Juvenile Justice Essay

Total Length: 968 words ( 3 double-spaced pages)

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The historic year of 1910, which was marked by South Africa's unification, saw an attempt to develop a national prison and punitive policy. This goal was encapsulated within the 13th Act of 1911 (Prisons and Reformatories Act) as well as within the establishment of a Prisons Department. The Act served to revoke, partially or completely, every penal system-related law in place within the country's four colonies prior to its unification (i.e., laws implemented between 1902 and 1910) (Singh, 2005). Nooshin Erfani-Ghadimi claims that prisons in the nation are often overpopulated, thereby overburdening their ventilation, sanitation, and healthcare facilities. Single cells may be used to house three inmates while the communal cells that are meant to house forty inmates may be packed with twice that amount of inmates, forcing them to sleep in triple or double bunks (Smith-Spark, 2014).

Brazil's Justice Ministry is in charge of the nation's prison system, whose management comes under National Penitentiary Department duties. In the year 2013, the nation's prisons housed 581,000 inmates, making its incarcerated population the 4th largest worldwide. Of these, 557,000 were held in jails while the rest were detained within police facilities. Brazil's prison system comprises of a total of 1,598 facilities. Every single one of these is excessively overpopulated. On account of the nation's glaring failure in managing its prison system, particularly in terms of capacity, private investors were invited to invest in Brazil's prison system.
Most Brazilian incarceration facilities are state-managed with the remaining being under Federal Government management. They are equipped to keep extremely dangerous convicts found guilty of engaging in organized criminal activities at bay (Bruha, 2015).

Indian prisons and prison administrations fall under the jurisdiction of state governments. The Indian Constitution's Schedule VII (State List), Item IV addresses this area. State governments are solely in charge of prison administration and management, which is regulated by the 1894 Prisons Act as well as individual states' Prison manuals (Ali, 2014). Prisons in India also suffer from overcrowding. The average day of an inmate is tough. A majority of them remain waiting for word, and visits, from family members and lawyers. Indian prison healthcare facilities and the psychological assessment of inmates may be deemed as being at the most basic stage. Nevertheless, the prison system in the nation incorporates a mechanism that allows jailed convicts to communicate directly with judges and resolve any problems they face.

There are a few features that are common to Indian, South African and Brazilian prison systems. Firstly, each of these nations' prison systems is burdened by overcrowding issues. Overcrowding and a large number of imprisonment sentences do not necessarily mean growing crime.….....

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Ali, S. (2014). Prison in India: an Overview Indian Journal of Applied Research, Vol.4

Bruha, P. (2015). Prison System in Brazil - The Brazil Business. Retrieved April 17, 2017, from http://thebrazilbusiness.com/article/prison-system-in-brazil

Lappi-Seppala, T. (2010). Causes of Prison Overcrowding.

Singh, S. (2005). The historical development of prisons in South Africa: a penological perspective.

Smith-Spark, L. (2014). What's life like in a South African prison? - CNN.com. Retrieved from http://edition.cnn.com/2013/02/21/world/africa/south-africa-prison-conditions/
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