Organizational Leadership Essay

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How might researchers study the effectiveness of inclusive leadership with regard to overall organizational effectiveness and competitiveness? Why is this effective methodology?

Researchers may achieve this by combining longitudinal and cross-sectional technique. The sample for the research will be chosen from the whole economic sector or from maximum possible industries such as banks, telecommunication, the public sector, construction and building, hospitality, agriculture, and so forth. This way, generalization of extended and replicated study outcomes may be achieved more confidently for a bigger group of individuals. Respondents will be administered the following Likert scales: Inclusive Leadership, Personnel Creativity, Personnel Work Engagement, and Affective Company Commitment (Choi, Tran & Park, 2015). Also to be identified is company leaders' leadership approach, preferably making sure every approach is taken into account. This will help compare inclusive leadership with other approaches in terms of its competitiveness and efficacy.

Longitudinal as well as cross-sectional researches are observational in nature. That is, study authors note down participant-related facts without making any changes to the research environment. Cross-sectional researches' most important characteristic is its ability to compare diverse clusters of people at a given instant of time. Its advantage is that scholars can effectively compare several variables simultaneously. But cross-sectional researches might not offer clear-cut information regarding cause-effect associations (Pfefferbaum & Sullivan, 2015), since they present a picture of one single instant in time, without taking into account events prior to, or following, the capturing of this picture. But this may be covered by integrating longitudinal technique and comparing the numerous groups.
Longitudinal researches' advantage is their ability of detecting individual- as well as group-level modifications target cluster features, owing to their extension beyond one single instant in time. Consequently, they may determine a series of events.

Mindsets of cosmopolitanism, geocentrism, and sociocentrism: Which of these makes the most valuable contribution to organizational leadership? Why?

Cosmopolitanism denotes a construct emerging from social science, initially proposed by Immanuel Kant, the German philosopher, in the year 1784. This theory dealt with world citizenship, in which no individual would be identified as a specific country's citizen, but as a global citizen. Thus, cosmopolitans are simply people who don't identify only with their local environment, but with the international environment (Nicolopoulou et al., 2016).

A geocentric attitude necessitates the ability to adjust to novel atmospheres and to be competent with multiple cultures. With swift economic transformations and organizations' attempts at market expansion, tax breaks, and labor cost reductions, a trend is being witnessed, of relocating businesses out of the country (Sanders, 2014). For ensuring this move's effectiveness, individuals who can adapt and redesign organizational operations are needed.

Sociocentric thinking represents mankind's intrinsic inclination to form a narrow, prejudiced, group-focused opinion of the world, and to function in the world via unfair, prejudiced group beliefs, influences, interests, norms and group think (Paul & Elder, 2013). Our mind is naturally sociocentric and egocentric, but can also think logically and sensibly. For becoming a practical leader, one needs to control one's innate sociocentric and egocentric nature.

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Chin, J. L. & Trimble, J. E. (2014). Diversity and Leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Choi, S., Tran, T., & Park, B. (2015). Inclusive leadership and work engagement: mediating roles of affective organizational commitment and creativity. Social Behavior and Personality, 43(6), 931-944.

Kirloskar, P., Shetty, P. K., & Inamdar, N. (2015). Deconstructing European Identity: Exploring Identity through the Prism of Cosmopolitanism and Multiculturalism. Global Studies Journal, 8(3), 55-67.

Nicolopoulou, K., Nicolopoulou, K., Kakabadse, N. K., Kakabadse, N. K., Nikolopoulos, K. P., Nikolopoulos, K. P.,. .. & Sakellariou, K. (2016). Cosmopolitanism and transnational elite entrepreneurial practices: manifesting the cosmopolitan disposition in a cosmopolitan city. Society and Business Review, 11(3), 257-275.

Okoro, E. (2012). Cross-cultural etiquette and communication in global business: Toward a strategic framework for managing corporate expansion. International Journal of Business and Management, 7(16), 130-138.

Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2013). Critical thinking: Tools for taking charge of your professional and personal life. Pearson Education.

Pfefferbaum, A., & Sullivan, E. V. (2015). Cross-sectional versus longitudinal estimates of age-related changes in the adult brain: overlaps and discrepancies. Neurobiology of aging, 36(9), 2563-2567.

Ragir, S., & Brooks, P. J. (2012). The key to cultural innovation lies in the group dynamic rather than in the individual mind. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 35(4), 237-238.

Sanders, E. (2014). An American Expatriate in China: Evidence of Organizational Culture Crossvergence. Journal of Management Policy & Practice, 15(3), 58-66.
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