Criminology in America Essay

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Research and compare and contrast education in America. Dr. Carson grew up in poverty and claims education is the reason for his success. Is this an accurate statement? How does education impact directly or indirectly crime in America? Next, choose a district in an inner city and one in a non-urban area. Discuss the educational programs in each and then discuss the crime statistics within each area. What conclusions can you draw regarding education and its effect on crime in the area?

Several explanations of this have been thoroughly elaborated and they are based on the traditions popular in poverty-stricken regions, the unequal distribution of educational infrastructure, the standard of education in the less developed regions, the opinions of poor households and several others. There has been conclusive evidence showing that education truly boosts the development and advancement experienced by a region or community. Educational regulators and workers find themselves in a dilemma due to the wide variety of feasible explanations available to them, with each one strongly backed by true facts. Therefore, it should baffle anyone that the actions taken by this group is often centred on the latest of these explanations or the one which is most backed by its advocates and in some cases, the one which is mostly preferred by the political class (Raffo, Dyson and Gunter).
Several hypothetical factors point to the reasons why education causes a lower crime rate. Increased earnings will make crime less preferred by people due to their mental calculation of the amount of money which would be lost during prison time. Equally education reduces impatience or unnecessary risk taking, which translates to a reduced criminal tendency. The three literature sources considered by (Lochner and Moretti) all gave the same inference: education considerably lessens crime rate. This discovery has huge impacts on various types and intensities of criminal activity. There is a similarity between the impact of education on rates of imprisonment and frequency of capture of criminals as well as self-confessed offences. In order to reduce this to the barest minimum, the government could enact proven and specific laws and guidelines. This research could be useful to government regulators in crafting their anti-crime systems and determining their required budgets. Apart from this, this research is still useful in elaborating on the topic of education being an effective and substitute anti-crime agent. If the College Graduation Ratio-which is the percentage of graduating students from first degree (tertiary ISCED 5A) programmes based on the number of people who are at the average graduating age in a population-is analysed from 1998 -- 2012, a clear picture is seen. Normally in developed countries, the domestic income produced, also known as the GDP can be diverted towards criminal rehabilitations and strengthening of law enforcement agencies, unlike developing countries. Thus, the GDP produced by developed nations could be channelled towards properly developing rules and systems aimed at reducing criminal activities (Gonzalaez).

Case Study from Quebec Region

Crime cannot be truly referred to as an "urban problem". An analysis of police data from 2005 showed that the smaller urban regions experienced more levels of crime than the major urban regions. Rural areas, however, had the least crime rates. Analysing the situation in the Quebec region, it is discovered that criminal acts were most frequently reported from the major urban regions. These regions experienced the highest numbers of car thefts and robberies. Specifically, the frequency of robbery in these regions were almost three times that experienced in the smaller urban regions and about ten times that experienced in rural communities. Altogether, the frequency of violent crime, however, were least recorded in the major urban regions. The rural communities recorded the most number of homicides in 2005, a trend which has been consistent over the last 10 years. Despite this, the rural communities still had the least rates of robberies, crime generally, car theft and property crime. Notwithstanding the variation in the crime levels of their regions, people residing in the rural, smaller urban and major urban regions showed a high likelihood, measured at over 90% to claim satisfaction of their perceived safety levels.
Those living in the smaller urban regions and the rural areas, though, showed a higher likelihood of praising the work of the police than the major urban region dwellers (Francisco and Chenier).

