Quantitative Research Essay

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infer an answer to a particular section, then you must so state and JUSTIFY your statement.



Do not provide a "Yes" or "no" answer without an EXPLANATION. YOU MUST JUSTIFY ALL YOUR RESPONSES

ALL responses must be written in YOUR OWN WORDS. Do NOT use quotes.

Morike Adekemi

Full and Complete Reference for the Article: Hagan, Teresa L, BSN, RN., B.A., & Donovan, Heidi M, Phd., R.N. (2013). Ovarian cancer survivor's experiences of self-advocacy: A focus group study. Oncology Nursing Forum, 40(2), 140-7. Retrieved from http://searchproquest.com/docview/1325739253?accountid-35812

You must submit the full article in PDF form. Critiques submitted without the PDF will not be accepted.


What is the problem the study was conducted to address? (1)

Response: The problem this study was conducted to address was self-advocacy in clinical research as well as practice. Despite self-advocacy being cited as a trait desirable among patients, not much explanation or description of this concept is offered, leaving it markedly distorted and oversimplified in clinical research as well as practice.

Why is the problem an important one for nursing to study? (1)

Response: Three reasons have been cited that signify this problem as an important one for nursing to study. Firstly, self-advocacy promotion presents face validity when it comes to aiding cancer patients in traversing their respective disease trajectories. Secondly, it is potentially beneficial in improving QOL (quality of life), symptom management, and healthcare use, as seen among persons without cancer. Thirdly, an understanding of why and how cancer survivors engage in self-advocacy, as well as self-advocacy's effect on their symptom management capacity, can have an impact on the way healthcare practitioners support cancer survivors and contribute to patient empowerment and involvement.

Study Purpose

What is the purpose of the study? (2)

Response: The study has manifold purposes, namely: 1) Addressing deficiencies in advocacy's definition via a qualitative strategy of understanding and describing the self-advocacy experience of women cancer survivors; 2) Investigating self-advocacy in people suffering from ovarian cancer and experiencing cancer-connected; 3) Ascertaining factors linked to self-advocacy; and 4) Informing and supplementing the self-advocacy concept via a phenomenological technique of analyzing survivors' grasp of the concept, how self-advocacy is done, why they advocate for, or refrain from advocating for, themselves, and the obstacles and assistance they encounter when doing so.

Research Questions

What are the research question(s)? (4)


The research questions for the study are as follows:

1. How is the term "self-advocacy" defined, and what does it mean?

1. How does a cancer survivor attempt symptom management?

1. In what way does survivors' symptom management ability impact the way healthcare practitioners support them and contribute to their empowerment and involvement?

1. What unique self-advocacy experiences are seen among women survivors, owing to their gender-related care experiences and their unique cancer-connected symptoms?

Are the questions stated broadly enough for a qualitative study? Explain WHY (4)


Research questions have been stated broadly enough for a qualitative study. Firstly, study authors have provided a background for explaining terms included in the question. Further, the questions are adequately specific, and outcomes would offer a suitable chance to formulate an argument. Additionally, questions are satisfactorily complex to require analysis as well as assessment that will result in formulation of an argument to be discussed. Specifically, research questions include an actionable phrase that necessitates an analysis. Lastly, depending on research aims, the questions adequately cover different study elements. This has been achieved with enough complexity, clarity, and focus.

Study Design

What specific qualitative method is used? (1)


The specific qualitative methods used in this study are in-depth interviewing and focus groups for exploring ovarian cancer patients' experiences with self-advocacy and symptom management.

Provide a clear description of the qualitative method utilized (utilize your text or another source to do this -- provide citation) (2)


The main qualitative method utilized in this research is focus group technique, which is a type of group interviewing which produces data by taking advantage of interactions among study subjects.
While group interviewing is typically utilized merely as an easy and quick means of gathering data from a large number of individuals at a time, focus group method specifically involves group interaction. That is, rather than having researchers pose questions to individual subjects in turn, participants are made to interact with each other: they ask questions, exchange anecdotes and remark on one another's standpoints and experiences. This technique is especially handy in exploring individuals' experiences and knowledge, and may be employed in examining what individuals think, as well as how and why they think those things (Kitzinger, 1995).

