Teaching and Learning Essay

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Teaching and Learning Through Using Stories in the Young Learner Classroom - Annotated Bibliography

In my research paper, I intend to analyse the methodologies and implications of using stories as a vital tool for young learners in a class room. To support my study, I have studied five papers that are either from a book or from a journal. The first and the fourth paper summarized here talks about how stories can help in increasing the vocabulary of children. Stories are described as a means to sustain brain activity in young people. The second paper by Husbands and Pearce talks about the need to have a multi-pronged teaching strategy to have an inclusive learning environment. Their article supports the need of story-telling as part of the strategy. The third paper ideates the need of creating a syllabus parallel to the contemporary one with main focus on story-telling. The final article analysed here, by Prace, studies the advantage of having stories as part of classroom activity, especially in foreign-language sessions. The paper studies the psychological reasons involved in helping young children actively learn via stories the other methods. All the five articles discussed here were found to be of great use in consideration for the detailed dissertation study and the same has been mentioned under each of the topics.

ii. Tarakcioglu, A. O. & Tuncarslan, H. K., 2014. The effect of short stories on teaching vocabulary to very young learners (aged 3-4-year): A suggested common syllabus. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, pp. 67-84.

This research work concentrates on examining whether pre-schoolers are able to successfully learn English through short stories. Authors formulated and administered pre-tests and post-examinations, with permanence observations conducted following research completion to ascertain students' recall rates. Outcomes revealed that experimental group students were able to recall more vocabulary terms compared to others, as they were taught through an entertaining, meaningful approach that utilized short stories.

As kids are intrinsically inquisitive and enjoy applying their imagination and discovering new things, they display high involvement in puzzles, physical activities, songs, games and building things. Stories, tongue-twisters, and riddles effectively draw kids' attention as well as make learning a fun experience. While the significance of English language learning for pre-schoolers has been established, the Republic of Turkey has no definite syllabus/curriculum in this regard. Thus, the authors designed a sample curriculum, aiming to ascertain if short stories could be used to effectively teach pre-schoolers English. Their curriculum has been based primarily on short stories, as this medium has been widely accepted and implemented across the globe as a key learning instrument for English-as-Second-Language students. Second language teachers should utilize short stories to encourage their students to apply their prior learning and experiences; in doing so, the process of learning will include more meaning and be a more productive activity for students.

With regard to language acquisition, short stories help children acquire language skills as well as expand their vocabulary, as they are able to hear a number of new words upon listening to the stories' vocabulary items. Consequently, one may safely state that short story usage in second language classrooms contributes greatly to the process of learning. This research work's findings indicate that, since pre-schoolers are inquisitive, egocentric and spirited, their preferences and requirements must be considered when ascertaining, planning and implementing teaching materials and schoolroom activities. Short stories may be meaningful as well as enjoyable for pre-schoolers and will prove highly valuable for inquisitive as well as self-absorbed children. Moreover, according to this research, short stories in the form of a schoolroom teaching material proves easy for foreign-language kids to follow plotlines. Educators may make use of short stories in language practice, improvement of aesthetic appreciation and reading skills comprehension in second language classrooms. Such tales and associated activities are a highly valuable and efficient means to teach vocabulary to pre-schoolers.

On the whole, this article will aid the dissertation as it claims short story-centred syllabi and activities endeavour to deal with students' needs, interests and grades in the process of second language learning.
Because of such a curriculum, students will be more inspired, committed and engaged in learning English, and actively participate in the learning environment. Thus, it constitutes a great means to teach pre-schoolers English.

iii. Husbands, C. & Pearce, J., 2012. What makes great pedagogy?. National College of School Leadership.

Literature, on the whole, does not focus much on the subject of what effective teaching entails; that is, how an effective educator must behave and act and how he/she must facilitate good learning. This article's author uses research literature for presenting sound arguments regarding highly effective instruction's characteristics, including using 'stories' as a tool to help learners with new fields of study. Sound proof exists of effective instruction resulting from seriously considering students' voice. The journal has been cited in (Grigg, 2016).

Educators must not only hear students out, but also "consult" them regarding the teaching-learning process. Recent researches have increasingly focused on student consultation related benefits and problems. Student involvement in academic decision-making, as well as paying serious attention to their learning experiences are important preliminary steps in advancing the educational field. Not many teachers see that envisioned outcomes are limited to students' examination success. Although success in exams is salient and must not be overlooked, it should also not be considered the core of education. The authors of this study raise the questions of whether exams adequately indicate continuous understanding and capacity in key academic areas, whether they result in personal wellbeing and fulfilment, and whether they play a part in the country's economic prosperity, and improved inclusion and social justice. These questions reflect the more general and key outcomes of good instruction.

Montgomery stresses the significance of a holistic strategic student learning approach for ensuring students concentrate on the learning activities (e.g. learning through stories) that they will engage in and the way to go about them. Much educator efficiency connected literature emphasizes individual lesson planning and teaching, reflected by the nation's literacy strategy and other policy interventions as well as by Ofsted inspection and assumptions. Lesson quality is certainly of import; however, this doesn't essentially imply that sound instruction develops from a series of independently good lessons. Research highlights a central issue of considerable progression and result linked issues between understanding and other short-run cognitive outcomes and the longer term academic objectives. This sort of thinking offers a basis to choose and position individual lessons within the overall context of students' learning progress. Effective instruction offers a way to consider longer-run perceptions of learning, idea re-examination and reinforcement, linking novel content's presentation to that in which comprehension is already fairly guaranteed and linking information acquisition and grasp to relevant skills. This approach will more likely offer coherence to educators and students, and guarantee enduring learner progress.

According to Husbands and Pearce's article, learning-teaching interdependence and its impact on student success make it difficult to foresee a student's learning ability beforehand. Rather, students learn because of community relationships, expressed via the values of trust, co-agency, etc. Hence, the research will contribute to the dissertation.

iv. Loukia, N., 2006. Teaching Young Leaders through Stories - The Development of a Handy Parallel Syllabus. The Reading Matrix, pp. 25-40.

Loukia's paper is founded on the belief that stories are not just for children's bedtime, but can be made their treasure during school hours as well. A story-centred syllabus is created, aiming to address potential issues. The underlying theory is provided for explaining content and framework choice. Further, this essay methodically offers seven teaching sessions in the framework, together with an alternate evaluation for one of them. The journal has been referenced in (Handoyo….....

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Grigg, R. (2016). Big Ideas in Education. Crown House Publishing.

Handoyo Puji, W. (2016). Engaging young learners of English in a genre-based digital storytelling project.

Nia, Y., Ghaemi, H., & Afraz, S. (2013). The Effect of Mixed-Up Stories on Vocabulary Learning and Retention of EFL Learners. Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods, 111.
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