For startup companies, the key business functions include: Sales and Marketing, HR, Finance and Accounting, and Manufacturing. Present-day startups require information systems for monitoring all their business operations, such as business planning, material acquisition, production, quality control and delivery to markets. In view of the aforementioned key business roles of startup companies, the chief information systems required are; Marketing and Sales Information Systems, Production and Manufacturing Information Systems, Accounting and Finance Information Systems, Strategic Information Systems, Enterprise Collaboration or Office Automation Systems and HR Information Systems (Al-Mamary, Shamsuddin & Aziati, 2014).
Functions of Information Systems
Sales and Marketing Information Systems
Marketing and sales departments are in charge of selling company offerings. Marketing chiefly deals with: determining buyers of the company's services/products, ascertaining their demands and requirements, planning and creating services and products for satisfying their demands, and conducting advertising and promotion activities for these services and products. The sales function deals chiefly with getting in touch with buyers, selling the company's services and products, order-taking, and follow-up sales. The aforementioned functions are supported by marketing and sales information systems. Shim (2000) claims that marketing information systems backs management in the domains of service/product development, pricing, marketing mix, successful promotion, sales forecasts, and distribution.
Finance and Accounting Information Systems
The financial function deals largely with handling corporate financial assets and investments like cash, bonds and stock. The accounts function deals with retaining and handling corporate financial records, including payroll, receipts, and depreciation (Al-Mamary et al., 2014). Shim (2000) asserts that accounting software's central job is automation of the routine activity of accounting transaction entry and posting. This data is electronically organized for developing financial statements. It is also easily accessible for aiding company leaders in managing the company. Finance information systems offer financial data to every financial manager in a company. Financial decisions will normally be made depending on data yielded by accounting systems.
Human Resource Information Systems
HR Information Systems deal with generating, categorizing, maintaining and distributing information on the workforce for aiding the company's managers at different levels to undertake appropriate decision-making. Currently, most successful firms employ HR information systems for facilitating everyday HR operations (Al-Mamary et al., 2014). Corporate HR departments are in charge of drawing in, training and retaining personnel in the company. HR information systems, thus, facilitate tasks like determining prospective employees, having comprehensive files of current workers, and coming up with programs for developing and improving personnel skills and knowledge.
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Production and manufacturing functions are in charge of actual creation of services and products. Production and manufacturing systems handle the tasks of: planning, developing, and maintaining production facilities; setting up production objectives; acquiring raw materials, storing them and ensuring they are always at hand for uninterrupted production operations; and scheduling material, equipment, human resources and facilities for fashioning finished goods. The above tasks are supported by production and manufacturing information systems. Rivera and Hernandez (1997) write that production information systems are computer programs capable of handling a production-linked data pool. Shim (2000) maintains that manufacturing information systems' mission is: applying computer technology for improving production effectiveness and processes, thereby improving product quality and decreasing manufacturing expenses. That is, manufacturing systems are systems which take in information systems technologies, material, data, equipment, and management, and employ the information and manufacturing process for generating an output of better end products.
Enterprise Collaboration Systems (Office Automation Systems)
Corporate automation systems make up one among the commonest information system varieties that assist managers in controlling organizational data flow. These systems are in charge of enhancing workgroup and team efficiency and communications. Although operating on a broad level (they aren't specific to organizational levels), these systems offer key support for a wide array of clients. They aim at supporting office activities using information technology. Email, voice mail, video conferencing, multimedia system, group decision-making and file transfers may be carried out using enterprise collaboration systems (Al-Mamary et al., 2014).
Strategic Information Systems
These systems use IT for affording firms a strategic competitive edge through its business processes, products, or services (Nowduri & Al-Dossary, 2012). They represent a special kind of corporate information system whose chief task is securing or retaining a competitive edge.
Importance of Operational Data and Big Data
Efficient and effective acquisition, processing and analysis of operational and big information will aid a firm in acquiring a more comprehensive grasp of its business, clients, offerings, rivals and so forth. This….....