In what way is the method used an appropriate one for this study? Clearly justify your answer. (3)

Response: The method used is an appropriate one for this study for various reasons. First of all, focus group technique has the underlying idea that group-based processes will be able to facilitate examination and clarification of individuals' opinions in a way that would not be as effective in one-on-one interviews. Secondly, group discussions are especially applicable when researchers, having composed many open-ended questions, desire for respondents to scrutinize the issues they personally find important, using their own words, raising questions themselves, and taking up their personal priorities. Thirdly, in a smoothly-functioning group, researchers and respondents collaborate well, taking the study in novel and usually unexpected directions.

Furthermore, group work aids researchers in tapping into the diverse types of communication used by individuals in everyday interaction, including anecdotes, jokes, debate and teasing. Accessing such an assortment of communication proves valuable, as individuals' attitudes and knowledge cannot be wholly covered by reasoned answers to direct queries. Routine communication practices may convey at least as much about what individuals encounter in life, or are aware of. In this context, focus groups access what other techniques fail to, disclosing a depth of understanding which is frequently untouched by more traditional methods of data gathering.

For this research, focus groups help access data types that cannot be conveniently acquired using alternative techniques.

Review of the Related Literature

Are the articles relevant with previous studies and theories described? Justify your response. (2)

Response: Yes, the articles are relevant with previous studies and theories described.

The paper selectively limits its literature review to resources most pertinent to the subject. Some sections of the article are composed based on prior analyses. For instance, it states that Donovan and Hagan's (2012) concept analysis defined the term 'self-advocacy' among cancer survivors, as a major antecedent characteristic internalization, which entails offering assistance and promoting cancer-related policies and awareness, for meeting disease-related challenges (p. 141). In general, the article assesses research works that revolve around the topic, and explains, recapitulates, appraises, and corroborates this literature collection. It offers a conceptual foundation for the study, helping determine the current study's nature.

Are the references current? What are the numbers of sources within past 10 years? What are the numbers of sources within past five years? (2)

Response: Not every reference is current, considering the fact that the latest possible literature ought to be cited is (Troyka, 2002). Thirty-six sources in total have been utilized in the paper, of which 20 fall in the past 10 years, and 7 within the past 5 years.

Describe the current knowledge about the research problem. (2)


Current knowledge about the research problem may be described as follows: Public debate on the topic of cancer survivorship has increasingly focused on self-advocacy among patients. This debate influences survivors' self-advocacy-related conceptualizations, and successively impacts their health-related behaviors and attitudes. Discourse assessment methods are employed for closely looking at the jargon utilized to discover meanings assigned by individual groups to the self-advocacy concept. Discrepancies and challenges between patient transcripts and educational guidebooks are documented, including perceiving the self-advocacy aspect as a collection of skills for asserting one's requirements, as against a way to maintain trusting relationships and positive attitudes with healthcare practitioners, respectively. Although some survivors perceived themselves in the self-advocate role, they continued struggling to unearth appropriate health facts and were reluctant to upset the provider-patient relationship. Analysis emphasizes tensions between discussions, indicating ways by which.....

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references with your answers. (5)

Benedetti, R., Bee, M. and Espa, G. (2010), A Framework for Cut-off Sampling in Business Survey Design, Journal of Official Statistics, 26(4), pp. 651-671.

Fusch, Patricia I. and Ness, Lawrence R. (2015). Are We There Yet? Data Saturation in Qualitative Research, The Qualitative Report, Vol. 20, No. 9, 1408-1416

Hagan, Teresa L, BSN, RN., B.A., & Donovan, Heidi M, Phd., R.N. (2013). Ovarian cancer survivor's experiences of self-advocacy: A focus group study. Oncology Nursing Forum, 40(2), 140-7. Retrieved from http://searchproquest.com/docview/1325739253?accountid-35812

Hagan, Teresa L. & Medberry, Elizabeth. (2016). Patient Education vs. Patient Experiences of Self-advocacy: Changing the Discourse to Support Cancer Survivors. J. Cancer Educ., 31(2):375-81

Kitzinger, Jenny (1995). Qualitative Research: Introducing focus groups, BMJ; 311:299-302.

Singh, Ajay S. & Masuku, Micah B. (2014). SAMPLING TECHNIQUES & DETERMINATION OF SAMPLE SIZE IN APPLIED STATISTICS RESEARCH: AN OVERVIEW, International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, Vol. II, Issue 11.

Troyka, Lynn Quitman. (2002). Simon and Schuster Handbook for Writers. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
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