Gender Status Impact Access to Social Political and Economic Resources Essay

Total Length: 2355 words ( 8 double-spaced pages)

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Societies are organized in an exceedingly gendered manner; that is, the “natural” difference between females and males and attributing distinct traits to both genders lies at the heart of all social institutions’ structures, right from families to job structures, to the private-public division, to power accessibility. Hence, resource access and the enjoyment of secure property rights remain highly gendered within several areas across the globe. Females, both minor and adult, suffer particularly due to unfair land rights, besides encountering obstacles when it comes to accessing resources and even their own inheritance. That is not to say that males (adult as well as minor) are never faced with such challenges (consider the example of first sons inheriting more as compared to their younger brothers). Furthermore, right to resource access can also end up impacting people’s ability of accessing other services. For instance, a female’s limited rights or lack of property ownership can render her unable to gain access to credit, since lands are typically utilized in the form of collateral. Attaining more equitable resource access provides considerable opportunities for female empowerment as well as economic development (Fitriani, 1).

Additionally, a large number of initiatives for improving financial service access have been extensively implemented for providing better opportunities to the poverty-ridden class of society. Though mixed outcomes are noted with regard to initiative success, analyses of gendered micro-financial service targeting reveal male beneficiaries do not contribute as much as their female counterparts to familial food security and overall wellness. Though microcredit programs display potential when it comes to increasing females’ self-confidence levels and small-scale earnings generation, they may play a role in increasing their susceptibility and indebtedness. Lastly, they typically reach only the moderately poor, and fail to cater to the most destitute individuals (McGinn et.al 85).

But, though some researchers have discovered that female entrepreneurs, employed females or those who are land/property owners display lower domestic violence experience rates, other researchers have revealed greater incidence, especially within conservative cultures reflecting the effects of evolving power dynamics. Hence, initiatives which endeavor to make females financially stronger (e.g., micro credit programs) must take into account the best means of mitigating adverse effects (e.g., through incorporating violence prevention programs) (Fitriani, 3).

Females’ domestic roles frequently end up causing them to disproportionately utilize natural resources. Water resources like wells situated far from their homes may appreciably increase their workload. Further, forest conservation plans may restrict their forest product accessibility, thereby adversely affecting their survival plans. Hence, donors must include females when designing programs (Federation, 10).

Moreover, females’ contribution within the agricultural sector is usually not as visible as compared to that of their male counterparts. The latter will more likely be landowners, with access to fertilizers and credit for improving yield, and thus be better able to sell their products at a high value. Meanwhile, females typically make up the major part of unpaid agricultural labor, and cultivate less profitable products or products for familial use only. The enjoyment of more options by males and their more formal agricultural role may be ascribed to societal rules which dictate formal work to be the domain of men, facilitating their credit, data, and technological access. Owing to such norms, matriarchal families typically encounter particular problems within rural communities (Fitriani, 1).

In spite of the aforementioned restrictions, females have a significant part to play in global food production. They are generally responsible for growing most staple crops meant for petty trade and personal home consumption, and for raising small farm animals such as chickens.

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Guaranteeing females equal access to resources and educational opportunities, like agricultural extension, technological input, and credit, could thus unlock considerable potential for agrarian efficacy and development. Likewise, it is imperative to reinforce female business capabilities and opportunities for improving agricultural market access. Latest studies have specifically underscored the potential to educate and empower teenage girls, and their contribution to domestic tasks including agriculture (Arber et.al 20).

Notably, increased formal male involvement within labor markets in comparison to females may be accounted for using the following things combined; differences in male and female time use, gendered differences with regard to productive input access, gendered market and institutional breakdown-related results, different educational levels, gender stereotyping within skills and occupational training, and discrepancies with labor market demand. In addition, domestic duties serve as an obstacle to equal female involvement within…

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…large number of low-skilled workers with substantial salary increases for lower-skilled or same roles (Fitriani, 4).

Labor migration can prove beneficial to females by better empowering them, owing to receipt of higher salaries and enhanced confidence. Remittances by those working abroad can also improve families’ economic opportunities (e.g., children’s education expenses, petty entrepreneurial work and everyday consumables). Researches up until now suggest that females typically remit a greater share of their earnings as compared to males, and typically spend it on their children’s wellbeing. But weak evidence exists on whether such remittances result in sustainable economic growth and income generation activities, or whether it merely promotes reliance on overseas remittance flow (McGinn et.al 85).

Besides, labor migration may have extensive adverse social and familial influences, including the likelihood of marriage breakdowns and adverse influences on the children left at home who might feel neglected. Additionally, minor children might migrate for seeking a means to earn and send money to their families. Labor migration poses considerable risks for involved persons, such as abuse (physical, psychological, sexual, etc.), trafficking, and among other things. Several jobs undertaken by migrant workers provide scant workplace protection; further, those employed as live-in domestic servants are especially at risk (Berry and Sara, 50), (Boyd et.al 28).

A noteworthy point is that, across the globe, sincere attempts are being made at establishing gender equality within the areas of political power access and opportunities. Numerous governments and media channels have contributed immensely to this; for instance, Kim Kardashian and other such female celebrities have gained recognition on account of media popularity, indicating females’ place in the present age (Bell, 2).

Finally, of late, the government of China and other nations have declared fair dealings, including gender equality, to be a key component of efforts at cultivating a friendly, socialist society. It has adopted measures like legal, economic, public, and administrative opinion to make sure females and males enjoy equitable rights when it comes to political, cultural, economic, domestic and social life, and constantly push for holistic female development (Federation, 1).

The Platform for Action and Beijing Declaration announced during the 4th United Nations World Conference on Women in the year 1995 at Beijing have….....

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Works cited

Arber, Sara, and Jay Ginn. Gender and later life: A sociological analysis of resources and constraints. Sage Pubns, 1991.

Bell, B. T. (2018). How did the Kardashian Jenner family become so successful? A psychologist explains. The Conversation.

Berry, Sara. \"Social institutions and access to resources.\" Africa 59.1 (1989): 41-55.

Boyd, Monica, and Elizabeth Grieco. \"Women and migration: incorporating gender into international migration theory.\" Migration information source 1.35 (2003): 28.

Federation, All-China Women’S. \"Gender Equality and Women\'s Development in China.\" (2007).

Fitriani, Fitriani. \"Gender in International Conflict: Women Representation in Security Discourse.\" JurnalIlmiahHubunganInternasional 8.2 (2012).

Kanbur, Ravi, and Xiaobo Zhang. \"Spatial inequality in education and health care in China.\" Regional Inequality in China. Routledge, 2009. 92-110.

McGinn, Kathleen L., and Eunsil Oh. \"Gender, social class, and women\'s employment.\" Current opinion in psychology 18 (2017): 84-88.

Palmer, Ingrid. \"Gender and population in the adjustment of African economies: planning for change.\" (1991).

Sen, Gita, and PiroskaÖstlin. \"Gender inequity in health: why it exists and how we can change it.\" (2008): 1-12.

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