Stopping of Female Genital Mutilation Research Paper

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Female genital mutilation should be stopped

Female Genital Mutilation or FGM can be explained as a procedure that is performed or inflicted on women and girls in some developing countries (Klein et al., 2018). FGM entails the altering or cutting of female genitalia. There are many known consequences of inflicting FGM on women including viral and bacterial infections, psychological problems, and obstetrical complications. The FGM topic has been taken up by activists in areas where the practice is rampant. The FGM topic has fundamental societal importance, cultural, significance, and ramifications. In this informative piece, the implications and consequences of FGM are discussed. There have been many efforts put in place to eradicate the FGM vice although certain societal and cultural dynamics have allowed FGM to be deeply rooted in some regions. It is important for more interventions to be instituted in the communities where FGM is practiced as a ritual in order to have realistic chances of eradicating this practice. Concerted efforts are necessary for the purpose of developing programs and studies that increase the level of awareness on the consequences of FGM.

Female circumcision is the practice of manipulating, removing or altering the exterior genitalia of women and young girls (Klein et al., 2018). FGM is conducted using some sharp object like a blade or glass by some unskilled town, religious, or traditional leader. In some instances medical professionals conducted FGM. FGM is quite different from male circumcision in that it unlike male circumcision that has real health benefits female circumcision has no known medical benefits (Kandala & Komba, 2018). It is widely agreed upon that FGM violates the human rights of the victims and increases the health complications of the person on whom it is inflicted (Kandala & Komba, 2018). According to the World Health Organization, FGM intentionally causes injury to the genital organs of the female without any medical reason (WHO, 2018). There are no health benefits associated with the FGM procedure. FGM procedure can result in serious urinating problems, bleeding, infections, later cysts, and childbirth complications. FGM also increases the possibility of infant mortality (WHO, 2018). If indeed it has been proven that FGM is a vice that must be destroyed in the modern day world why is it that it still persists?

There are many cultural practices in the developing world that have been retained to this day. Some of these cultures include FGM and other torturous activities all done in the name of rites of passage.

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Some of the rituals have no health implication although FGM is one of those backward and retrogressive cultures that the society must be trained to abandon. Surprisingly some underage girls have been indoctrinated into accepting these retrogressive cultures. There is news of young girls who leave school to get married to elderly men. Some girls go through FGM willingly. Others abandon their education for marriage life without cognizance of the repercussions involved. The vicious cycle of FGM and early marriage makes high infant mortality, FGM related diseases, and infections, and poverty inevitable. This is why society must be enlightened on the need to abandon some of these retrogressive and dangerous self-inflicted…

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…results into sexual problems like diminished sexual pleasure and desire, pain while having sex, the difficulty experienced during penetration, the absence of an orgasm (a condition known as anorgasmia), and reduced lubrication when having intercourse (RC & V, 2014). The trauma associated with the memories of FGM, the pain, and the formation of scar tissue can cause sexual problems in future (RC & V, 2014). Obstetric complications may cause difficulties when undergoing child labor, increase cesarean section risks, cause postpartum hemorrhage, and obstetric lacerations (WHO, 2019). FGM is also directly associated with obstetric fistula although the association is not established yet.

In conclusion, the psychological consequences of FGM can cause terminal post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety disorders (WHO, 2019). Some societies still hold on to the cultural relevance of FGM without paying regard to the psychological complications involved in the procedure. Researchers like Julios (2018) have proposed an intensive social media awareness campaign against FGM. The only way FGM can be conquered is through an intensive online and government-sponsored campaign against the retrogressive and demeaning procedure. FGM discriminates against the sanctity of the female body and perpetuates dishonor and abuse of women rights. Women all over the world should stand up for their peers who suffer under the disguise of generational traditions and cultures that steal the dignity of their fellow women. In this day and age FGM should not be even a concern. It has been proven that the practice has no health benefits, unlike male circumcision. There should be global standard and national laws against FGM. Anyone caught practices….....

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Julios, C. (2018). Female genital mutilation and social media. London: Routledge

Kandala, N.-B., & Komba, P. N. (2018). Female Genital Mutilation around The World: Analysis of Medical Aspects, Law and Practice. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Klein, E., Helzner, E., Shayowitz, M., Kohlhoff, S., & Smith-Norowitz, T. A. (2018). Female Genital Mutilation: Health Consequences and Complications - A Short Literature Review. Obstetrics and Gynecology International. Hindawi Limited.

RC, B., & V, U. (2014). Immediate Health Consequences of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C). Place of publication not identified: Knowledge Centre for the Health Services at The Norwegian Institute of Public Health (NIPH.

WHO. (2019). Health risks of female genital mutilation (FGM), Sexual and Reproductive Health. Retrieved 27 February, 2019 from

WHO. (2018). Female genital mutilation, World Health Organization. Retrieved 27 February, 2019 from

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