Philosophy Essay

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In Physics II Chapter Three, Aristotle outlines the term nature as a source or cause of being moved and of being at rest in which it belongs primarily. He contrasts two kinds of nature, and these are nature as matter and nature as a form or definition. Aristotle outlines four causes, including material, efficient, formal, and final. Material cause is delineated as that out of which a thing becomes and what continues is said to be a cause. Secondly, formal cause is defined as a form or example, and this is a formula of essence and parts that are in the formula. Third of all, the efficient cause is the main beginning point from which change or rest emanates. Lastly, final cause can be considered the purpose or the sense of an end, specifically, what something is meant for (Cohen, 2006).

Thematic Analysis

In accordance to Aristotle, the aforementioned four changes are necessitated to elucidate change in the real world. The full elucidation of any material change utilizes all the four causes. This paper discusses Aristotle's notion of final cause. This outlines why the efficient causes and formal causes undertake what they do. It is 'what' for the sake of why something is done. For instance, the final cause of a house is to provide shelter and accommodation for an individual. This explanation can be illustrated by the diagram below:

One of the themes that can be discussed from the philosophical text is the teleology of nature.
In particular, teleology is deemed to be the understanding of the purposes of things or their ends. In accordance to Aristotle, the ultimate way to comprehend the reason why things are the way they are, it to gain an understanding of what purpose such things were intended to serve. His focus on teleology makes the implication that there is a reason for each and every thing. A good example of understanding causes is analyzing the question 'why do rocks fall?' In accordance to Aristotle, the reason why rocks fall is for the reason that they are heavy. This points out to the final cause of the rocks falling and their existence. Another example that can be used to explain teleology is the fruit. The main purpose of the fruit is not to act as a form of meal for human beings or animals, but rather its purpose is to create another tree (Adler, 1997).

A second theme that can be discussed is human nature and cause of existence. In the same manner in which Aristotle perceives purpose in systems of biology and anatomy, final causality of human beings is seen as well. This is because in their nature, human beings are prepared and bound for a final….....

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Adler, M. J. (1997). Aristotle for everybody. Simon and Schuster.

Cohen, S. M. (2006). The Four Causes. Retrieved from:

Gotthelf, A. (1997). Understanding Aristotle's Teleology'. Final causality in nature and human affairs, 71-82.

Hassing, R. F. (Ed.). (1997). Final causality in nature and human affairs (Vol. 30). CUA Press.

Magee, J. M. (2015). The Four Causes. Retrieved from:

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