Reflection on Holistic Victim Restitution Plan Essay

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Holistic Victim Restitution Plan Reflection

Victimology is one of the disciplines that has emerged in the criminal justice field to examine situations and vulnerabilities that make it more likely for people to become victims of crime. Additionally, this discipline also focuses on examining and understanding the harm people suffer due to being victims of crime or illegal activities. One of the core components of victimology is understanding who and/or what are crime victims in light of situations that increases vulnerabilities to crime. The rise of victimology today's society is attributable to the increased vulnerabilities that certain individuals and/or groups face, which increases their likelihood of being targeted by criminals. Victim surveys have shown that some individuals and groups are at high risks of being targeted by criminals because of certain vulnerabilities. Some of these vulnerabilities that contribute to increased victimization include living in certain neighborhoods, social economic status, and ethnicity or race (McGraw-Hill Education, n.d.).

Vulnerabilities to crime differ across different age groups and ability levels, especially with regards to socio-economic status. Empirical data regarding crime victims show that children are at high risks of being victims of crime as compared to adults and the elderly. Some of the vulnerabilities/situations that increases crime victimization among children include innocence, their tendency to trust easily, immaturity, neglect, and susceptibility to being abused by adults (Finkelhor, 2011).

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On the other hand, the elderly become vulnerable to crime victimization due to decreased physical and mental abilities, isolation, dependence on caregivers, and perception that they have resources to be exploited (Victim Connect, 2014).

Given the increased vulnerabilities to and situations resulting in crime victimization, victims sometimes contribute to crime. Victims contribute to crime through placing themselves in situations that enhance their vulnerabilities to being targeted by criminal for illegal activities. Experts in the criminal justice field have argued that victims sometimes contribute to crime through setting up the opportunity for the crime to be carried out. In this case, victims establish the opportunities for the crime to be committed through certain lifestyles and work and leisure patterns/tendencies. Victims' contribution to crime is attributable to their position in the social structure, their social roles, and failure to practice desirable behaviors that minimize opportunities for crime. According to Edgar & O'Donnell (1998), the victim's contribution to crime is either through precipitation or facilitation. This implies that victims contribute to the crime….....

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Edgar, K. & O'Donnell, I. (1998, October 1). Assault in Prison: The 'Victim's' Contribution. The British Journal of Criminology, 38(4), 635-650.

Finkelhor, D. (2011). Prevalence of Child Victimization, Abuse, Crime, and Violence Exposure. In J.W. White, M.P. Koss & A.E. Kazdin (Eds), Violence against women and children: mapping the terrain (chap 1., pp.9-29). Retrieved from

Hunt, D. (n.d.). Preventing Criminal Victimization: The Case for an Intersectoral Response to Victimization -- A South Australian Perspective. Retrieved from Australian Institute of Criminology website:

McGraw-Hill Education. (n.d.). Victims, Victimization and Victimology. Retrieved May 12, 2017, from

Victim Connect. (2014). Elder Victimization. Retrieved May 12, 2014, from

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