluated for credibility. This can be achieved by checking the credentials of the author, especially in terms of background and institutional affiliation.

Week 5 Journal



Part 1

Three unfamiliar vocabularies that emerged in Week 5 readings are "language acquisition," "reading anxiety," and "classical conditioning." Language acquisition can essentially be defined as the process of acquiring the ability to comprehend and communicate in a certain language. For instance, children naturally acquire their first language through interaction with their surroundings -- family members, adults, school, the media, and forth. In essence, language acquisition is the process of learning a language. Learning a language means one becomes proficient in comprehending, speaking, reading, and writing in the language. For some learners, reading may cause anxiety. Reading anxiety denotes the nervousness caused by reading tasks. Often characterized by confusion and the fear of judgment, reading anxiety can hinder learning. Reading anxiety hampers learning through mechanisms relating to classical conditioning (Jalongo, 2010). Classical conditioning is a process in which the repeated combination of a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus creates learning. The concept of classical conditioning is important for learning and cognition as it explains virtually every human behavior.



Part 2



Developing reading comprehension can be a major challenge for second language learners. Accordingly, language educators must use effective strategies to ensure strong development of reading skills. In a study of 10 junior high school students, Wang (2016) found that effective reading strategies significantly improved reading….....

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References

American Educational Research Association (AERA). (2011). Code of Ethics. Retrieved from http://c.ymcdn.com/sites/www.weraonline.org/resource/resmgr/a_general/aera.pdf

Dedic, Z. (2014). Metacognitive knowledge in relation to inquiry skills and knowledge acquisition within a computer-supported inquiry learning environment. Psychological Topics, 23(1), 115-141.

Efklides, A. (2014). How does metacognition to the regulation of learning? An integrative approach. Psychological Topics, 23(1), 1-30.

Hallam, S. (2010). Transitions and the development of expertise. Psychology Teaching Review, 16(2), 3-32.

Jalongo, M. (2010). Understanding reading anxiety: new insights from neuroscience. Early Childhood Education Journal, 37(6), 431-435.

Sadideen, H., Alvand, A., Saadeddin, M., & Kneebone, R. (2013). Surgical experts: born or made? International Journal of Surgery, 11(9). 773-778.

Tanner, K. (2012). Promoting student metacognition. CBE -- Life Sciences Education, 11(2), 113-120.

Tashman, L. (2013). The development of expertise in performance: the role of memory, knowledge, learning, and practice. Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 5(3), 33-48.

Wang, Y. (2016). Reading strategy use and comprehension performance of more successful and less successful readers: a think-aloud study. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 16(5), 1789-1813.

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