In order to enhance the systems and laws targeting this part of the country, it will be very helpful to analyse potential obstacles to the smooth running of these solutions. An analysis of the current education statistics in Quebec indicates that young adults who have a record of criminality often prefer a school environment which provides adults with the normal secondary education. The "Youth Solidarity" program, which is a form of social welfare program for people up to 24 years, released a report which showed that among the clients on their list, over 59% of the younger adults preferred the adult sector to others for furthering their education. Several studies have discovered that transition programs such as the TIP (transition to independence process) scheme and its rules are very effective. Every single one of them indicated general improvements for the young men and women who went through the TIP scheme or its similar version. In Quebec, several of these young adults try to secure at least a diploma while some others compensate themselves for the time spent while in the adult's educational environment. These environments have high tendencies to be the life changing experience a lot of these emerging adults living with problems need. In a move to optimize the environments for this, a number of obstacles to effective service delivery have to be surmounted. A good starting point would be the active search for more knowledge on the subjects as well as their criminal backgrounds and using this, redefine their erroneous opinions about young adults in school environments (Marcotte).

2. Dr. Carson discusses America and problems result when you have a society that is ignorant and not informed? That we need a culture of "informed populace" in our society? What does he mean by these statements? What does he suggest? Do you agree or disagree with his statements? Whether you agree or disagree, be sure to support your position through the use of statistics and research.

Another point raised by Dr. Carson is the way people show no sort of concern on the political events taking place in the country as well as the untrue projections of advancement. During elections, several voices are heard encouraging people to cast their votes as well as condemning political candidates who allegedly aren't working to better the situation of the masses. Despite these, only a small number of these advocates point out that it might be best to keep our votes to ourselves instead of participating in an exercise we are not knowledgeable of. A critical analysis of our poor knowledge on the internal events of politics is not due to trust issues, but rather it is caused by rationalization on the part of the voters themselves and the enormity and complicated nature of contemporary governments. Due to this, it could be quite impossible to truly overcome this problem of poor political knowledge and an inference we can draw is that it could benefit us all if we dabbled less with the polls and rather channel that energy into active pursuits of knowledge (Somin)

'Trust is rising in the elite or "informed public" group -- those with at least a college education, who are very engaged in media, and have an income in the top 25%. However, in the 'mass population' (the remaining 85% of our sample), trust levels have barely budged since the Great Recession'

• Richard Edelman (The New Landscape of Information: 3 Consequences of the Trust Disparity)

From the present-day statistics, the disparity in trust between the masses and the informed public rests at around 19%. This is due to the complete acceptance of adverse opinion by people such as disbelief on the part of consumers or distrust in political matters.

3. The speech also suggests that there is….....

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Bharadwaj, Ashish. "Is poverty the mother of crime?" Atlantic Review of Economics (2014).

Birkbeck, Christopher. "Media Representations of Crime and Criminal Justice." Criminology and Criminal Justice, Communities and Crime (2014). Online.

Brown, Brittini. Is the Media Altering Our Perceptions of Crime? 11 March 2015. 5 June 2017.

Francisco, Joycelyn and Christian Chenier. "A comparison of large urban, small urban and rural crime rates." Canadian Center for Justice Statistics (2007).

Gonzalaez, Alma. "Education: The Secret to Crime Reduction?. " PhD Thesis. 2015.

Lochner, Lance and Enrico Moretti. "The Effect of Education on Crime: Evidence from Prison Inmates, Arrests, and Self-Reports." 2003.

Machin, Stephen, Olivier Marie and Suncica Vujic. "The Crime Reducing Effect of Education. " CEP Discussion Paper No 979 (2010).

Maginnis, RL. "Single-Parent Families Cause Juvenile Crime." National Crime Reference Justice Service (1997).

Marcotte, Julie. "Quebec's adult educational settings: Potential turning points for emerging adults?. " Canadian Journal of Educational Administration and Policy (2008). Document.

Marie, Olivier, Suncicia Vujic and Stephen Machin. "Crime Reducing Effect of Education." The Economic Journal (2011): 463 - 484.

Parks, Alisha. "The Effects of Family Structure on Juvenile Delinquency." Electronic Theses and Dissertations. (2013). Thesis.

Raffo, Carlo, et al. Education and poverty. Document. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2007.

Somin, Ilya. Political ignorance around the world. 3 November 2014. 5 June 2017.

The New Landscape of Information: 3 Consequences of the Trust Disparity. 29 February 2016. 5 June 2017.

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